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Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Remote Connectivity to Automotive Communication Networks

This paper describes a case study led by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) of Dayton, OH USA and Dearborn Group Inc. to prove the feasibility of employing Telematics technologies to the vehicle test and measurement industry. Many test functions can be automated through the use of secure wireless technologies. For example, vehicle data can be dynamically monitored on the vehicle and data meeting pre-determined criteria could be downloaded via the wireless communications center. Additionally, central, real-time wireless monitoring of vehicle fleets provides the vehicle fleet manager with the ability to manage multiple tests simultaneously, thus improving efficiencies and potentially reducing manpower costs and compressing test schedules.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Burn Characteristics and Exhaust Emissions from Off-Highway Engines Fueled by E0 and E85

Ethanol fuel has received renewed attention in recent years because of its oxygenate content and its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from spark ignition engines. The economic impact on farm industry has been one of the drivers for its use in engines in the U.S. Although ethanol, in various blends, has been used in automotive engines for almost a decade the fuel has seldom been utilized in off-highway engines where the fuel systems are not well controlled. This investigation was conducted to evaluate exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of E85 fuel in an off-highway engine used in farm equipment. A single-cylinder, four-stroke, spark ignition engine equipped with a carburetor was used to investigate combustion and exhaust emissions produced by gasoline and blends of gasoline and ethanol fuels. The engine fuel system was modified to handle flow rates required by the engine. A variable size-metering orifice was used to control air-to-fuel ratios.
Technical Paper

A Complete Li-Ion Battery Simulation Model

Due to growing interest in hybrid and electric vehicles, li-ion battery modeling is receiving a lot of attention from designers and researchers. This paper presents a complete model for a li-ion battery pack. It starts from the Newman electrochemistry model to create the battery performance curves. Such information is then used for cell level battery equivalent circuit model (ECM) parameter identification. 28 cell ECMs are connected to create the module ECM. Four module ECMs are connected through a busbar model to create the pack ECM. The busbar model is a reduced order model (ROM) extracted from electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) results, taking into account the parasitic effects. Battery thermal performance is simulated first by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Then, a thermal linear and time-invariant (LTI) ROM is created out of CFD solution. The thermal LTI ROM is then two-way coupled with the battery pack ECM to form a complete battery pack model.
Technical Paper

A Detailed Computational Analysis of Cavitating and Non-Cavitating High Pressure Diesel Injectors

Demands for higher power engines have led to higher pressures in fuel injectors. Internal nozzle flow plays a critical role in the near nozzle flow and subsequent spray pattern. The internal flow becomes more difficult to model when the injector pressure and internal shape make it more prone to cavitation. Two Bosch injectors, proposed for experimental and computational studies under the Engine Combustion Network (namely “Spray C” and “Spray D”) are modeled in the computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS Fluent. Both injectors operate with n-dodecane as fuel at 150 MPa inlet pressures. The computational model includes cavitation effects to characterize any cavitating regions. Including compressibility of both liquid and vapor is found to be critical. Also, due to high velocity gradients and stresses in the nozzle, turbulent viscous energy dissipation is considered along with pressure work resulting from significant pressure changes in the injector.
Technical Paper

A Fitting Algorithm for Determination of Minimum Zone Form Tolerances

In this paper, a new algorithm, named Nonlinear Optimization Method (NOM) has been mathematically and computationally developed for several geometric elements. The initial condition of the NOM is obtained by LSM, then the minimum zone is optimized in accordance with tolerancing principles in ANSI Y14.5.1M. The results are verified to be the Minimum Zone Evaluation (MZE) for the inspected geometric features. The algorithm, together with its computational realization programs, are proved to be considerably reliable and robust for practical applications.
Journal Article

A Linear Parameter Varying Combined with Divide-and-Conquer Approach to Thermal System Modeling of Battery Modules

A linear parameter varying (LPV) reduced order model (ROM) is used to approximate the volume-averaged temperature of battery cells in one of the modules of the battery pack with varying mass flow rate of cooling fluid using uniform heat source as inputs. The ROM runs orders of magnitude faster than the original CFD model. To reduce the time it takes to generate training data, used in building LPV ROM, a divide-and-conquer approach is introduced. This is done by dividing the battery module into a series of mid-cell and end-cell units. A mid-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between two half -cells. A half-cell has half as much heat capacity as a full-cell. An end-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between full-cell and a half-cell. A mass flow rate distribution look-up-table is generated from a set of steady-state simulations obtained by running the full CFD model at different inlet manifold mass flow rate samples.
Technical Paper

