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Technical Paper

“Zero Defects”, Statistically Considered

The requirement of “zero defects” is rapidly finding its way as a “standard” of quality in numerous quarters. This phrase has great psychological appeal, and is often taken literally at all levels in an organization even though quality motivation may be the intention. It is common to believe that when zero defects are found in the sample, this must be the case for “all the rest” as well. In this paper the technical side of “zero defects” is examined. We look at the statistics of zero defects and show what is implied about lot or process quality when zero defects is the actual sample outcome. The focus is on attribute measurements and includes some special cases where a significant measurement error exists and cases where a Bayesian statistical analysis may be appropriate.
Technical Paper

“The Creation, Development and Implementation of a Lean Systems Course at Oakland University, Rochester, MI”

Countless articles and publications3,4,5 have documented and proven the efficacy, benefits and value of operating within a lean system. Furthermore, there exists common agreement amongst leading organizations successfully implementing a lean system that in order to do so it must take into consideration the entire enterprise, that is, from supplier to customer and everything in between6. One of the core issues this paper addresses is when the optimal time is to train and educate the people who currently have, or will have, influence over the ‘enterprise’.
Technical Paper

“IQDP: The Challenge of the Development Area to Evaluate its Suppliers”

SUMMARY In the work presented to SAE in 1999: IQTC: a Practical and Unified Index to Evaluate the Continuous Improvement of Suppliers, we showed that the Development Area is one of the chapters inserted into the evaluation process of suppliers and answers for an evaluation called IQDP (Quality Index in Product Development). The present work objective is to show the difficulties found in the implementation, solutions and improvements that are being used to outline a better supplier evaluation. Such a control within a universe of 350 suppliers (directly connected to production) being evaluated by 400 persons, in a natural process, is not an easy task. Collecting information about the difficulties faced to evaluate a supplier and the supplier claims to obtain an answer in reply to the attributed scores, took us to the search of the adequate computerized technology that would allow us to group the interests of work methods that would comply with the diverse demands involved.
Technical Paper

“Evaluation of the Drift of vehicle Inspection/Maintenance Emission Analyzers in use- A California Case Study”

Quality assurance (QA) in motor vehicle emissions inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs is a continuing concern, especially in decentralized programs with hundreds or even thousands of licensed stations. The emissions analyzers used in such stations are an important focus of governmental QA efforts because of the central role of analyzers in determining which vehicles need to be repaired. Therefore, the In-use performance of I/M emission analyzers has a large impact on the quality of 1/M programs as a whole. This paper reports on the results of an investigation in California designed to determine in-use performance of emission analyzers in the field. The investigation was designed to evaluate both drift rates and the ability of analyzer systems with automatic gas calibration capability to correct analyzer responses outside of accepted tolerances.
Technical Paper

Zero Resistance Technology (ZRT)

Delphi's Zero Resistance Technology (ZRT) is a revolutionary new product/process that enables the reduction of mass and volume from a traditional wiring assembly. ZRT is defined as a minimal (zero) resistance change over time. The ZRT product is an electrical/electronic connection system which provides a viable solution for high density and limited space wiring applications. The ZRT process is a semi-automated wiring harness manufacturing system with flexibility to produce harnesses to the customer demand.
Technical Paper

Zero Gases for Emission Monitoring - Production, Storage, Treatment and Usage

Increasingly stringent emission levels require better quality facility gas supplies to enable more precise measurements at low levels and reduce variation in test results. The transient and steady state quality of the “zero gas” used in analyzer calibration will directly affect the level of the readings, while variation in the “zero gas” over time will increase the number of tests needed to meet statistical requirements. Facility zero gas supplies for air and nitrogen, at a minimum, require careful evaluation to confirm that the required gas quality is delivered to the test equipment for the desired instrument accuracy. To move from LEV or ULEV to SULEV analysis, a change in methodology of zero gas generation, delivery and handling may be needed to achieve the desired measurement accuracy and repeatability. Traditional tubing, fittings and handling methods can not only limit the possible gas quality, but also contribute to variation.

Zero Acceptance Number Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Attributes of A Continuous Manufacturing Process

Conventional attribute sampling plans based upon nonzero acceptance numbers are no longer desirable. In addition, emphasis is now placed on the quality level that is received by the customer. This relates directly to the Lot Tolerance Percent Defective (LTPD) value or the Limiting Quality Protection of MIL-STD-105. Measuring quality levels in precent nonconforming, although not incorrect, has been replaced with quality levels measured in parts per million (PPM). As a result, this standard addresses the need for sampling plans that can augment MIL-STD-105, are based upon a zero acceptance number, and address quality (nonconformance) levels in the parts per million range. This document does not address minor nonconformances, which are defined as nonconformances that are not likely to reduce materially the usability of the unit of product for its intended purpose.
Technical Paper

Worldclass Product Development Overview

This paper will discuss Concurrent Engineering as an emerging product development methodology. Specific emphasis will be placed on some of the key tools and considerations necessary for the success of Concurrent Engineering. In particular, the paper will discuss strategic product planning driven by customer requirements and how the product development effort will support the strategic product plan.
Technical Paper

