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Technical Paper

“Wetting” the Appetite of Spark Ignition Engines for Lean Combustion

Single-cylinder spark ignition engine experiments conducted at constant speed, fixed airflow, and using isooctane as the fuel, demonstrated the effects of fuel-air mixture preparation on lean operation. Mixture preparation was changed by varying the time of fuel injection in the induction manifold, near the intake valve port. For comparison, a prevaporized fuel-air mixture was also investigated. Emphasis was placed on determining the effects of mixture preparation on combustion characteristics. Based on the results from this study, the often favored prevaporized mixture of fuel and air may not be the best diet for lean engine operation.
Technical Paper

“Virtual Engine/Powertrain/Vehicle” Simulation Tool Solves Complex Interacting System Issues

An integrated simulation tool has been developed, which is applicable to a wide range of design issues. A key feature introduced for the first time by this new tool is that it is truly a single code, with identical handling of engine, powertrain, vehicle, hydraulics, electrical, thermal and control elements. Further, it contains multiple levels of engine models, so that the user can select the appropriate level for the time scale of the problem (e.g. real-time operation). One possible example of such a combined simulation is the present study of engine block vibration in the mounts. The simulation involved a fully coupled model of performance, thermodynamics and combustion, with the dynamics of the cranktrain, engine block and the driveline. It demonstrated the effect of combustion irregularity on engine shaking in the mounts.
Technical Paper

“Return to Nascar” Dodge NCTS History

Dodge wanted to promote the new Dodge Ram 1500 pick-up truck and regain a presence in NASCAR and was looking for a venue that would accommodate this presence. NASCAR launched the NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series (NCTS) in 1995 and Dodge joined the series. This paper will cover the history of Dodge Motorsports Engineering presence in this series. The engineering objective was to develop an organization that would meet the corporate goals. The initial problem was that Dodge hadn't participated in a NASCAR series since 1978 and had no recent experience. The conclusion was that Dodge Motorsports Engineering could be competitive in NASCAR series racing.
Technical Paper

“Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure, Temperature, and Loads Related to the Crank Slider Mechanism of I.C. Engines: A Computational Model”

This paper describes the initial works related to the study of Internal Combustion Engines, as an object of mechanical design, at the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. It is reported a concise, complete methodology for simple model of internal combustion engine. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the use of the in-cylinder parameters (pressure and temperature) and inertial loads in the crank-slider mechanism to derive the loads that act on all the components of the crank-slider mechanism as well as the theoretical output torque for a given geometrical structure and inertial properties. These loads can then be used to estimate the preliminary dimensions of engine components in the initial stage of engine development. To obtain the pressure and temperature inside the cylinder, under different operation parameters, such as air fuel ratio and spark angle advance, a Zero dimensional model is applied. The heat transfer from the cylinder and friction are not taken into account.
Technical Paper

“Doing More with Less” - The Fuel Economy Benefits of Cooled EGR on a Direct Injected Spark Ignited Boosted Engine

Due to the rising costs of fuel and increasingly stringent regulations, auto makers are in need of technology to enable more fuel-efficient powertrain technologies to be introduced to the marketplace. Such powertrains must not sacrifice performance, safety or driver comfort. Today's engine and powertrain manufacturers must, therefore, do more with less by achieving acceptable vehicle performance while reducing fuel consumption. One effective method to achieve this is the extreme downsizing of current direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engines through the use of high levels of boosting and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Key challenges to highly downsized gasoline engines are retarded combustion to prevent engine knocking and the necessity to operate at air/fuel ratios that are significantly richer than the stoichiometric ratio.
Technical Paper

‘Regulated’ and ‘Non-regulated’ Emissions from Modern European Passenger Cars

Regulated emissions from four current production European vehicles were measured over the Common Artemis Driving Cycles (CADC). Particulate Mass and Particle Number measurements were made in accordance with the newly-developed draft Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) developed for the UN-ECE's expert group on pollution and energy (GRPE). During the test programme measurements were also made of currently non-regulated emissions including PAHs and speciation of the particulate material and key hydrocarbons. CADC results are presented for each of the four vehicles tested (one conventional gasoline vehicle, two different types of diesel without Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and one diesel with DPF) with results measured on the regulated New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) test for comparison. The emissions results on the Artemis cycles showed some significant differences from those on the regulated (NEDC) test cycle.
Technical Paper

‘FM’ - A High Efficiency Combustion System for the Future Light Duty Engine?

