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Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Dent Resistance Incorporating Forming Effects

Dent resistance is an important attribute in the automotive panel design, and the ability to accurately predict a panel's dentability requires careful considerations of sheet metal properties, including property changes from stamping process. The material is often work-hardened significantly during forming, and its thickness is reduced somewhat. With increased demand for weight reduction, vehicle designers are seriously pushing to use thinner-gauged advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) as outer body panels such as fenders, hoods and decklids, with the expectation that its higher strength will offset reduced thickness in its dentability. A comparative study is conducted in this paper for a BH210 steel fender as baseline design and thinner DP500 steel as the new design.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Corrosion Test Environments at Three Proving Grounds

This paper presents the progress of an ongoing corrosion study of vehicle microenvironments. The study identifies the difference of corrosion microenvironments at various automotive proving grounds, using a sensor-equipped vehicle. A vehicle was instrumented for the proving ground test study. Various types of environmental sensors were installed at more than thirty-five sites on the vehicle. These sensors measured the temperature and relative humidity of the ambient air, and the temperature and time-of-wetness of the sites' surfaces. Cold rolled steel (CRS) and Zinc (Zn) corrosion rate sensors were also used in the experiments. The comparative analysis of vehicle microenvironments and corrosion rates of CRS and Zn, from three corrosion proving ground tests, will be discussed.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Composite and Steel Front Rails for Vehicle Front Impact Safety

Weight reduction is a primary concern in the design of today's automobiles. Fiber reinforced composites (FRC) comprise a category of materials that may offer advantages in terms of weight and cost when compared to both steel and aluminum. The viability of low cost FRCs such as a glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) as a structural material for automotive applications can, however, be diminished by functional requirements such as energy absorption and crush under impact loading. In this context, the crash safety performance of front rails of a compact passenger car is evaluated by assuming these to be made of GFRPs with constant strand mat (CSM) plies. The safety assessment of rails is carried out with the aid of the explicit nonlinear finite element analysis code LS-DYNA with utmost attention being paid to the proper constitutive modeling of the composites considered.
Journal Article

A Comparative Study of Car-Trailer Dynamics Models

The paper examines typical vehicle dynamics models used for the design of car-trailer active safety systems, including active trailer braking and steering. A linear 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF), a nonlinear 4 DOF and a nonlinear 6 DOF car-trailer model are generated. Then, these models are compared with a car-trailer model developed with the commercial software package, CarSim. The benchmark investigation of the car-trailer models is carried out through examining numerical simulation results obtained in two emulated tests, i.e., a single lane-change and a Fishhook maneuver. In the vehicle modeling, a mathematical model of a tire with flexible sidewalls is included to account for transient tire forces. Steady-state aerodynamic forces are included in these models. The deviation of the model dynamic responses, e.g., the variation of the articulation angle between the car and trailer, is discussed.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Bearing Press Fit Contact Modeling Techniques with Current Finite Element Analysis Tools

Bearing press fits have a wide range of application in ground vehicles and are typically governed by longstanding rules of thumb for designs that conform to past successful design geometries and practice. However, in unusual applications such as a gear box designed to also bear external loads, the combined stress states require finite element analysis (FEA) that accounts for the press fit, the bearing loads due to torque transmission, and the external loading. Therefore accurate prediction of press fit stress states are required to construct complete solutions to gear box fatigue life prediction and in particular to predict mean stress states. Current FEA tools provide a variety of analysis methods with which to approach the problem of press fit mechanics.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Bayesian-Based Reliability Prediction Methodologies

As new technology is introduced into automotive engineering, the level of uncertainty regarding system robustness increases. With it reliability assessment tools that account for such uncertainty is expected to gain increased attention. This can naturally lead to Bayesian-based tools. This paper examines three reliability assessment methodologies that operate in the Bayesian framework. Two of them are geared towards electronic parts and assemblies, with the remaining one being geared towards systems in general. In doing so, they were critiqued in terms of four dimensions: (1) basic architecture, (2) input factors, (3) handling of qualitative data, and (4) failure rate updating mechanisms.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Automotive System Fatigue Models Processed in the Time and Frequency Domain

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that frequency domain methods for calculating structural response and fatigue damage can be more widely applicable than previously thought. This will be demonstrated by comparing results of time domain vs. frequency domain approaches for a series of fatigue/durability problems with increasing complexity. These problems involve both static and dynamic behavior. Also, both single input and multiple correlated inputs are considered. And most important of all, a variety of non-stationary loading types have been used. All of the example problems investigated are typically found in the automotive industry, with measured loads from the field or from the proving ground.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Automotive Side Window Occupant Containment Characteristics for Tempered and Laminated Glass

