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Technical Paper

A CAN Based Real-Time Embedded System for DC Motor Control

This paper describes a design of a system that controls the speed and direction of a small DC motor though a network system. This work is important as large numbers of motors are employed inside a modern vehicle. Moreover most of the electronic devices inside a vehicle are networked through a Controller Area Network (CAN). The system uses commands from a CAN node and sends this message through a CAN bus to another CAN node which is controlling the DC motor. The system uses two Phytecs boards (Infineon C505C Microcontrollers based) and communicates through a CAN bus. The system bus is monitored with a Dearborn Protocol Adapter II (DPA-II). The system is broken into four major parts: two CAN nodes, the driver circuitry, and a feedback sensor. This paper provides detailed design, flow chart of the programs and testing of the system.
Technical Paper

A CAL3D Steering System Impact Model

An energy absorbing steering system model with the capability to simulate the impact response of components of the column has been developed. In order to be able to evaluate occupant crash response, this model has been implemented into the CAL3D occupant dynamics simulation program. In this implementation process, two required features, a slip joint and an enhanced spring-damper element, have been added into a GM proprietary version of CAL3D. The steering system model in CAL3D was verified with both a drop tower test and a mini-sled test.
Technical Paper

A CAE Study on Side Doors Inner Panel Deflection under Glass Stall Up Forces

Not only well-functioning, but also the way operating everyday items "feel", gauges costumer perception of an automobile robustness. To prevent costumer dissatisfaction with door trim panel movement when operating power windows, deflections must be kept small. Deflections of inner panel are seen through trim panel and are responsible for giving a flimsy idea of the door. In this paper, inner panel movement for a fully stamped door in full glass stall up position is analyzed. Through CAE analyses, inner panel behavior was compared, considering different types of reinforcement for belt region.
Technical Paper

A CAE Optimization Process for Vehicle High Frequency NVH Applications

A CAE SEA-based optimization process for the enhancement of vehicle high frequency NVH applications is developed and validated. The CAE simulation, based on statistical energy analysis (SEA) theory [1], has been used to analyze high frequency NVH responses for the vehicle sound package development. However, engineers have always faced two challenges during the vehicle SEA model development. One is to create a reliable SEA model, which is correlated well with hardware test data. The other is to have a systematic approach by using the correlated model to design effective and cost efficient sound package to improve vehicle interior quietness. The optimization process presented in this paper, which integrates analysis, design sensitivity, and optimization solver, has been developed to address the challenges and to serve the needs. A non-correlated Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) and a correlated midsize car models were used to demonstrate the capability of the proposed optimization process.
Technical Paper

A CAE Methodology to Simulate Testing a Rearward Facing Infant Seat during FMVSS 208 Low Risk Deployment

The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard or FMVSS 208 requires passenger cars, multi-purpose vehicles, trucks with less than unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg either to have an automatic suppression feature or to pass the injury criteria specified under low risk deployment test requirement for a 1 year old dummy in rearward and forward facing restraints as well as a forward facing 3 and 6 year old dummy. A convertible child seat was installed in a sub-system test buck representing a passenger car environment with a one-year- old dummy in it at the passenger side seat and a passenger side airbag was deployed toward the convertible child seat. A MADYMO model was built to represent the test scenario and the model was correlated and validated to the results from the experiment.
Technical Paper

A CAE Methodology for Reducing Rattle in Structural Components

Squeak and rattle has become a primary source of undesired noise in automobiles due to the continual diminishment of engine, power train and tire noise levels. This article presents a finite-element-based methodology for the improvement of rattle performance of vehicle components. For implementation purposes, it has been applied to study the rattle of a glove compartment latch and corner rubber bumpers. Results from the glove compartment study are summarized herein. Extensions to other rattle problems are also highlighted.
Technical Paper

