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Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Hole Punching Force for AHSS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0802
The elevated strength of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) leads to enormous challenges for the sheet metal processing, one of which is hole punching operation. The total tonnage must be estimated at each trimming stage to ensure successful cutting and protect the press machine. This paper presents the effects of hole punch configurations on the punching force with the consideration of punch shape, cutting clearance and material grade. The hole punching experiments were performed with DP590, DP980, DP1180 and one mild steel as a reference. The punching force coefficient is defined and presents a negative correlation with the material strength based on the experimental data. Surface quality was examined to analyze the damage accumulation during the punching process. The cutting mechanisms with various punch shapes were revealed through an extensive finite element simulation study.
Technical Paper

A Material Efficiency Ratio to Evaluate the Methods for Improving the Torsional Rigidity of a Pickup Chassis Frame

2018-04-03
2018-01-1024
While offering improved crash worthiness and significant lightweighting opportunities, the increased use of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) may compromise the stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles due to reduced part thickness. Different methods to improve the torsional rigidity were studied on a pickup chassis frame. These methods include adding bulkhead pairs as reinforcement, increasing the thicknes of frame parts, and enlarging the closed sections on the rails. Structural optimization was conducted for each stiffness improvement method and the minimal mass increase required to reach the improvement targets was obtained. A material efficiency ratio μ is proposed in this research and used as a criterion to evaluate the efficiency of a mass increase to improve the structural stiffness and NVH characteristics of vehicles. Based on this parameter, the methods to improve the torsional rigidity of the pickup frame in all design spaces were evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Method of Evaluating the Joint Effectiveness on Contribution to Global Stiffness and NVH Performance of Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-0376
While Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and the next generation AHSS grades offer improved crash safety and reduced weight for vehicles, the global stiffness and NVH performance are often compromised due to reduced material thickness. This paper discusses an advanced method of evaluating the joint effectiveness on contribution to global stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles. A stiffness contribution ratio is proposed initiatively in this research, which evaluates the current contribution of the joints to the global stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles. Another parameter, joint effectiveness factor, has been used to study the potential of each joint on enhancing the global stiffness. The critical joints to enhance the vehicle stiffness and NVH performance can be identified based on above two parameters, and design changes be made to those critical joints to improve the vehicle performance.
Journal Article

A New Combined Isotropic, Kinematic and Cross Hardening Model for Advanced High Strength Steel under Non-Linear Strain Loading Path

2017-03-28
2017-01-0367
A fully modularized framework was established to combine isotropic, kinematic, and cross hardening behaviors under non-monotonic loading conditions for advanced high strength steels. Experiments under the following types of non-proportional loading conditions were conducted, 1) uniaxial tension-compression-tension/compression-tension-compression full cycle reversal loading, 2) uniaxial reversal loading with multiple cycles, and 3) reversal shear. The calibrated new model is decoupled between isotropic and kinematic hardening behaviors, and independent on both anisotropic yield criterion and fracture model. Nine materials were calibrated using the model, include: DP590, DP600, DP780, TRIP780, DP980LY, QP980, AK Steel DP980, TBF1180, and AK Steel DP1180. Good correlation was observed between experimental and modeled results.
Technical Paper

A Tailor Welded Blanks Design of Automotive Front Rails by ESL Optimization for Crash Safety and Lightweighting

2018-04-03
2018-01-0120
Utilizing the tailor welded blanks (TWBs) design along with the latest AHSS grades for the front rails on a sedan was studied to reduce the weight of the vehicle and improve the crash safety performance. To find the most efficient material usage, the front rail parts were tailored into multiple blanks with varying thickness. A structural thickness optimization study of the tailored front rails was conducted for IIHS moderate overlap frontal crash, and the tailored blank thickness was set as design variable. The equivalent static loads (ESL) method was adopted for the thickness optimization, which allows many design variables to be optimized simultaneously. The torsion and bending stiffness of the sedan body in prime were set as design constraints, and would not be compromised. The optimal thickness configurations of the TWB designs by ESL optimization suggest that the weight of the frontal rails can be reduced by more than 30% while still maintaining the crash safety performance.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Model for Spring-Back Prediction in U-Channel Forming with Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0805
Spring-back phenomena are critical in stamping procedures for advanced high strength steel. An analytical model is developed to predict the spring-back effect for a U-channel part with post-stretching process. The stress distribution is obtained by direct application of material constitutive relationship. The subjected loading conditions are sequentially bending, (un-bending), and uniform stretching, based on different zones in the part. Both the loading history and the friction effects are considered in the model. The bending moments are obtained to generate a theoretical spring-back shape. Great performance in spring-back control is achieved by applying certain high level of external forces. FE simulation is conducted for the identical stamping process with post-stretching. Good correlation is observed between the analytical and numerical solutions/experimental results under various scenarios.
Technical Paper

Application of Advanced High Strength Stainless Steel for Mass Reduction in Automotive Structures - A Front Bumper Beam Case Study

