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Technical Paper

“Wetting” the Appetite of Spark Ignition Engines for Lean Combustion

Single-cylinder spark ignition engine experiments conducted at constant speed, fixed airflow, and using isooctane as the fuel, demonstrated the effects of fuel-air mixture preparation on lean operation. Mixture preparation was changed by varying the time of fuel injection in the induction manifold, near the intake valve port. For comparison, a prevaporized fuel-air mixture was also investigated. Emphasis was placed on determining the effects of mixture preparation on combustion characteristics. Based on the results from this study, the often favored prevaporized mixture of fuel and air may not be the best diet for lean engine operation.
Technical Paper

µMist® - The next generation fuel injection system: Improved atomisation and combustion for port-fuel-injected engines

The Swedish Biomimetics 3000's μMist® platform technology has been used to develop a radically new injection system. This prototype system, developed and characterized with support from Lotus, as part of Swedish Biomimetics 3000®'s V₂IO innovation accelerating model, delivers improved combustion efficiency through achieving exceptionally small droplets, at fuel rail pressures far less than conventional GDI systems and as low as PFI systems. The system gives the opportunity to prepare and deliver all of the fuel load for the engine while the intake valves are open and after the exhaust valves have closed, thereby offering the potential to use advanced charge scavenging techniques in PFI engines which have hitherto been restricted to direct-injection engines, and at a lower system cost than a GDI injection system.
Technical Paper

Zero-Dimensional Soot Modeling

A zero-dimension model of spray development and particulate emissions for direct-injection combustion was developed. The model describes the major characteristics of the injection plume including: spray angle, liquid penetration, lift-off length, and temperatures of regions within the spray. The model also predicts particulate mass output over a span of combustion cycles, as well as a particulate mass-history over a single combustion event. The model was developed by applying established conceptual models for direct injection combustion to numerical relations, to develop a mathematical description of events. The model was developed in a Matlab Simulink environment to promote modularity and ease of use.
Technical Paper

Z-type Schlieren Setup and its Application to High-Speed Imaging of Gasoline Sprays

Schlieren and shadowgraph imaging have been used for many years to identify refractive index gradients in various applications. For evaporating fuel sprays, these techniques can differentiate the boundary between spray regions and background ambient gases. Valuable information such as the penetration rate, spreading angle, spray structure, and spray pattern can be obtained using schlieren diagnostics. In this study, we present details of a z-type schlieren system setup and its application to port-fuel-injection gasoline sprays. The schlieren high-speed movies were used to obtain time histories of the spray penetration and spreading angle. Later, these global parameters were compared to specifications provided by the injector manufacturer. Also, diagnostic parameters such as the proportion of light cut-off at the focal point and the orientation of knife-edge (schlieren-stop) used to achieve the cut-off were examined.
Journal Article

X-ray Imaging of Cavitation in Diesel Injectors

Cavitation plays a significant role in high pressure diesel injectors. However, cavitation is difficult to measure under realistic conditions. X-ray phase contrast imaging has been used in the past to study the internal geometry of fuel injectors and the structure of diesel sprays. In this paper we extend the technique to make in-situ measurements of cavitation inside unmodified diesel injectors at pressures of up to 1200 bar through the steel nozzle wall. A cerium contrast agent was added to a diesel surrogate, and the changes in x-ray intensity caused by changes in the fluid density due to cavitation were measured. Without the need to modify the injector for optical access, realistic injection and ambient pressures can be obtained and the effects of realistic nozzle geometries can be investigated. A range of single and multi-hole injectors were studied, both sharp-edged and hydro-ground. Cavitation was observed to increase with higher rail pressures.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Radiography and CFD Studies of the Spray G Injector

Abstract The salient features of modern gasoline direct injection include cavitation, flash boiling, and plume/plume interaction, depending on the operating conditions. These complex phenomena make the prediction of the spray behavior particularly difficult. The present investigation combines mass-based experimental diagnostics with an advanced, in-house modeling capability in order to provide a multi-faceted study of the Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector. First, x-ray tomography is used to distinguish the actual injector geometry from the nominal geometry used in past works. The actual geometry is used as the basis of multidimensional CFD simulations which are compared to x-ray radiography measurements for validation under cold conditions. The influence of nozzle diameter and corner radius are of particular interest. Next, the model is used to simulate flash-boiling conditions, in order to understand how the cold flow behavior corresponds to flashing performance.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Measurements of High Pressure Diesel Sprays

