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Technical Paper

1K and 2K Polyurethanes for Automotive Topcoats

The increased occurrence of environmental damage to automotive topcoats and the variety of abrasive conditions to which the coating is subjected have made increasing demands on the properties of these coatings. There is as yet, no single paint chemistry that fulfills these extreme requirements in all respects. On the other hand, the right choice of components in polyurethane can result in excellent etch resistance as well as improved scratch resistance compared to traditional melamine/acrylic systems. This paper will discuss some recent studies in the areas of two-component and one-component polyurethane chemistry, which address these rigorous quality requirements.
Technical Paper

1D/3D Comparison of Flow Field Simulations Inside an Exhaust-Type Duct

In this study a detailed numerical analysis of a steady and unsteady compressible flow within an exhaust-type duct is presented. Since the large computational effort required by the analysis of real industrial exhaust geometries, a Y-junction has been chosen as a simplified but representative model. The main purpose of the present work has been the calibration of one-dimensional simulation code, by means of the results comparison with a more accurate three-dimensional CFD computation. Thus, under the steady state condition a suitable tuning parameter has been identified in order to improve the prediction capabilities of the 1-D code. On the contrary, in the case of the transient analyses such a coefficient has revealed to be ineffective, demonstrating the stringent need for 3-D numerical simulations. In addition, interesting information regarding flow field development and waves propagation inside the junctions has been found out.
Technical Paper

1D-3D Coupled Simulation of the Fuel Spray Propagation Inside the Air-Box of a Moto3 Motorbike: Analysis of Spray Targeting and Injection Timing

In this work an integration between a 1D code (Gasdyn) with a CFD code (OpenFOAM®) has been applied to improve the performance of a Moto3 engine. The four-stroke, single cylinder S.I. engine was modeled, in order to predict the wave motion in the intake and exhaust systems and to study how it affects the cylinder gas exchange process. The engine considered was characterized by having an air induction system with integrated filter cartridge, air-box and intake runner, including two fuel injectors, resulting in a complex air-path from the intake mouth to the intake valves, which presents critical aspects when a 1D modeling is addressed. The exhaust and intake systems have been optimized form the point of view of the wave action. However, due to the high revolution speed reached by this type of engine, the interaction between the gas stream and the fuel spray becomes a key aspect to be addressed in order to achieve the best performance at the desired operating condition.
Technical Paper

1D-3D Analysis of the Scavenging and Combustion Process in a Gasoline and Natural-Gas Fuelled Two-Stroke Engine

The paper presents a 1D-3D numerical model to simulate the scavenging and combustion processes in a small-size spark-ignition two-stroke engine. The engine is crankcase scavenged and can be operated with both gasoline and Natural Gas (NG). The analysis is performed with a modified version of the KIVA3V code, coupled to an in-house developed 1D model. A time-step based, two-way coupled procedure is fully described and validated against a reference test. Then, a 1D-3D simulation of the whole two-stroke engine is carried out in different operating conditions, for both gasoline and NG fuelling. Results are compared with experimental data including instantaneous pressure signals in the crankcase, in the cylinder and in the exhaust pipe. The procedure allows to characterize the scavenging process and quantify the fresh mixture short-circuiting, as well as to analyze the development of the NG combustion process for a diluted mixture, typically occurring in a two-stroke engine.
Technical Paper

1D and 3D CFD Investigation of Burning Process and Knock Occurrence in a Gasoline or CNG fuelled Two-Stroke SI Engine

The paper presents a combined experimental and numerical investigation of a small unit displacement two-stroke SI engine operated with gasoline and Natural Gas (CNG). A detailed multi-cycle 3D-CFD analysis of the scavenging process is at first performed in order to accurately characterize the engine behavior in terms of scavenging patterns and efficiency. Detailed CFD analyses are used to accurately model the complex set of physical and chemical processes and to properly estimate the fluid-dynamic behavior of the engine, where boundary conditions are provided by a in-house developed 1D model of the whole engine. It is in fact widely recognized that for two-stroke crankcase scavenged, carbureted engines the scavenging patterns (fuel short-circuiting, residual gas distribution, pointwise lambda field, etc.) plays a fundamental role on both of engine performance and tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper

1D Unsteady Flows with Chemical Reactions in the Exhaust Duct-System of S.I. Engines: Predictions and Experiments

This paper describes some recent advances of the research work concerning the 1D fluid dynamic modeling of unsteady reacting flows in s.i. engine pipe-systems, including pre-catalysts and main catalysts. The numerical model GASDYN developed in previous work has been further enhanced to enable the simulation of the catalyst. The main chemical reactions occurring in the wash-coat have been accounted in the model, considering the mass transfer between gas and solid phase. The oxidation of CO, C3H6, C3H8, H2 and reduction of NO, the steam-reforming reactions of C3H6, C3H8, the water-gas shift reaction of CO have been considered. Moreover, an oxygen-storage sub-model has been introduced, to account for the behavior of Cerium oxides. A detailed thermal model of the converter takes into account the heat released by the exothermic reactions as a source term in the heat transfer equations. The influence of the insulating mat is accounted.
Technical Paper