This study investigates occupant containment characteristics of tempered and laminated automotive moveable side glass in rollover collisions. FMVSS 216 test protocols were used to induce roof damage or sheet metal damage around the window opening in Lincoln Navigators equipped with tempered and laminated side glass. Dummy-drop tests were then performed to investigate relative containment. The results demonstrate that, for rollovers in which the window structure is compromised, tempered side glass and laminated side glass perform comparably relative to occupant containment. Also discussed are the general strength characteristics of different types of glass construction, the availability of laminated side glass in recent model U.S. vehicles, and anecdotal data supporting the conclusions of testing.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Advanced Suspension Dampers for Vibration and Shock Isolation Performance of Road Vehicle

Electro-Rheological (ER) and Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid based advanced suspension dampers are emerging to be the next generation of suspension dampers for their attractive features and promising performance potential to overcome the limitations of existing dampers in market. This study compares the vibration and shock isolation performances of ER damper and MR damper with linear passive damper and two-stage asymmetric non-linear damper using a four degrees-of-freedom pitch plane ride model. The study reveals superior vibration and shock isolation performance of ER and MR dampers for sprung mass compared to linear passive and asymmetric non-linear dampers. At higher frequencies (above 10 Hz), these dampers transmit higher load to pavement compared to other two. The study suggests that asymmetricity should be included in the design of these dampers to achieve improved performance over the entire frequency range.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Active Control Strategies for Improving Lateral Stability of Car-Trailer Systems

This paper examines the performance of different active control strategies for improving lateral stability of car-trailer systems using numerical simulations. For car-trailer systems, three typical unstable motion modes, including trailer swing, jack-knifing and roll-over, have been identified. These unstable motion modes represent potentially hazardous situations. The effects of passive mechanical vehicle parameters on the stability of car-trailer systems have been well addressed. For a given car-trailer system, some of these passive parameters, e.g., the center of gravity of the trailer, are greatly varied under different operating conditions. Thus, lateral stability cannot be guaranteed by selecting a specific passive parameter set. To address this problem, various active control techniques have been proposed to improve handling and stability of car-trailer systems. Feasible control methods involve active trailer steering control (ATSC) and active trailer braking (ATB).
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study by Vehicle Testing of Copper Alloy and Gray Iron Brake Discs

Automotive friction materials are composites containing three kinds of components: an organic binder, fiber for reinforcement, and property modifiers. At low braking temperatures, the wear rate of the friction materials is controlled primarily by abrasive and adhesive mechanisms. At higher braking temperatures, the wear rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature due to thermal degradation of the binder and other components, and the exponential wear rate is frequently accompanied by brake fade. Thus, one method of reducing thermal wear and fade tendency is to lower the temperature at the rotor/friction material interface. Since the rate of heat transfer from the interface is mostly dependent upon the conductive and convective modes, a rotor of high thermal conductivity will have a significant advantage over a rotor of low conductivity, if the heat capacity remains the same.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study Between Salt Bath and Plasma Nitrocarburizing Processes for Application in Piston Rods

The quality of the nitrocarburized layer has a decisive influence in the service life of components with pistons that work together with polymeric seals, since it interferes in the abrasion and wear mechanisms of the involved materials. Thus it is necessary to select the most adequate process to apply in a given component aiming for a quality improvement and warranty costs reduction. The literature offers a great volume of information about the different nitriding processes, but there are few reports comparing them. In this paper the salt bath and plasma processes are discussed concerning the white layer metallography, roughness and the process effect on corrosion resistance of gas spring rods manufactured with SAE 1040 steel.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study Between Different Psychological Approaches During an ESA Space Simulation

The objectives are to compare different psychological methods used to assess the evolution of the interrelations inside the crew and the relationships between the crew and the outside in a sixty days isolation/confinement's simulation. After presenting each method, results are compared. The discussion try to point out if these methods are equivalent or if they are complementary. The specificity of each method is shown and conclusions try to associate some methods with specific scientific goals.
Journal Article

A Comparative Study Between China and IHRA for the Vehicle-Pedestrian Impact

A total of 200 detailed pedestrian accident cases of several areas in China were collected and analysed during last three years, the important information mainly include accident conditions, pedestrian information, human injury, vehicle injury sources, impact velocity, wrap around distance, and so on. The front shape of 37 passenger cars with high occupancy in domestic market involved in the accident cases were investigated and categorized into three groups: Sedan, SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle) and 1-Box (One Box Vehicle), so that the effect of vehicle front shapes on the pedestrian impact dynamics response and body injuries were studied. Then, the mathematical models for simulation of vehicle-pedestrian impact were developed using multi-body dynamics codes MADYMO to study response of pedestrian in vehicle-pedestrian impact.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study Between 1D and 3D Computational Results for Turbulent Flow in an Exhaust Manifold and in Bent Pipes

