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Technical Paper

A Case Study in Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing: Development of an ECU for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Ford Motor Company has recently implemented a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing system for a new, highly complex, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The implementation of this HIL system has been quick and effective, since it is based on proven Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) automation tools for real-time that allow for a very flexible and intuitive design process. An overview of the HIL system implementation process and the derived development benefits will be shown in this paper. The initial concept for the use of this HIL system was a complete closed-loop vehicle simulation environment for Vehicle System Controller testing, but the paper will show that this concept has evolved to allow for the use of the HIL system for many facets of the design process.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Applying a Product Line Approach for Car Periphery Supervision Systems

Car Periphery Supervision (CPS) systems comprise a family of automotive systems that are based on sensors installed around the vehicle to monitor its environment. The measurement and evaluation of sensor data enables the realization of several kinds of higher level applications such as parking assistance or blind spot detection. Although a lot of similarity can be identified among CPS applications, these systems are traditionally built separately. Usually, each single system is built with its own electronic control unit, and it is likely that the application software is bound to the controller's hardware. Current systems engineering therefore often leads to a large number of inflexible, dedicated systems in the automobile that together consume a large amount of power, weight, and installation space and produce high manufacturing and maintenance costs.
Technical Paper

A Case Study for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an Energy Decision Making Tool: The Production of Fuel Ethanol from Various Feedstocks

Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) considers the key environmental impacts for the entire life cycle of alternative products or processes in order to select the best alternative. An ideal LCA would be an expensive and time consuming process because any product or process typically involves many interacting systems and a considerable amount of data must be analysed for each system. Practical LCA methods approximate the results of an ideal analysis by setting limited analysis boundaries and by accepting some uncertainty in the data values for the systems considered. However, there is no consensus in the LCA field on the correct method of selecting boundaries or on the treatment of data set uncertainty. This paper demonstrates a new method of selecting system boundaries for LCA studies and presents a brief discussion on applying Monte Carlo Analysis to treat the uncertainty questions in LCA.
Technical Paper

A Case Study for Automotive Door Closing Effort Uncertainty Analysis based on Monte Carlo Simulation Method

Quality in the automotive industry means development and manufacturing of vehicles whose specifications meet customer requirements. Among many other quality issues, door closing effort is a vehicle characteristic that strongly affects the customer first opinion about vehicle design. The door closing effort is affected by uncertainties in materials and manufacturing processes. The present paper presents a reliability-based method to evaluate the uncertainties associated with door closing effort due to manufacturing processes. A formulation is proposed to calculate that energy based on three components: energy used to compress air into the vehicle, energy used to compress the sealing and energy used to lock the door. In order to quantify the probability that the door closing effort is greater than a target value, reliability analysis concepts are used based on the uncertainties associated to latch position.
Technical Paper

A Case Study About Side Door Closing Sound Quality

Side Door Closing Sound Quality is one of the first impressions a potential customer has about a vehicle. It can enhance an impression of robust and high quality vehicle. This paper is a study of Side Door Closing Sound of a specific vehicle model. The main objective is to understand how Door Closing Sound Quality varies over several vehicles samples and how to improve the design and/or production process in order to achieve better Sound Quality. Two vehicles (same model) with distinct performance have been chosen among several samples. Both have been evaluated and the physical differences are weighted to realize what really matter for Door Closing Sound Quality.
Technical Paper

A Case Comparison of Single-Image Photogrammetry Methods

Analytical reverse projection is introduced and is shown to offer an improvement in applicability and accuracy over other techniques of single-image photogrammetry, including plane-to-plane transformation and camera reverse-projection methods. A comparison of the methods is made on the basis of a single case of reconstructing missing tire tracks on a roadway intersection. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. THIS PAPER REVIEWS non-graphical techniques used to make measurements of features imaged in a single photograph. Two formulations of the plane-to-plane transformation method are re viewed, the camera reverse-projection technique is presented, and a third technique, called the analytical reverse-projection method, is introduced. Following a review of the various methods, including an indication of their advantages and disadvantages, each method is applied to the problem of relocating a set of tire tracks in an intersection.
Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
Technical Paper