A CAE Based Stochastic Assessment and Improvement of Vehicle NCAP Response

One of the primary issues in the interpretation of vehicle impact response data, observed from vehicle crash test events, is coping with variability. This vehicle response inconsistency generally causes test results to be unpredictable and makes CAE test validation work difficult as well. This paper, considering the uncertain characteristics of vehicle impact events, has implemented a stochastic assessment of vehicle NCAP response variation through a CAE vehicle impact model, and it has accomplished the three primary study objectives as stated follows: 1) Identify the response variation causing factors stochastically from various structural and environmental factor candidates and quantify the degree of their influences on crash response, 2) Develop a methodology for interpreting the significance of the factor effects in conjunction with vehicle impact mechanics and physics, and 3) Implement a stochastic improvement of the vehicle NCAP responses and their repeatability
Technical Paper

A CAE Approach towards Development of an Optimized Design of Bumper

During the conceptualization of vehicle, it is big challenge for automotive manufacturer to design a vehicle which has an excellent aesthetic looks as well as meet the stringent vehicle regulations. In the vehicle styling, bumper plays an important role in deciding of the contemporary looks of the vehicle. To improve customer satisfaction, it is important to design a bumper which provides feeling and sense of durability. In addition, bumper should sustain low-speed impact and protects the peripheral components such as parking lights, headlamps, hood, back door and safety related installed equipments like Rear parking camera, parking sensors, etc. Bumper should be dent resistant and be able to regain its original shape on removal of the applied load. An elegant design of bumper should be light weight with high strength. This paper explains about a new CAE methodology developed to simulate the real life loading condition of bumper and to calculate the deformation in the bumper.
Technical Paper

A CAD-Driven Flexible Forming System for Three-Dimensional Sheet Metal Parts

A novel system for the forming of three dimensional sheet metal parts is described that can form a variety of part shapes without the need for fixed tooling, and given only geometry (CAD) information about the desired part. The central elements of this system are a tooling concept based on a programmable discrete die surface and closed-loop shape control. The former give the process the degrees of freedom to change shape rapidly, and the latter is used to insure that the correct shape is formed with a minimum of forming trials. A 540 kN (60 ton) lab press has been constructed with a 0.3 m (12 in) square pair of discrete tools that can be rapidly re-shaped between forming trials. The shape control system uses measured part shapes to determine a shape error and to correct the tooling shape. This correction is based on a unique “Deformation Transfer Function” approach using a spatial frequency decomposition of the surface.
Technical Paper

A CAD-Based Tool for FDM and FEM Radiation and Conduction Modeling

Thermal engineering has long been left out of the concurrent engineering environment dominated by CAD (computer aided design) and FEM (finite element method) software. Current tools attempt to force the thermal design process into an environment primarily created to support structural analysis, which results in inappropriate thermal models. As a result, many thermal engineers either build models “by hand” or use geometric user interfaces that are separate from and have little useful connection, if any, to CAD and FEM systems. This paper describes the development of a new thermal design environment called the Thermal Desktop. This system, while fully integrated into a neutral, low cost CAD system, and which utilitizes both FEM and FD methods, does not compromise the needs of the thermal engineer.
Technical Paper

A CAD System to Conceptual Phase of Design

This work is concerned about the conception of computer programs to aid the process of mechanical design. Today it urges the development of systems that works further than the traditional areas dedicated by CAD systems (Computer Aided Design) that are the area of draft. CAD systems must aid in the conceptual phase of design. This paper presents the development of a software system as a solution to this problem in design field. It was developed in visual object oriented language, and it was split into 3 modules with tasks of: design process management, requirements determination and conception development.
Technical Paper

A CAD System for the Optimization of Gear Ratios for Automotive Automatic Transmissions

An interactive design system has been developed for the design of automatic automotive transmission gear trains that can provide at least three forward and one reverse speed ratios. This user-friendly windowing system can access help files, display the functional representation of a mechanism, optimize the gear ratios and present the numerical results. The optimization procedure to find the optimum gear ratios and the corresponding number of gear teeth uses the Augmented Lagrangian Multiplier Method and can be applied to all epicyclic gear trains having two sets of three gears in which a ring gear is connected to a sun gear through a planetary gear. The Simpson and General Motors THM 440 gear trains are used to demonstrate the methodology. The gear teeth combinations are found such that they achieve the optimized gear ratios to within ±1% and satisfy the geometric constraints.
Technical Paper