1D Transient Thermal Model of an Automotive Electric Engine Cooling Fan Motor

For the thermal management of an automobile, the induced airflow becomes necessary to enable the sufficient heat transfer with ambient. In this way, the components work within the designed temperature limit. It is the engine-cooling fan that enables the induced airflow. There are two types of engine-cooling fan, one that is driven by engine itself and the other one is electrically driven. Due to ease in handling, reduced power consumption, improved emission condition, electrically operated fan is becoming increasingly popular compared to engine driven fan. The prime mover for electric engine cooling fan is DC motor. Malfunction of DC motor due to overheating will lead to engine over heat, Poor HVAC performance, overheating of other critical components in engine bay. Based upon the real world driving condition, 1D transient thermal model of engine cooling fan motor is developed. This transient model is able to predict the temperature of rotor and casing with and without holes.
Technical Paper

1D Tire Model Parameter Synthesis for Vehicle Handling Targets Assessment “A Strategy of Optimization and Evaluation of Tire Math’s”

Handling performance of a vehicle is a key characteristic determining the response of vehicle under different operating scenarios. An insight into these vehicle-handling characteristics at early stage can be extremely useful in the design and development process. Tire characterization and tuning is important and mandatory to scrutinize each functional and individual parameter of tire. Tire force and moment data is having a significant effect in vehicle handling. Segregation of tire parameter, which is contributing vehicle-handling performance, helps to identify and perform optimization for improvisation. The main objective of this study is development and integration optimized 1D tire model into multibody dynamics model of the vehicle to observe various vehicle compliances towards its handling performance target.
Technical Paper

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of a High Performance Lamborghini V12 S.I. Engine

This paper describes the development and application of the 1D thermo-fluid dynamic research code GASDYN to the simulation of a Lamborghini 12 cylinder, V 60°, 6.2 L automotive S.I. engine. The model has been adopted to carry out an integrated simulation (thermodynamic, fluid dynamic and chemical) of the engine coupled to its intake and exhaust manifolds, in order to predict not only the wave motion in the ducts and its influence on the cylinder gas exchange process, but also the in-cylinder combustion process and the pollutant emission concentration along the exhaust system. The gas composition in the exhaust pipe system is dictated by the cylinder discharge process, after the calculation of the combustion via a thermodynamic multi-zone model, based on a “fractal geometry” approach.
Technical Paper

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modelling of a S.I. Engine Exhaust System for the Prediction of Warm-Up and Emission Conversion during a NEDC Cycle

This work describes an experimental and numerical investigation of the thermal transient of i.c. engine exhaust systems. A prototype of exhaust system has been investigated during a NEDC cycle in two different configurations. Firstly an uncoated catalyst has been adopted to consider only the effect of the gas-wall heat transfer. The measurements have been repeated on the same exhaust system equipped with a coated catalyst to point out the contribution of the chemical reactions to the thermal transient of the system. The measured values have been compared to the predicted results carried out with a 1D thermo fluid dynamic code, developed in-house to account for the thermal transient of the system and the chemical reactions occurring in the catalyst.
Journal Article

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Reacting Flows inside Three-Way Catalytic Converters

In this work a detailed model to simulate the transient behavior of catalytic converters is presented. The model is able to predict the unsteady and reacting flows in the exhaust ducts, by solving the system of conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and transport of reacting chemical species. The en-gine and the intake system have not been included in the simulation, imposing the measured values of mass flow, gas temperature and chemical composition as a boundary condition at the inlet of the exhaust system. A detailed analysis of the diffusion stage triggering is proposed along with simplifications of the physics, finalized to the reduction of the calculation time. Submodels for water condensation and its following evaporation on the monolith surface have been taken into account as well as oxygen storage promoted by ceria oxides.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation of Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine for Transient Strategy Optimization

This paper presents 1D engine simulation used for engine control strategy optimization for a twin-scroll turbocharged gasoline direct injection 2.0 L engine with twin camphaser. The results show good agreement of the engine model behavior with testbed acquisitions for a large amount of steady state set points and under transient operating conditions. The presented method demonstrates that a 1D engine code represents a useful and efficient tool during all steps of the engine control development process from design to real-time for such an advanced engine technology.