World Fuels and Modern Fuel Systems - A Path to Coexistence

Abstract All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
Technical Paper

World Class Productivity Improvement Through Constraint Management

This paper will show how Constraint Management can lead to rapid improvements in productivity without much investment, and without much change in people or processes involved. Constraint Management incorporates two critical factors that are missing from traditional approaches to productivity improvement. This paper will clearly show why a focus on throughput is important and why the effects of constraints must be taken into account, since the system's constraint holds the key to improving the real productivity of the system as a whole. It will also show how performance measurements must be changed to foster the required behavior by people involved in any improvement program. If this is not done, only conflicting, piecemeal, and temporary improvements are likely, rather than permanent overall improvement.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Commercial Transport Aircraft Aerodynamics at Extreme Flight Conditions

A series of low-speed static and dynamic wind tunnel tests of a commercial transport configuration over an extended angle of attack/sideslip envelope was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The test results are intended for use in the development of an aerodynamic simulation database for determining aircraft flight characteristics at extreme and loss-of-control conditions. This database will be used for the development of loss-of-control prevention or mitigation systems, pilot training for recovery from such conditions, and accident investigations. An overview of the wind-tunnel tests is presented and the results of the tests are evaluated with respect to traditional simulation database development techniques for modeling extreme conditions to identify regions where simulation fidelity should be addressed.
Technical Paper

Why We Have Problems with Effective Reliability Testing Performance?

Many engineers and managers use the words “reliability testing”, fewer people think that they provide reliability testing, but often, in fact, neither of them do it. The basic reason is: none of them understands clearly what this type of testing means and how it is different from other type of testing. The literature and practice show that professionals who use vibration testing, or thermal shock testing, or environmental testing, or HALT (HASS) [22], or other types of testing think that they provide reliability testing. Companies from a wide range of industries, both in specialization and size make this error. This paper analyzes why often the knowledge of reliability testing is so poor. As a result, the process of reliability development and improvement is often slower than it might be.
Technical Paper

Why Separate Simulation of Input Influences for Accelerated Reliability and Durability Testing is Not Effective?

Abstract This paper considers the situation in the laboratory testing: different stress types and accelerated testing, including accelerated reliability/durability testing, accelerated life testing, reliability testing, proving grounds, vibration, temperature, voltage, humidity, and others. In comparison with field situation, most of these testing simulate only one or part of the field input influences. One uses often not accurately the theory of physics-of-degradation process or failures for comparison of the field results with laboratory results. This situation will be considered with practical examples. It will be demonstrated that often used laboratory testing does not offer the possibility for successful prediction of product performance during service life As a result, there are many complaints, recalls, and less profit than was predicted during design and manufacturing. It will be shown how one can improve this situation..
Technical Paper

Why Current Types of Accelerated Stress Testing Cannot Help to Accurately Predict Reliability and Durability?

This paper demonstrates the results of the analysis of the current practical situation in product reliability and durability as well as accelerated stress testing development. High stress testing is now the basic source for obtaining initial information to provide a prediction of a product's reliability and durability. This paper shows that this testing cannot offer information for the accurate prediction of reliability and durability, because the product degradation process during the testing differs from the product degradation process during the actual field situation. As a result, the time to failures also differs.
Technical Paper

Where Customer Product Validation Programs Add Value in the New Product Development Cycle

To try and bring together customer needs and product quality within the new product development cycle, Hewlett-Packard’s LaserJet Group has created a program known as Delta. LaserJet Delta is an extension of what is commonly known as a Beta Program but the objectives are changed - the LaserJet Delta program is used to assess product quality, usability, and functionality while manufacturing is beginning production. Beta is commonly done within the product development cycle with the primary purpose to determine what customers like and dislike about the product. First reactions to a program like LaserJet Delta should be it is not the right thing to do. Pre-release testing should be comprehensive enough to catch the issues that are likely to be found in customer testing, allowing an organization to minimize costs associated with expensive last-minute fixes and product reworks.
Technical Paper

What SPC Can Do for You

Quality improvement, widely accepted as the key to survival in today's global marketplace, can only be achieved through a disciplined approach to problem solving based on proven statistical process control (SPC) techniques. Improving quality also improves productivity, and SPC applications are generating substantial savings for both product and service organizations throughout industry.
Technical Paper

What Goes into Your Parts is More Important than Where You Source Them

On the whole, strategic sourcing and supplier rationalization have been successful Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) strategies. Often ignored however, are some of the longer-term ramifications of strategic sourcing and supplier rationalization that are less favorable, particularly if, in the process of embarking upon these strategies, an OEM looses visibility into and/or relinquishes control over, the finished part bill of material (BOM). Finished part BOM is defined as all of the material “inputs” that go into a manufactured part materials such as bar, sheet, tube, wire, fasteners, etc. This negative consequence of outsourcing, the loss of BOM visibility and control, can dilute and even undermine the very strategy that spawned it.