A Cartridge Type Pivotal Pin and Bushing Joint

A cartridge type pivotal pin and bushing joint has been patented and is being tested and refined both in the laboratory and on construction machinery. It features “dry lubricated” (Teflon) bearings which are assembled and sealed prior to installation. It is suitable for heavy unit loads and use under severe wear conditions, such as in crawler track chains and loader bucket pivotal pin joints. A brief history of U. S. manufactured track pin joints is included to show the progress in extending the service life of these devices.
Technical Paper

A Carburetor Icing Field Test: Procedures and Results

The test procedures and some of the results obtained in a carburetor icing field test at Vancouver, British Columbia, during the Winter of 1962-1963 are described. One hundred twenty-nine cars were involved in the test which lasted approximately four months. A total of about 15,000 test runs was made. Fifty percent of the cars stalled at much higher rates under weather conditions conducive to carburetor icing than under other conditions. Thus, carburetor icing was found to be a significant field problem even with effective antiicing additives present in the gasoline. There was much variation among car makes in their tendencies to stall, indicating the possibilities of design improvements in reducing the problem. There was an indication that recent model cars stalled at lower rates than earlier models, showing that some improvement has been made.
Technical Paper

A Carbon Dioxide Sensor Based on cw- Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy

An optical sensor for the detection of carbon dioxide concentrations and stable isotope ratios is described. Either a continuous wave, fiber-coupled distributed feedback laser or an external cavity laser is used to pump an optical cavity absorption cell in cw-Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (cw-CRDS). This technique exploits the sensitivity enhancements provided by the long effective pathlength from the optical cavity created between two highly reflective mirrors (R>0.9999). The inherently high precision of the technique combined with its rapid data throughput allows for reliable measurements of both concentration and the isotopic composition of the sampled carbon dioxide. Data collected using a prototype of this sensor could be useful for monitoring module occupancy, crew health (through breath tests), and plant growth chambers.
Technical Paper

A Capillary Pump Loop Cooling System for the NICMOS Instrument

The Near Infrared Camera and Multi Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) was installed in the Hubble Space Telescope in February 1997. Shortly thereafter, the instrument experienced a thermal short in its solid nitrogen dewar system which will shorten its useful life significantly. A reverse Brayton cycle mechanical refrigerator will be installed during the third servicing mission (SM3) to provide cooling for the instrument, and thereby extend its life. A Capillary Pump Loop (CPL) and radiator system has been designed, built and tested to remove up to 500 watts of heat from the mechanical cooler and its electronics. This paper will describe the CPL system in detail and present the results of the extensive testing and qualification program.
Technical Paper

A Capacity Oriented Quality Assurance Method by Using Modular Containerized Test Cells

The requirements for diesel and gasoline engines are continuously increasing with respect to emissions, fuel consumption and durability. Besides the engine development process the quality of the production engine itself has to be ensured. This paper discusses alternative philosophies and approaches in terms of the quality management process. Based on a detailed analysis of the required equipment advanced solutions are presented. Modular containerized test cells are described being equipped exactly to the current testing task ready to use in low infrastructure. The testing capacity of the facility can be adjusted to the actual production volume by simply removing or adding modular test cells. Thus, at every facility the testing tasks can be executed successfully and the investment can be kept low.
Technical Paper

A Capacitive Oil Deterioration Sensor

There is a need for sensors that respond to chemical and physical properties of engine oil. In response to this need, an experimental design of an engine-mounted, capacitive sensor has been developed to monitor changes in the dielectric constant of the engine oil. The sensing element is a small, air-gap capacitor that is mounted in a spacer ring that fits between the oil filter and the engine block. Embedded in the same spacer ring is the associated circuitry. Experiments have been carried out with experimental capacitive oil sensors mounted on engines using a typical fully-formulated, factory-fill oil. The oil dielectric constant initially decreases and is less than the starting value while the anti-oxidant additives are active. After about 1600 km, the antioxidant additives become sufficiently depleted to allow oxidation products to accumulate and for the oil dielectric constant to increase at a steady rate of about 1% per 1000 km.
Technical Paper