A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the fuel distribution very near the nozzle of a high-pressure diesel injector. This technique uses the absorption of synchrotron x-rays to measure the fuel mass with good time and position resolution. The penetrating power of x-rays allows measurements that are difficult with other techniques, such as quantitative measurements of the mass and penetration measurements of the trailing edge of the spray. Line-of-sight measurements were used to determine the fuel density as a function of time. The high time resolution and quantitative nature of the measurement also permit an accurate measure of the instantaneous mass flow rate through the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Writing Better Real-Time System Requirements with Use Cases and Services

An average person in North America comes in regular contact with an amazing number of real-time systems on a regular basis. For example, an automobile today can have upward of 40 plus real time systems on board. A residential house has real-time systems in many household electronics. Real-time systems today deliver many customer-facing functionalities. There is a need to express requirements in a manner relevant the customers, for purposes of validation and verification. The proliferation of real-time systems on a single device also creates opportunities for reuse of functionality that rarely existed before. Use Case technique approaches requirements from a scenario perspective. Scenario provides context and external view points that are better suited to address the validation, verification and reuse challenges. In this paper, we present: A few examples of extending use cases for real-time systems to capture system functional requirements.
Technical Paper

Winterized Methyl Esters from Soybean Oil:An Alternative Diesel Fuel With Improved Low-Temperature Flow Properties

Methyl esters from vegetable oils (biodiesel) are very attractive as alternative fuels for combustion in direct injection compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Biodiesel fuels have low-temperature flow properties that limit utilization during cooler weather in moderate temperature climates. Although winterization reduces the cloud point (CP) of methyl soyate from 0 to -2O°C, liquid product yields were relatively low (0.30-0.33 g/g). Winterization of methyl soyate-cold flow improver mixtures decreased CP by -11°C and increased yields to 0.80-0.87 g/g. Winterization of methyl soyate from hexane and isopropanol solvents gave similar results. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses showed that nucleation mechanisms of methyl esters were significantly affected by winterization.
Technical Paper

Wide Range Air-Fuel Ratio Control System

A new air-fuel ratio control algorithm and its effect on automotive engine operation is described. The system consists of a wide range air-fuel ratio sensor and a single point injector with an ultrasonic fuel atomizer. The air-fuel ratio control adopts PID control and it has built-in learning control. A 16 bit microcomputer is used for the latter. The results of three studies are given. The first deals with adaptive PID gain control for various conditions. The second is the new learning control which uses an integration terra. The third is individual cylinder air-fuel ratio control.
Technical Paper

Why Gasoline 90% Distillation Temperature Affects Emissions with Port Fuel Injection and Premixed Charge

Statistically designed experiments were run in a single-cylinder engine to understand the reason for the decrease in exhaust mass HC emissions found in the Auto/Oil Program with decreasing 90% distillation temperature (T90) of gasoline. Besides T90, the effects of mixture preparation, equivalence ratio, and ambient temperature on emissions and fuel consumption were measured. HC emissions were higher with PFI than with premixed charge, but decreasing T90 decreased HC emissions with both premixed charge and PFI. Rich mixture and low ambient temperature increased HC emissions. Speciated exhaust HC measurements indicate that incomplete vaporization of heavy components of the gasoline (C8-C10 alkanes, C6-C9 aromatics and alkenes) was responsible for higher HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Where is The HSDI Diesel Engine Going?

Thanks to the modern DI diesel's well known features, such as high thermal efficiency, excellent driveability, durability, low operating cost, the market share of diesel passenger cars in Europe has grown from 14% in 1990 to 33% in 2000 and it still continues to grow. However, the foreseeable evolution of exhaust emission legislation gives rise to the question whether the passenger car diesel engine can preserve its undeniable advantages at competitive system cost in the future. The present paper deals with the criteria decisive for market success such as engine performance, speed range and light weight design. Following is an assessment of the current and future technological elements required to meet the standards placed on both fuel economy and exhaust emissions. Based on these analyses development strategies for future passenger car diesel engines are suggested.
Technical Paper