Consideration of the approaching ‘energy crisis’ reveals two requirements for future light duty automotive engines. 1) maximum economy and 2) the ability (perhaps with detail design re-optimisation) to accept a range of fuels of petroleum or other extract, of differing ignition characteristics. One combustion system which meets these requirements is the MAN ‘FM’, the potential of which has already been demonstrated in truck-size engines but on which little information has been published in light-duty engine bore sizes. The paper describes both design and experimental work carried out to evaluate the application of the FM combustion system to a light duty passenger car engine. Consideration is given to the critical design parameters associated with the application of the FM system to a multi-cylinder gasoline based engine and how the criteria can be met. Details of the design and construction of a single cylinder derivative of the multi-cylinder engine are given.
Technical Paper

α-Pinene - A High Energy Density Biofuel for SI Engine Applications

Abstract This study proposes a novel biofuel for spark ignition (SI) engine, α-pinene (C10H16), which is non-oxygenated and thus has a gravimetric energy density comparable to that of hydrocarbon fuels. The ignition characteristics of α-pinene were evaluated in an ignition quality tester (IQT) under standard temperature and pressure conditions. The measured ignition delay time (IDT) of α-pinene is 10.5 ms, which is lower than that of iso-octane, 17.9 ms. The estimated research octane number (RON) for pinene from IQT is 85. A temperature sweep in IQT showed that that α-pinene is less reactive at low temperatures, but more reactive at high temperatures when compared to isooctane. These results suggest that α-pinene has high octane sensitivity (OS) and is suitable for operation in turbocharged SI engines. With these considerations, α-pinene was operated in a single cylinder SI engine.
Technical Paper

Zero-Dimensional Spark Ignition Combustion Modeling - A Comparison of Different Approaches

Internal combustion engines development with increased complexity due to CO2 reduction and emissions regulation, while reducing costs and duration of development projects, makes numerical simulation essential. 1D engine simulation software response for the gas exchange process is sufficiently accurate and quick. However, combustion simulation by Wiebe function is poorly predictive. The objective of this paper is to compare different approaches for 0D Spark Ignition (SI) modeling. Versions of Eddy Burn Up, Fractal and Flame Surface Density (FSD) models have been coded into GT-POWER platform, which connects thermodynamics, gas exchange and combustion sub-models. An initial flame kernel is imposed and then, the flame front propagates spherically in the combustion chamber. Flame surface is tabulated as a function of piston position and flame radius. The modeling of key features of SI combustion such as laminar flame speed and thickness and turbulence was common.
Technical Paper

Zero Gases for Emission Monitoring - Production, Storage, Treatment and Usage

Increasingly stringent emission levels require better quality facility gas supplies to enable more precise measurements at low levels and reduce variation in test results. The transient and steady state quality of the “zero gas” used in analyzer calibration will directly affect the level of the readings, while variation in the “zero gas” over time will increase the number of tests needed to meet statistical requirements. Facility zero gas supplies for air and nitrogen, at a minimum, require careful evaluation to confirm that the required gas quality is delivered to the test equipment for the desired instrument accuracy. To move from LEV or ULEV to SULEV analysis, a change in methodology of zero gas generation, delivery and handling may be needed to achieve the desired measurement accuracy and repeatability. Traditional tubing, fittings and handling methods can not only limit the possible gas quality, but also contribute to variation.
Technical Paper

X-Ray CT-Scan Digitizing for the Inspection and Computational Analysis of Complex Engine Parts

This paper deals with the problem of complex engine part analysis. It presents an original approach based on the use of X-ray Computed Tomography scan digitizing method. In comparison with classical digitizing method, Computed Tomography method proves to be the only solution in the case of complex parts with internal areas. A validation example for which the precision of the method is estimated, is proposed. At last, the potential of the method is illustrated through the complex example of an engine head cooling circuit for which a computational CFD calculation is made.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Automotive Powertrain Directions

Using the overall efficiency obtained with today’s automotive power plants on the U.S. Metro Route as a baseline for comparison purposes, this paper reviews the major efficiency opportunities available in the next decade for a wide variety of automotive engine candidates. The impact of a variety of alternate fuels on candidate engine thermal efficiency is also presented. A family of continuously variable transmissions, having different levels of efficiency, are then used to project the overall efficiency of these engine candidates and fuels on the U.S. Metro Route in the 1990+ time frame. The direction of engine design, material and control trends during this time interval are also discussed.
Technical Paper

World Wide Escort/Lynx Engine Design and Development

In 1981, Ford Motor Company introduced a new family of fuel efficient four cylinder engines world wide. These engines, based on a compound valve arrangement in a hemispherical combustion chamber, were specifically designed for installation in light weight front-wheel-drive vehicles. Ford Research efforts were integrated with the resources of Ford U.S. and Ford of Europe to design and develop the engine in a compressed time frame. The technical and organizational efforts to accomplish this task, as well as, the design and development are discussed.
Technical Paper