A Model Parameter Identification Method for Battery Applications

Due to growing interest in hybrid and electric vehicles, the battery, being one of the critical components, is receiving a lot of attention from designers and researchers. Two battery-modeling approaches, though seemingly different, share the same mathematical challenge of robust non-linear curve-fitting. The two methods are battery equivalent circuit model and battery system level thermal modeling using the linear time-invariant (LTI) method. Both modeling approaches involve curve-fitting testing data or data from advanced models to identify four parameters in a circuit model consisting of two pairs of RC elements. Such curve-fitting is mathematically a non-linear least-squares (LS) problem. Standard methods like the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method can be used for non-linear curve-fitting, but the LM method is known to be sensitive to initial conditions.
Technical Paper

A Modular Designed Three-phase ~98%-Efficiency 5kW/L On-board Fast Charger for Electric Vehicles Using Paralleled E-mode GaN HEMTs

Most of the present electric vehicle (EV) on-board chargers utilize a conventional design, i.e., a boost-type Power Factor Correction (PFC) controller followed by an isolated DC/DC converter. Such design usually yields a ~94% wall-to-battery efficiency and 2~3kW/L power density at most, which makes a high-power charger, e.g., 20kW module difficult to fit in the vehicle. As described in this paper, first, an E-mode GaN HEMT based 7.2kW single-phase charger was built. Connecting three such modules to the three-phase grid allows a three-phase >20kW charger to be built, which compared to the conventional three-phase charger, saves the bulky DC-bus capacitor by using the indirect matrix converter topology. To push the efficiency and power density to the limit, comprehensive optimization is processed to optimize the single-phase module through incorporating the GaN HEMT switching performance and securing its zero-voltage switching.
Technical Paper

A Multi-disciplinary and Multi-scale Simulation-Based Approach for the Design of Control Systems

This paper introduces a model-based systems and embedded software engineering, workflow for the design of control systems. The interdisciplinary approach that is presented relies on an integrated set of tools that addresses the needs of various engineering groups, including system architecture, design, and validation. For each of these groups, a set of best practices has been established and targeted tools are proposed and integrated in a unique platform, thus allowing efficient communication between the various groups. In the initial stages of system design, including functional and architectural design, a SysML-based approach is proposed. This solution is the basis to develop systems that have to obey both functional and certification standards such as ARINC 653 (IMA) and ARP 4754A. Detailed system design typically requires modeling and simulation of each individual physical component of the system by various engineering groups (mechanical, electrical, etc.).
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Computer System for the Control of Refrigerant Flow

This paper presents a real-time computer system for the control of refrigerant flow in an automotive air conditioning system. This is an experimental system used to investigate the potential advantages of electronic flow control over conventional flow control (using an orifice tube or thermal expansion valve). Two features of this system are presented. First, the system organization is described. Second, the control and interface software are presented. The emphasis is on the software. The system is organized as a closed loop control system. The inputs to the controller are measurements of the refrigerant system. In particular, thermocouples are used to measure the refrigerant temperature before and after the evaporator. The analog thermocouple signals are converted to digital form by an off-the-shelf, portable, data acquisition system (DAQ). Via a parallel port link, these digital measurements are transfered to a laptop computer.
Technical Paper

A Rear Spoiler of a New Type that Reduces the Aerodynamic Forces on a Mini-Van

The Low Mass Vehicle (LMV) that is a minivan designed to compete with the Toyota Echo but with 30% less mass has been used for the research in the Institute for Advanced Vehicle Systems. To reduce the aerodynamic forces on the LMV, the present authors have developed a rear spoiler of a new type based on the principles of fluid dynamics and through numerical computations. This new spoiler has been developed in such a way that the aerodynamic drag as well as lift on vehicles having a bluff back can be reduced when the new spoiler is attached to them. Numerical simulations show that the aerodynamic drag and lift on the LMV moving at 30 m/s reduce by 5 % and more than 100 %, respectively, when the new spoiler is attached to it.
Technical Paper

A State Space Thermal Model for HEV/EV Battery Modeling

Battery thermal management for high power applications such as electrical/hybrid vehicles is crucial. Modeling is an indispensable tool to help engineers design better battery cooling systems. While Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used quite successfully for battery thermal management, CFD models can be too large and too slow for repeated transient thermal analysis especially for a battery module or pack. An accurate but much smaller battery thermal model using a state space representation is proposed. The parameters in the state space model are extracted from CFD results. The state space model is then shown to provide identical results as those from CFD under transient power inputs. While a CFD model may take hours to run depending on the size of the problem, the corresponding state space model runs in seconds.
Technical Paper

A Structural Stress Recovery Procedure for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