Ways to meet future emission standards for heavy Sports Utility Vehicles - SUV

Diesel engines belong to the most efficient power sources for any kind of on-road vehicle, but especially in Europe increasingly for passenger cars. However, more stringent exhaust emission regulations, which will come into force world-wide in industrialised countries during the first decade of the next century will require NOx and particulate emissions to be reduced by up to 60% and more from today's levels. To meet these future emission standards particularly for heavier passenger vehicles, such as SUVs, Pickup Trucks and Light Commercial Vehicles, as well as for heavy luxury class passenger cars, the application of new technologies including advanced exhaust gas aftertreatment systems will be indispensable, especially in view of maintaining the thermal efficiency of diesel engines relative to gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Ways to Meet Future Emission Standards with Diesel Engine Powered Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV)

The paper reports on the outcome of a still on-going joint-research project with the objective of establishing a demonstrator high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine in a Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) which allows to exploit the effectiveness of new engine and aftertreatment technologies for reducing exhaust emissions to future levels of US/EPA Tier 2 and Euro 4. This objective should be accomplished in three major steps: (1) reduce NOx by advanced engine technologies (cooled EGR, flexible high pressure common rail fuel injection system, adapted combustion system), (2) reduce particulates by the Continuous Regeneration Trap (CRT), and (3) reduce NOx further by a DeNOx aftertreatment technology. The current paper presents engine and vehicle results on step (1) and (2), and gives an outlook to step (3).
Technical Paper

Water Injection: Disruptive Technology1 to Reduce Airplane Emissions and Maintenance Costs

Water injection is an old aviation technology that was previously used to generate increased engine power during takeoff. If water injection were now to be used without increasing thrust, it could result in large reductions in takeoff NOx emissions and would most likely enable longer engine life and reduced operator costs. Due to the cooling action of evaporating water, a large temperature reduction will be experienced at the point where the water is injected into the engine. This could improve combustion emissions, such as temperature-sensitive NOx, and help reduce temperatures throughout the turbine section of the engine. The two current preferred methods of water injection are: (1) direct injection into the combustor, and (2) misting of the conditioned water before the engine's compressor. Combustor injection could achieve up to 90% NOx reduction and offer few implementation challenges as it has been used in aero-derivative industrial engines for over 30 years.
Technical Paper

Water Injection Effects on NOx Emissions for Engines Utilizing Diffusion Flame Combustion

Abstract Inert injection is an often-used technique to reduce NOx emissions from engines. Here the effects of a new Mitsubishi water injection system for a direct injection (DI) Diesel engine on exhaust emissions are examined. Stoichiometric flame temperature correlations of thermal NOx emissions for conventional gas turbine combustors provide an activation energy to form NO of approximately 135 kcal/g-mol, the value for the Zeldovich mechanism with O/O2 equilibrium. Two theoretical limiting temperatures determined to bracket NOx emissions data for gas turbines are computed for the Diesel engine considered here. At low water to fuel ratios, the reductions of NOx for the DI Diesel engine are less than predicted for uniform distribution of an inert throughout the charge, but as the water to fuel ratio is increased the reductions are bounded successfully by the limiting temperatures.
Technical Paper

Warm-Up of a D.I. Diesel Engine: Experiment and Modeling

With the increasing efficiency of D.I. Diesel engines, the heat power needed to warm the passengers compartment becomes too low during the warm-up period. So the temperature increase of oil and water may be accelerate. This paper is devoted to the understanding of the phenomena involved in this process and their modeling. A diesel engine enclosed in a calorimeter is mounted on a test bench and largely instrumented. From the recorded data, the instantaneous energy balance is set up for different running conditions. Some general trends may be pointed out. During the first minute, 50% of the fuel energy is absorbed by the heat capacity of the heavy metallic components. This part progressively decreases to the benefit of heat transferred to the coolant. Furthermore, for increasing distance from the combustion chamber in the block, the rate of temperature rise decreases. Concerning the oil temperature evolution, it lags behind the water one.
Technical Paper

Wall-Wetting Theories Applied to the Transient Operation of a Single Cylinder Four-Stroke Gasoline Engine

This paper reports on the preliminary investigation of the identification of a method to model the transient operation of a single cylinder four-stroke gasoline engine. During a transient the response of an engine and the actual fuel mixture delivered to the engine are significantly affected by the behaviour of the fuel injected into the inlet manifold. In the past, different wall-wetting theories have been developed to model and attempt to resolve this problem and one of the most definitive is investigated here along with two other theories developed at QUB. A steady state computer model of a single cylinder four-stroke spark-ignition research engine was written and validated. The three different wall-wetting theories were studied and each individually integrated into the steady state model. This allowed simulated transients to be performed on the computer and the results generated to be compared with firing transient tests.