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Technical Paper

3-D Diesel Spray Simulations Using a New Detailed Chemistry Turbulent Combustion Model

Until recently, the application of the detailed chemistry approach as a predictive tool for engine modeling has been sort of a “taboo” for different reasons, mainly because of an exaggerated rigor to the chemistry/turbulence interaction modeling. In terms of this ideology, if the interaction cannot be simulated properly, the detailed chemistry approach makes no sense. The novelty of the proposed methodology is the coupling of a generalized partially stirred reactor, PaSR, model with the high efficiency numerics to treat detailed oxidation kinetics of hydrocarbon fuels. In terms of this approach, chemical processes are assumed to proceed in two successive steps: the reaction follows after the micro-mixing is completed on a sub-grid scale.
Technical Paper

3-D Crash Analysis Using ADAMS

The dynamics of vehicle front end crash are studied using the ADAMS dynamic simulation code. The analysis is carried out in three dimensions and can capture the behavior associated with an asymmetrical structure or impact mode. Subroutines which allow the modeling of structural crush and plastic hinge formation, contact forces and friction forces are discussed. The method is relatively inexpensive, but does require a good understanding of the problem on the part of the analyst. A discussion of the techniques that are used to model the structural system is given. The results of the analysis are compared with experimental data and the correlation is very encouraging.
Technical Paper

3-D Computations to Improve Combustion in a stratified-Charge Rotary Engine Part II: A Better Spray Pattern for the Pilot Injector

A three-dimensional combustion model of a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine is used to identify modifications that might lead to better indicated efficiency. The engine, which has a five-hole main injector and a pilot injector, is predicted to achieve better indicated efficiency if a two-hole ‘rabbit-ear’ pilot injector is used instead of its present single-hole pilot injector. This rabbit-ear arrangement is predicted to increase the surface area of the early flame (on account of better distribution of the fuel), and thereby result in an increased overall burning rate. Computations were made at high and low engine speeds and loads, encompassing the practical operating range. It is concluded that the modified pilot injector will increase indicated efficiency by about 5% within the computed operating range.
Technical Paper

3-D Computations to Improve Combustion in a Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine Part IV: Modified Geometries

A three-dimensional model for a direct injection stratified-charge rotary engine has been employed to study two modifications to the pocket geometry of the engine. In one modification, a pocket is located towards the leading edge of the rotor and is shown to produce recirculation within the pocket and faster burning. In the second modification, a two pocket rotor with two injectors and two spark plugs is studied. It appears that this should result in better utilization of the chamber air. It also appears that both modifications rhould result in higher efficiency of the direct-injected stratifiedcharge rotary engine. However extensive computations are required before a final conclusion is reached and before specific recommendations can be made.
Technical Paper

3-D Computations to Improve Combustion in a Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine - Part III: Improved Ignition Strategies

A three-dimensional combustion model for a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine is used to identify modifications to the engine that should lead to better indicated efficiency. The engine has a single spark plug positioned alongside a single-hole pilot injector in a cavity located after the minor axis and a five-hole main injector that is located before the minor axis. It is predicted that a second ignition source located upstream of the main injector will lead to an increase in indicated efficiency of 6-8% if it ignites the mixture consistently. The computations were made at high and low engine speeds and loads, covering a significant part of the practical operating range of the engine. It is also predicted that the gain in efficiency of the engine with two ignition sources would be 7-10%, instead of 6-8%, if a two-hole pilot injector is also used instead of the one-hole pilot.
Technical Paper

3-D Computations of Premixed-Charge Natural Gas Combustion in Rotary Engines

A three-dimensional model for premixed- charge naturally-aspirated rotary engine combustion is used to identify combustion chamber geometries that could lead to increased indicated efficiency for a lean (equivalence ratio =0.75) natural gas/air mixture. Computations were made at two rpms (1800 and 3600) and two loads (approximately 345 Kpa and 620 Kpa indicated mean effective pressure). Six configurations were studied. The configuration that gave the highest indicated efficiency has a leading pocket with a leading deep recess, two spark plugs located circumferentially on the symmetry plane (one after the minor axis and the other before), a compression ratio of 9.5, and an anti-quench feature on the trailing flank.
Technical Paper

3-D Catalytic Regeneration and Stress Modeling of Diesel Particulate Filters by ABAQUS FEM Software