To improve today’s 1D engine simulation techniques it is important to investigate how well complex geometries such as the manifold are modeled by these engine simulation tools and to identify the inaccuracies that can be attributed to the 1D assumption. Time resolved 1D and 3D calculations have been performed on the turbulent flow through the outer runners of an exhaust manifold of a 2 liter turbocharged SI engine passenger car The total pressure drop over the exhaust manifold, computed with the 1D and 3D approach, showed to differ over an exhaust pulse. This is so even though a pressure loss coefficient correction has been employed in the 1D model to account for 3D flow effects. The 3D flow in the two outer runners of the manifold shows the presence of secondary flow motion downstream of the first major curvature. The axial velocity profile downstream of the first turn loses its symmetry. As the flow enters the second curvature a swirling motion is formed.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Review of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Part II: Control Strategies, Power Train, Total Cost, Infrastructure, New Developments, and Manufacturing & Commercialization

In this paper, a number of issues of concern in relation to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are discussed and comparatively reviewed. Currently, almost all the activities in the development of new generation of vehicles are focused on FCVs and HEVs. However, there are still uncertainties as to which provides the maximum benefits in terms of performance, energy savings, impact on environment etc. In particular, potential control strategies for FCVs and HEVs will be discussed and compared. For FCVs, these include power-averaging control as well as control based on maximum conversion efficiency, among others. HEV control strategies include electrically peaking hybrid propulsion, and parameter optimization approaches such as battery SOC maximization, emissions minimization, and optimal power management.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Review of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Part I: Performance and Parameter Characteristics, Emissions, Well-to-Wheels Efficiency and Fuel Economy, Alternative Fuels, Hybridization of FCV, and Batteries for Hybrid Vehicles

Currently, almost all the activities in the development of new generation of vehicles are focused on fuel cell powered vehicles (FCVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, there are still uncertainties as to which provides the maximum benefits in terms of performance, energy savings and impact on the environment. This paper compares the performance and parameter characteristics of FCVs and HEVs with a view towards an objective assessment of the relative performance of these vehicles. In particular, this paper reviews major characteristics of FCVs as zero or ultra-low emission vehicles (ZEV/ULEVs), their presumed high efficiency and potential for using alternative fuels, while also considering their limited performance at high power demands.
Journal Article

A Comparative Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Study in Downsized SI Gasoline and CI Diesel-Methane Dual Fuel Engines

Low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in downsized spark-ignition engines has been studied for more than a decade but no definitive explanation has been found regarding the exact sources of auto-ignition. No single mechanism can explain all the occurrences of LSPI and that each engine should be considered as a particular case supporting different conditions for auto-ignition. In a different context, dual fuel Diesel-Methane engines have been more recently studied in large to medium bore compression ignition engines. However, if Dual Fuel combustion is less knock sensitive, LSPI remains one of the main limitations of low-end torque also for dual fuel engines. Indeed, in some cases, premature ignition of CNG can be observed before the Diesel pilot injection as LSPI can classically be observed before the spark in gasoline engines. This article aims at highlighting the similarities and discrepancies between LSPI phenomena in SI gasoline and dual fuel engines.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Magnesium Front End Autoparts: A Revision to 2010-01-0275

The Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project under the sponsorship of Canada, China, and USA aims to develop key technologies and a knowledge base for increased use of magnesium in automobiles. The primary goal of this life cycle assessment (LCA) study is to compare the energy and potential environmental impacts of advanced magnesium based front end parts of a North American-built 2007 GM-Cadillac CTS using the current steel structure as a baseline. An aluminium front end is also considered as an alternate light structure scenario. A “cradle-to-grave” LCA is conducted by including primary material production, semi-fabrication production, autoparts manufacturing and assembly, transportation, use phase, and end-of-life processing of autoparts. This LCA study was done in compliance with international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2].
Technical Paper

A Comparative Investigation on the High Temperature Fatigue of Three Cast Aluminum Alloys

The high temperature fatigue behaviors of three cast aluminum alloys used for cylinder head fabrication - 319, A356 and AS7GU - are compared under isothermal fatigue at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior for both out-of-phase and in-phase loading conditions (100-300°C) has also been investigated. It has been observed that all three of these alloys present a very similar behavior under both isothermal and thermo-mechanical low-cycle fatigue. Under high-cycle fatigue, however, the alloys A356 and AS7GU exhibit superior performance.