A CAD Interface for a Chemical Process Design Package

FLOWTRAN and PROCESS are engineering design packages which simulate the steady state operation of units commonly used in the chemical and petroleum industries. Given a rigorously structured data input file, these packages calculate stream properties (flow rate, composition, etc.) and unit design variables (distillation column size, pump rpm, etc.). FLOW.CPL has been developed to provide a graphical interface that will generate a FLOWTRAN compatible input file using the MEDUSA CAD system. The CAD model is built by interactively abstracting elements (representing unit operations) from a symbol library and placing them on a MEDUSA drawing sheet. The connectivity between the unit operations is provided by the user simply by connecting inputs to outputs. Additional stream information (temperature, pressure, composition, etc.) is provided by using associative blocks called clumps.
Technical Paper

A Business View of the Recycling of Plastics from Durable Goods

The recycling of plastics from end of useful life durable goods continues to evolve as an issue. Recycle strategies need to be based on a careful understanding of sustainability for both the environmental and business domains. The definitions and processes utilized in a recycle program can dramatically affect the economic structure. These recycle programs need to be carefully constructed to minimize cash costs. There is an emerging industry, recyclers, who may become an important link in the recycle supply chain.
Technical Paper

A Business Intelligence tool implementation to support in automotive industry

The automotive industry is very changeable. Factors as globalization, merges and acquisitions, competition between institutions and te0chnological innovation, had forced the company automotives to rethink its businesses. Several of these companies have used software of “Business Intelligence” (BI) for helping them to gain advantage competitive. This article more specifically shows the viability of the implementation of the tool of BI for support to the automobile industry in spare the logistic area of parts and new automobiles.
Technical Paper

A Business Approach to Buying Trucks

The paper discusses the fact that in a year when economic conditions might be saying “don't buy”, there may be good business reasons to buy trucks. It is based on a study made with the cooperation of a truck operator who permitted the analysis of all aspects of his operation. After the study, the operator did buy trucks in a year when, on the surface, it appeared new truck purchases wouldn't be justified because of economic conditions. The operator also changed his buying pattern from his past practice of glider kitting trucks for replacement and buying new trucks only for expansion.
Technical Paper

A Business Aircraft View to the Future

The business jet aircraft market continues to be a strong and growing market. Products must satisfy unique customer requirements. Significant competition in the market creates an entrepreneurial atmosphere that promotes aeronautical innovation. Examples of recent advancements are discussed. The expectation of dramatic future advances occurring within the business aircraft environment is unavoidable.
Technical Paper

A Bus-Controlled Audio Power Amplifier with Diagnostics

With the large number of power amplifiers used in todays car radios and boosters, there is a growing need to control the amplifier by the microcontroller that is usually available in such large systems. The microcontroller should be able to control the mute and standby functions of the amplifier, and should be able to read out diagnostic information. This information could concern short circuited outputs, high chip temperature, or distortion due to output voltage clipping. The TDA1551 is a dual 22 W or quad 6 W audio power amplifier that has all these features. It has an on-chip I2C bus interface. This paper deals with the I2C bus protocol only briefly. Special attention is paid to the interfaces between the analog and digital circuits. The amplifiers may be used independently. The fact that they share the same encapsulation requires some attention with the design of the external heat sink, especially when the amplifiers are unevenly loaded.
Technical Paper

A Bus for Denver’s Mall

A unique shuttle bus is being constructed by Minicars, Inc., and Walter Vetter Karosserie-werk for Denver’s Transitway/Mall. The bus is designed for frequent stop, low speed service in a downtown pedestrian environment. It features a very low floor and multiple wide doors for rapid passenger boarding and deboarding. Two versions will be supplied for comparative evalation, a low noise diesel configuration and a battery-electric configuration. Either version can subsequently be converted to the alternative propulsion system.
Technical Paper

A Bus Fleet - Maintenance Routines and Controls

A broad look at the Cleveland Transit System inspection program is given, showing the types of inspections performed and the forms that are used with those inspections. The major reports and records of the system are also covered and their use by several echelons of management described. Of special interest is the method used in collecting mileage.