The design of reliable DPF systems has proved a complex and demanding task that is increasingly being assisted by modeling. 1-D but also 2-D (axisymmetric) modeling has already been applied in design optimization case studies, with varying degrees of success. The introduction of advanced technology SiC and cordierite filters with modular structure and the need to accurately model transient temperature and stress fields in low space velocity scenarios, made necessary the shift to 3-D modeling. In this paper, 3-D modeling is carried out in an effective and reliable way, by interfacing a well-documented and validated 1-D model with the ABAQUS commercial FEM software. The new modeling methodology proves a powerful tool in the hands of the filter and diesel exhaust system design engineer.
Technical Paper

3-D CFD Analysis of the Combustion Process in a DI Diesel Engine using a Flamelet Model

A 3-dimensional numerical study has been conducted investigating the combustion process in a VW 1.9l TDI Diesel engine. Simulations were performed modeling the spray injection of a 5-hole Diesel injector in a pressure chamber. A graphical methodology was utilized to match the spray resulting from the widely used Discrete Droplet Spray model to pressure chamber spray images. Satisfactory agreement has been obtained regarding the simulated and experimental spray penetration and cone angles. Thereafter, the combustion process in the engine was simulated. Using engine measurements to initialize the combustion chamber conditions, the compression stroke, the spray injection and the combustion simulation was performed. The novel RTZF two-zone flamelet combustion model was used for the combustion simulation and was tested for partial load operating conditions. An objective analysis of the model is presented including the results of a numerical parameter study.
Technical Paper

3-D CFD Analysis of CO Formation in Diesel Combustion - The use of intake air throttling to create reducing atmospheres for NSR catalysts -

The efficiency of the NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) catalysts used in the aftertreatment of diesel engine exhaust gases can potentially be increased by using reactive reductants such as CO and H₂ that are formed during in-cylinder combustion. In this study, a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with complex chemical analysis was used to study combustion with various fuel after-injection patterns. The results obtained will be useful in designing fuel injection strategies for the efficient formation of CO.
Technical Paper

3-D Analysis of the Flow Through a Multihole V.C.O. Nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine

A 3-D analysis of the flow through a multihole, V.C.O. (Valve Covered Orifice) nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine has been carried out. The analysis was performed by means of a finite element code. The nozzle comprises five injection holes. Aims of the analysis were: the investigation of the pressure drops along the conical clearance between the needle and the nozzle; the evaluation of the energy losses in the injection holes; the disclosure of the velocity profile at the injection hole outlets. the differences of flowrate for each hole with geometrical asymmetries. This kind of analisys is the first step of a more complete spray analysis; in fact, the spray from an injection hole is influenced by the injection pressure and the velocity profile. In particular, the needle lift and the needle tip deviation have been parametrized. The analysis betters both the theoretical knowledge of this kind of nozzle and the hydraulic phenomena occurring inside.

3-D 'printed car' displayed at NAIAS

Car put on display is based on electrical and mechanical components from a Renault electric vehicle "city car" simply as a proof of process. Much testing and refinement remain. Help is being provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and SABIC.
Journal Article

3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Low CO2 and NOx Emissions

Today turbo-diesel powertrains offering low fuel consumption and good low-end torque comprise a significant fraction of the light-duty vehicle market in Europe. Global CO₂ regulation and customer fuel prices are expected to continue providing pressure for powertrain fuel efficiency. However, regulated emissions for NO and particulate matter have the potential to further expand the incremental cost of diesel powertrain applications. Vehicle segments with the most cost sensitivity like compacts under 1400 kg weight look for alternatives to meet the CO₂ challenge but maintain an attractive customer offering. In this paper the concepts of downsizing and downspeeding gasoline engines are explored while meeting performance needs through increased BMEP to maintain good driveability and vehicle launch dynamics. A critical enabler for the solution is adoption of gasoline direct injection (GDi) fuel systems.
Technical Paper

3 and 6 Years Old Child Anthropometry and Comparison with Crash Dummies

The objective of this paper is to compare the external anthropometry of 3 and 6 year old French children with the corresponding existing crash test dummies. An anthropometry study has been performed on about 70 (respectively 80) French children aged 3 years (respectively 6). More than 40 external measurements have been acquired on each subject. They include dimensions in standing and sitting positions: heights, lengths, circumferences, weight, etc. Mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximal values are given and compared with other existing international databases. From a global point of view, dimensions observed in this study appear 12% higher than in others. Dimensions are more specifically compared with corresponding crash test dummies in order to evaluate the validity of these anthropomorphic test devices.
Technical Paper