1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions

Zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine breathing and boosting; SI combustion and emissions; CI combustion and emissions; fundamentals of engine thermodynamics; thermal management; mechanical and lubrication systems; system level models for controls; system level models for vehicle fuel economy and emissions predictions. Presenter Fabio Bozza, Universita di Napoli
Journal Article

1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions

Turbocharging technique will play a fundamental role in the near future not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions both in Spark Ignition and diesel automotive applications. To achieve excellent engine performance for road application, it is necessary to overcome some typical turbocharging drawbacks i.e., low end torque level and transient response. Experimental studies, developed on dedicated test facilities, can supply a lot of information to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, especially if tests can be extended to the typical engine operating conditions (unsteady flow). Different numerical procedures have been developed at the University of Naples to predict automotive turbocharger compressor performance both under steady and unsteady flow conditions. A classical 1D approach, based on the employment of compressor characteristic maps, was firstly followed.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation Accuracy Enhancement for Predicting Powertrain Cooling System Performance

In today’s competitive scenario, the automotive product life cycle has drastically reduced and all Auto OEM’s are coming up with their updated products with lesser development time. These frequent product upgrades are possible due to use of various digital tools during product design and development. Design and optimization of engine coolpack (powertrain cooling unit) to attain engine cooling performance is one of the important parameter during vehicle development or upgrade. Hence, to keep control over development cost and time of delivery, quick and accurate digital validation capability like one dimensional (1D) simulation is the need of the hour. To predict the powertrain cooling (PTC) performance at vehicle concept stage, when physical prototypes are not available, airflow data from similar developed platforms is considered as an input for 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

1D Modelling of Reactive Fluid Dynamics, Cold Start Behavior of Exhaust Systems

The introduction of more stringent standards for engine emissions requires a steady development of exhaust gas aftertreatment in addition to an optimized cylinder combustion. The reduction of the cold start phase can help significantly to lower cycle emissions. With the goal of optimizing the overall emission performance this study presents a comprehensive simulation approach. A well established 1D gas dynamics and engine simulation model is extended by three key features. These are models for combustion and pollutant production in the cylinder, models for the pollutant conversion in a catalyst, and a general species transport model. This allows to consider an arbitrary number of chemical species and reactions in the entire system.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of the Hydrodynamics and of the Regeneration Mechanism in Continuous Regenerating Traps

The present work focuses on the simulation of the hydrodynamics, transient filtration/loading and catalytic/NO2-assisted regeneration of Diesel after-treatment systems. A 1D unsteady model for compressible and reacting flows for the numerical simulation of the behavior of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOCs) and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) has been developed. The numerical model is able to keep track of the amount of soot in the flow; the increasing of back-pressure through the exhaust system (mainly due to the Diesel Particulate Filter) can be predicted by the calculation of the permeability variation of the porous wall, as the soot particles goes inside the DPF. A sub-model for the regeneration of the collected soot has been developed: the collected particulate is oxidized by the Oxygen (O2) and by the Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2).
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of Thermal Expansion Valve for the Assessment of Refrigerant-Induced Noise

Without engine noise, the cabin of an electric vehicle is quiet, but on the other hand, it becomes easy to perceive refrigerant-induced noise in the automotive air-conditioning (A/C) system. When determining the A/C system at the design stage, it is crucial to verify whether refrigerant-induced noise occurs in the system or not before the real A/C systems are made. If refrigerant-induced noise almost never occurs during the design stage, it is difficult to evaluate by vehicle testing at the development stage. This paper presents a 1D modeling methodology for the assessment of refrigerant-induced noise such as self-excitation noise generated by pressure pulsation through the thermal expansion valve (TXV). The GT-SUITE commercial code was used to develop a refrigerant cycle model consisting of a compressor, condenser, evaporator, TXV and the connecting pipe network.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of Expansion tank Flow

An expansion tank is an integral part of an automotive engine cooling system. The primary function of the expansion tank is to allow the thermal expansion of the coolant. The expansion tank will be referred as hot bottle in this paper. In the System level modeling of the engine internal flow, it is imperative to accurately model and characterize the components in the system. It is often challenging to define the hot bottle accurately with limited parameters in the 1D modeling. Currently it is very difficult to optimize the system by testing. Since testing consumes a lot of time and changes in development stage. If the hot bottle component is not defined properly in the system network, then the system flow balancing cannot be predicted accurately. In this paper, the approach of creating a 1D modeling tool for hot bottle flow prediction is discussed and the simulation results are compared with the physical test data.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of AC Refrigerant Loop and Vehicle Cabin to Simulate Soak and Cool Down

Simulation has become an integral part in the design and development of an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system. Simulation is widely used for both system level and component level analyses and are carried out with one-dimensional (1D) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools. This paper describes a 1D approach to model refrigerant loop and vehicle cabin to simulate the soak and cool down analysis. Soak and cool down is one of the important tests that is carried out to test the performance of a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system of a vehicle. Ability to simulate this cool down cycle is thus very useful. 1D modeling is done for the two-phase flow through the refrigerant loop and air flow across the heat exchangers and cabin with the commercial software AMESim. The model is able to predict refrigerant pressure and temperature inside the loop at different points in the cycle.