Windowed Selected Moving Autocorrelation (WSMA), Tri-Correlation (TriC), and Misfire Detection

In this paper, two correlations, Windowed Selected Moving Autocorrelation (WSMA) and Tri-Correlation (TriC), are introduced and discussed. The WSMA is simpler than the conventional autocorrelation. WSMA uses less data points to obtain useful signal content at desired frequencies. The computational requirement is therefore reduced compared to the conventional autocorrelation. The simplified TriC provides improved signal to noise separation capability than WSMA does while still requiring reduced computational effort compared to the standard autocorrelation. Very often, computation resource limitation exists for real-time applications. Therefore, the WSMA and TriC offer more opportunities for real-time monitor and feedback control applications in the frequency domain due to their high efficiencies. As an example, applications in internal combustion (IC) engine misfire detection are presented. Simulation and vehicle test results are also presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Wideband SI Engine Lambda Control

Long term control of the AFR (Air/Fuel Ratio) of spark ignition engines is currently accomplished with a selvoscillating PI control loop. Because of the intake/exhaust time delay, the oscillation frequency and hence bandwidth of this loop is small. This paper describes a new approach to the design of this control loop using a novel observer system. In this way the bandwidth of this important loop is increased by a factor of 2 - 6 times, leading to more accurate overall AFR control. Moreover the observer approach is so robust and allows such feedback levels that it reduces significantly the accuracy required in the calibration of the base fuel control system with which it is be used. It can be used with either conventional- or advanced observer based- base fuel strategies.
Technical Paper

Wide Range and High Performance Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor using Perovskite-type Rare Earth Metal Oxide

An exhaust gas temperature sensor, which can be used for controlling of new exhaust gas purification systems, was developed. The sensor can detect wide temperature range and has good response and reliability. To achieve wide temperature detection and good thermal durability, perovskite-type rare earth oxide was selected as a sensing element. The perovskite-type material functions as an insulator and also as a superconductor depending upon the combinations of metal ion. In this case, YCrO3 was selected as a base material. By doping various metal ions into base material, wide range detection from 100 to 900 °C and good thermal durability was obtained. To achieve good response and mechanical reliability simultaneously, metal sheathe cable with a small diameter was used in the structure of sensing portion.
Technical Paper

Wide Band Oxygen Sensor Electronic Control Unit (LambdaTronic)

As emission regulations continue to become more stringent, new design approaches need to be considered as implementation solutions. Wide band, or linear, oxygen sensors provide emission control benefits that can help meet these requirements. Due to the complexity of these oxygen sensors, a control ASIC is required. However, integrating a control ASIC into an existing electronic control unit (ECU) design can be problematic. The Bosch Wide Band Oxygen Sensor ECU (LambdaTronic) is a design proposal that provides a stand-alone solution to this issue. It is an ECU that provides oxygen sensor (LSU) control and diagnostics and communicates the information to the vehicle engine ECU via a standard automotive bus. LambdaTronic is currently being designed and developed for production release in the automotive market. When LambdaTronic is combined with one or more wide band LSU sensors, the system can be considered a “smart” oxygen sensor.
Technical Paper

Why the Limit of Detection (LOD) Value is Not an Appropriate Specification for Automotive Emissions Analyzers

With the need for emission measurements of super ultra low emission vehicles (SULEV), analyzer manufacturers have been required to produce more precise and accurate analyzers. In order to compare analyzers, the customer must understand the different specifications used by the analyzer manufacturers. One specification that some manufacturers have used is the limit of detection (LOD) to indicate the reliability of the analyzer output at low concentrations. There are various methods for determining the LOD for a given analyzer. The authors will demonstrate how variations in methodology can produce different LOD values for a specific analyzer and what it means for the automotive emission analyzers. It is also demonstrated that the standard deviations of a zero signal, which is related to LOD, can be heavily influenced by data processing, such as data length in use and/or data smoothing. The LOD values obtained will be compared to the limit of quantification (LOQ) for that analyzer.
Technical Paper

Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection

This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
Technical Paper

Why Intake Charge Dilution Decreases Nitric Oxide Emission from Spark Ignition Engines

This study was undertaken to develop a better understanding of how intake charge dilution by various gases affected nitric oxide (NO) emission from a single-cylinder spark ignition engine. Carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium, argon, steam, and exhaust gas were individually added to the intake charge of a propane-fueled, single-cylinder engine operated at constant speed and load. Nitric oxide emission was reduced in all cases. The gases with higher specific heats gave larger NO reductions. The product of diluent flow rate and specific heat correlated with NO reduction. The effects of diluents on calculated combustion temperature, mbt spark timing, and fuel consumption are also presented and discussed.