3 Wet Technology - A Novel Approach for Greener, Efficient, Smart Practice in Automotive Paint Application

The upcoming latest 3-wet Technology is the most ideal design for a Green field project as well as for a brown field facility which provides the best of both worlds. The foremost take away for a brown field project emanates from this technology which demands a smaller foot prints & hence could accommodates a capacity higher than what was perceived during the green field project planning thus saving millions of dollar of investment & giving that extra capacity which today the BRIC countries are thriving for. Apart from making the ideal investment choice, 3 Wet Technology provides impetus to business case in terms of reduction of VOC emission, Energy consumption, Material and labor cost and gaining on Green Environment front as well as leading to smart and Efficient-Paint-Process. The paper depicts the journey of roll out of 3-Wet process in Ford India and creating the bench mark in terms of product quality and process standards and manufacturing practices.
Technical Paper

3 Things Engineers Need to Know about Patents

Engineers need to have a basic understanding of intellectual property: patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets. This article is designed to serve as an introduction to patents as well as a guide for the technical professional who may or may not have the assistance of corporate legal counsel. Practical approaches to the three common issues that engineers are likely to get involved in: patent searching a product; avoiding patent infringement and protecting a new product idea are covered. Many facts about patents and intellectual property are introduced and a few myths are exposed.
Technical Paper

3 Load Cell Tumble Meter Development

This paper will describe the development of the 3-load cell tumble meter. This is a new method for measuring the tumble component of in-cylinder mixture motion. In-cylinder mixture motion is an important parameter for understanding and improving combustion stability of piston engines.
Technical Paper

3 D CAD/CAM Design of a 4 Valve 4 Cylinder Aluminum Head

Due to the requirements of the market, engine manufacturers and their suppliers must develop new products in a short lead time, with high quality, high reliability and lowest possible costs. A method to obtain a short lead time for a complicated aluminum cylinder head is the design in 3 D CAD and the use of simultaneous engineering. A practical example shows the design of a 16-valve cylinder head in 3 D CAD (Catia). The cylinder head supplier received a CAD-tape with the main dimensions such as valve locations, shape of the combustion chamber and ports and location of the bolts. A design team completed the cylinder head design in 3 D CAD in consideration of the needs for foundry technology, casting tool design and machining of the part. Special casting tools for the prototyping were manufactured parallel to the cylinder head design.
Technical Paper

3 A Split Power Continuously Variable Transmissions (SPCVT) for Bicycle Use

Fine packaging is important for the bicycle transmission design. We are proposing a split power continuously variable transmission (SPCVT) operated with one mode. The planetary gear unit (PGU) in the SPCVT consists of two epicyclic gear trains. Both epicyclic gear trains do not include any ring gears to minimize the overall diameter of the transmission. A variator is connected to the PGU as a type of variable bridge. The variator involves two rotor pairs contacting on concave-convex spherical surfaces. This new mechanism of the variator shows a strong possibility to get high power density in comparison with other existing traction drives. A four-bar linkage is used to locate the counter rotor assembly exactly in the contact points of the rotor pair and extend the range of variator speed ratio. The crank is pulled by the wire connected to the speed control lever on the handle of bicycle.
Technical Paper

3 - Valve Stratified Charge Engines: Evolvement, Analysis and Progression

A historical review of the patents and literature pertaining to 3-valve stratified charge engines is presented in this paper. This very old invention appears to be a practical approach for the “clean engine” being sought for vehicular use since it has the intrinsic capability of simultaneously giving good fuel economy and producing minimal objectionable exhaust emissions. The prime requisites of this engine are a rich prechamber charge and a very lean main chamber charge regardless of prechamber volume, nozzle diameter, valving and spark plug location. Fuel-air equivalence ratios of the charges in the two combustion chambers are significantly important in order to achieve the proper optimization. These ratios should be about 15% rich for the prechamber and 15 to 30% lean for the main chamber at the moment of ignition.

2nd AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference Proceedings (2003)

The AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference is the premier forum for truck, agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers to discuss powertrain technology challenges and solutions across their industries. The topics of the conference, which happens every two years, cover all five elements of a modern powertrain: engine, transmission, electric motor, battery and the electronic control which are used basically the same way in the quest for optimal efficiency and environmental compatibility. This event offers a unique opportunity for highly regarded professionals to address the synergy effects and distinctive characteristics of commercial vehicles, agricultural tractors and non-road vehicles, and industrial machinery. These proceedings include 21 papers from four categories of sessions: Setting the Scene; Different Worlds-Different Technologies; Engineering Partnerships and What Next in Development and Production.