2011-04-12
2011-01-1054
The front bumper of a current production vehicle, which is made of hot-stamped 15B21 aluminized steel, was studied for mass and cost reductions using the Advanced High Strength Stainless Steel product NITRONIC® 30 (UNS Designation S20400) manufactured by AK Steel Corporation. This grade of stainless steel offers a combination of high ductility and strength, which was utilized to significantly modify the design of the bumper beam to incorporate geometry changes that improved its stiffness and strength. The structural performance of the bumper assembly was evaluated using LS-Dyna-based CAE simulations of the IIHS 40% Offset Full-Vehicle Impact at 40 mph with a deformable barrier, and the IIHS Full Width Centerline 6 mph Low-Speed Impact. Optimization of the bumper beam shape and gauge was performed using a combination of manual design iterations and a multi-objective optimization methodology using LS-Opt.
Technical Paper

Effects of Punch Shapes and Cutting Configurations on the Dimensional Accuracy of Punched Holes on an AHSS Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0800
Dimensional accuracy of punched hole is an essential consideration for high-quality sheet metal forming. An out-of-shape hole can give rise to manufacturing issues in the subsequent production processes thus inducing quality defects on a vehicle body. To understand the effects of punch shapes and cutting configurations on punched hole diameter deviations, a systematical experimental study was conducted for multiple types of AHSS (DP1180, DP980, DP590) and one mild steel. Flat, conical and rooftop punches were tested respectively with three cutting clearances on each material. The measurement results indicated different diameter enlargement modes based on the punch profiles, and dimensional discrepancies were found to be more significant with the stronger materials and higher cutting clearance. To uncover the mechanism of punched hole enlargement, a series of finite element simulations were established for numerical investigation.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Tailgates with Stainless Steel

2004-03-08
2004-01-0883
To meet the automotive industry's increasing demand for lighter, more cost efficient products, AK Steel Corporation sees stainless steel as an effective material for structural components, including many light-weight body applications. With this in mind, AK Steel commissioned Troy, MI based Altair Engineering Inc. to design a lightweight tailgate using stainless steel that was easier to open and more resistant to dent and corrosion damage. The concept was designed to meet or exceed the performance of a current production carbon steel tailgate. This stainless steel design resulted in a 38% weight reduction over the carbon steel tailgate and can be a more cost-effective solution to aluminum or other alternative light-weight materials.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Optimal Rooftop Punch Shape for Force Reduction and Dimensional Accuracy Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1091
The rooftop punch is proposed to reduce the maximum cutting force during the trimming operation for advanced high strength steels (AHSS), by introducing a shearing angle at the tool edge. However, such non-simultaneous shearing mechanism results in the inconsistent deformation around the hole perimeter, and consequently affects the dimensional accuracy of the trimmed hole. A numerical study was conducted to investigate the effects of punch tipping angle and tipping heights on the force reduction and dimensional discrepancies. The 60mm hole punching operation for DP 1180 (1.2mm) material was simulated with finite element analysis. The tipping height was reduced by introducing flat portions to the rooftop punch and it can mitigate the material deformation difference before trimming. The results showed tipping height played a significant role of dimensional accuracy control by adopting small tipping angle and broad flat portions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Twist Spring-back Control with an Unbalanced Post-stretching Approach for Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0806
Twist spring-back would interfere with stamping or assembling procedures for advanced high strength steel. A “homeopathic” resolution for controlling the twist spring-back is proposed using unbalanced post-stretching configuration. Finite element forming simulation is applied to evaluate and compare the performance for each set of unbalanced post-stretching setup. The post-stretching is effectuated by stake bead application. The beads are separated into multiple independent segments, the height and radii of which can be adjusted individually and asymmetrically. Simulation results indicate that the twist spring-back can be effectively controlled by reducing the post-stretching proximate to the asymmetric part area. Its mechanism is qualitatively revealed by stress analyses, that an additional but acceptable cross-sectional spring-back re-balances the sprung asymmetrical geometry to counter the twist effect.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Edge Preparation Method on the Hole Expansion Performance of Automotive Sheet Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1167
Edge stretching performance was assessed with the conical-punch hole expansion test for a variety of automotive sheet steels. Included were: an ultra-low carbon IF steel, a dual-phase advanced high strength steel (DP 980), an austenitic stainless steel (204), an annealed martensitic stainless steel (410 AN), and a ferritic stainless steel (429 MOD). Various hole fabrication methods were considered: conventional piercing (shearing), water-jet cutting and laser cutting. With pierced holes, no effect of shearing clearance on the hole expansion ratio (HER) was observed. The dual-phase steel and the austenitic stainless steel exhibited relatively low hole expansion performance in the pierced-hole condition (HER ≤ 50%). However, these materials demonstrated tremendous potential for improvement with alternative edge preparation methods, and both benefitted more from laser cutting than from water-jet cutting.
Technical Paper

Tooling Effects on Edge Stretchability of AHSS in Mechanical Punching

2019-04-02
2019-01-1086
Edge stretchability reduction induced by mechanical trimming is a critical issue in advanced high strength steel applications. In this study, the tooling effects on the trimmed edge damage were evaluated by the specially designed in-plane hole expansion test with the consideration of three punch geometries (flat, conical, and rooftop), three cutting clearances (6%, 14%, and 20%) and two materials grades (DP980 and DP1180). Two distinct fracture initiation modes were identified with different testing configurations, and the occurrence of each fracture mode depends on the tooling configurations and materials grades. Digital Image Correlations (DIC) measurements indicate the materials are subject to different deformation modes and the various stress conditions, which result in different fracture initiation locations.
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