A Capacitance Based Transducer to Detect Oil Leakage from the Turbine End of a Turbocharger

This paper describes the principle of operation of a novel capacitance based transducer which is employed in a bench mounted turbocharger to identify oil leakage from the “piston-ring” seal at the turbine end of the shaft. Some preliminary data relating to “vacuum-to-leak” conditions are presented along with graphs which illustrate the filling of the transducer. Finally, the design modifications which will be required if the transducer is to be used for leak detection in a turbocharger mounted on a firing engine, are briefly outlined.
Technical Paper

A Canopy Model for Plant Growth Within a Growth Chamber: Mass and Radiation Balance for the Above Ground Portion

As humans move into outer space, need for air, clean water and food require that green plants be grown within all planetary colonies. The complexities of ecosystems require a sophisticated understanding of the interactions between the atmosphere, all nutrients, and life forms. While many experiments must be done to find the relationships between mass flows and chemical/energy transformations, it seems necessary to develop generalized models to understand the limitations of plant growth. Therefore, it is critical to have a robust modelling capability to provide insight into potential problems as well as to direct efficient experimentation. Last year we reported on a simple leaf model which focused upon the mass transfer of gases, radiation/heat balances, and the production of photosynthetically produced carbohydrate. That model indicated some of the plant processes which had to be understood in order to obtain parameters specific for each species.
Technical Paper

A Canister Fuel Pump for General Aviation Aircraft

A new family of canister-type fuel pumps for use on both rotary and fixed-wing aircraft in general aviation use will be described. The pump, which features a wet-brush DC motor, offers advantages on aircraft where ease of maintenance and minimum downtime is very important. Major features of the new design, pump performance, and maintenance cost savings will be discussed.
Technical Paper

A Candidate for Linear Token-Passing, High-Speed Data Bus Systems

Future avionics systems will have distributed architectures requiring computers and data transfer systems that can perform real-time calculations and are fault tolerant. Previously developed data bus standards such as MIL-STD-1553 are inadequate for these applications. Existing standards will not meet the needs of the future. They are too slow; have functions that are single-point failures; do not take advantage of new technologies such as fiber optics; and have poor efficiency when applied to distributed architectures. To meet the needs of data buses for distributed, real-time, fault-tolerant architectures of the future, a candidate High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) protocol has been developed by the authors. This paper describes the performance characteristics of the candidate HSDB protocol including the following: Token-passing protocol. Token-passing best meets the needs because it is inherently distributed. Fiber optics implementation.
Technical Paper

A Candidate Electrical Power System for Next Generation Military Aircraft

An electrical system composed of an integral main engine electrical starter/generator and a power management and distribution system for a high performance more electric airplane is presented. The paper emphasizes the fault tolerance and high reliability requirements and discusses the necessary architecture to satisfy them. A number of critical technical issues associated with the more electric airplane, such as severe EMI environment, regenerative power, and system integration and stability are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Canadian Survey of Automobile Tire Pressures, Tire Failures, and Tire Maintenance Practices

The survey described herein was performed by Transport Canada in 1978 to obtain a nationally representative sample of tire pressures, to record driver maintenance habits, and to obtain cursory information on tire failures. Over 70 percent of the tires examined in the survey were underinflated, and as many as 37 percent were underinflated by 4.0 pounds per square inch (psi) or more. In addition, almost 90 percent of the vehicles examined had at least one tire that was underinflated, and almost 60 percent of the vehicles had at least one tire that was underinflated by 4.0 psi or more. Results are discussed in terms of driver maintenance practices and driver characteristics.