Over the decades, several attempts have been made to develop new fatigue analysis methods for welded joints since most of the incidents in automotive structures are joints related. Therefore, a reliable and effective fatigue damage parameter is needed to properly predict the failure location and fatigue life of these welded structures to reduce the hardware testing, time, and the associated cost. The nodal force-based structural stress approach is becoming widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. In this paper, a new nodal force-based structural stress recovery procedure is proposed that uses the least squares method to linearly smooth the stresses in elements along the weld line. Weight function is introduced to give flexibility in choosing different weighting schemes between elements. Two typical weighting schemes are discussed and compared.
Technical Paper

A Transportable Instrumentation Package for In-Vehicle On-Road Data Collection for Driver Research

We present research in progress to develop and implement a transportable instrumentation package (TIP) to collect driver data in a vehicle. The overall objective of the project is to investigate the symbiotic relationship between humans and their vehicles. We first describe the state-of-art technologies to build the components of TIP that meet the criteria of ease of installation, minimal interference with driving, and sufficient signals to monitor driver state and condition. This method is a viable alternative to current practice which is to first develop a fully instrumented test vehicle, often at great expense, and use it to collect data from each participant as he/she drives a prescribed route. Another practice, as for example currently being used in the SHRP-2 naturalistic driving study, is to install the appropriate instrumentation for data collection in each individual's vehicle, often requiring several hours.
Technical Paper

A Value Analysis Tool for Automotive Interior Door Trim Panel Materials and Process Selection

This paper describes a computerized value analysis tool (VAT) developed to aid automotive interior designers, engineers and planners to achieve the high levels of perceived quality of materials used in automotive door trim panels. The model requires a number of inputs related to types of materials, their manufacturing processes and customer perceived quality ratings, costs and importance of materials, features located in different areas of the door trim panel, etc. It allows the user to conduct iterative evaluation of total cost, total weighted customer perceived quality ratings, and estimates of perceived value (perceived quality divided by cost) for different door trim areas as well as the entire door trim panel. The VAT, thus, allows value and cost management related to materials and processing choices for automotive interiors.
Technical Paper

Accurate and Dynamic Accounting of Fuel Composition in Flame Propagation During Engine Simulations

A methodology has been implemented to calculate local turbulent flame speeds for spark ignition engines accurately and on-the-fly in 3-D CFD modeling. The approach dynamically captures fuel effects, based on detailed chemistry calculations of laminar flame speeds. Accurately modeling flame propagation is critical to predicting heat release rates and emissions. Fuels used in spark ignition engines are increasingly complex, which necessitates the use of multi-component fuels or fuel surrogates for predictive simulation. Flame speeds of the individual components in these multi-component fuels may vary substantially, making it difficult to define flame speed values, especially for stratified mixtures. In addition to fuel effects, a wide range of local conditions of temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and EGR are expected in spark ignition engines.
Journal Article

Active Thermal Management with a Dual Mode Coolant Pump

A GT-suite commercial code was used to develop a fully integrated model of a light duty commercial vehicle with a V6 diesel engine, to study the use of a BorgWarner dual mode coolant pump (DMCP) in active thermal management of the vehicle. An Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) was used to validate the simulation results with the experimental data. The conventional mechanical pump from the validated model was then replaced with the dual mode coolant pump. The control algorithm for the pump was based on controlling the coolant temperature with pump speed. Maximum electrical speed of the pump and the efficiency of the pump were used to determine whether the pump should run in mechanical or electrical mode. The model with the dual mode coolant pump was simulated for the UDDS cycle to demonstrate the effectiveness of control strategy.
Technical Paper

Alternate Approach: Acoustics and Cooling Performance Management

Development of quick and efficient numerical tools is key to the design of industrial machines. While Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques based on Navier Stokes (N-S) and Lattice Boltzman methods are becoming popular, predicting aeroacoustic behavior for complex geometries remains computationally intensive for design process and iteration. The goal of this paper is to evaluate application Navier-Stokes approach coupled with Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H), and Broad-band Noise Model (BNS) to evaluate noise levels and predict design direction for industrial applications. Steady-state RANS based approaches are used to evaluate under-hood cooling performance and fan power demand. At each design iteration, noise levels and strength of noise source are evaluated using Gutin’s and broad-band noise models, respectively along with cooling performance. Each design feature selected for the final design has lower fan power and noise level with improved cooling.
Technical Paper

An Accurate, Extensive, and Rapid Method for Aerodynamics Optimization: The 50:50:50 Method

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used in vehicle aerodynamics development today, but typically used to study one vehicle shape at a time. In order to be used for aerodynamic shape exploration and optimization the CFD simulation process has to be able to study a large set of design alternatives (vehicle shape variants) within the short period of time typically available in the overall aerodynamics development process. This paper reports the development and testing of a process, referred to as the 50:50:50 Method, which is developed to study a large set of design alternatives in a highly automated way, while ensuring that each design alternative is simulated with a high fidelity CFD simulation.