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Technical Paper

360° vs. 270° vs. 180°: The Difference of Balancing a 2 Cylinder Inline Engine: Design, Simulation, Comparative Measurements

2012-10-23
2012-32-0106
Beside the automotive industry, where 2-cylinder inline engines are catching attention again, twin-cylinder configurations are quite usual in the small engine world. From stationary engines and range-extender use to small motorcycles up to big cruisers and K-Cars this engine architecture is used in many types of applications. Because of very good overall packaging, performance characteristics and not least the possibility of parts-commonality with 4-cylinder engines nearly every motorcycle manufacturer provides an inline twin in its model range. Especially for motorcycle applications where generally the engine is a rigid member of the frame and vibrations can be transferred directly to the rider an appropriate balancing system is required.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study on Different System Level Engine Simulation Models

2013-04-08
2013-01-1116
Engine simulation can be performed using model approaches of different depths in capturing physical effects. The present paper presents a comprehensive comparison study on seven different engine models. The models range from transient 1D cycle resolved approaches to steady-state non-dimensional maps. The models are discussed in the light of key features, amount and kind of required input data, model calibration effort and predictability and application areas. The computational performance of the different models and their capabilities to capture different transient effects is investigated together with a vehicle model under real-life driving conditions. In the trade-off field of model predictability and computational performance an innovative approach on crank-angle resolved cylinder modeling turned out to be most beneficial.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on the Impact of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Fluctuations on Fuel Consumption and Knock in Steady-State and Drivecycle Operation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0030
In spark-ignition engines, fluctuations of the in-cylinder pressure trace and the apparent rate of heat release are usually observed from one cycle to another. These Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) are affected by the early flame development and the subsequent flame front propagation. The CCV are responsible for engine performance (e.g. fuel consumption) and the knock behavior. The occurrence of the phenomena is unpredictable and the stochastic nature offers challenges in the optimization of engine control strategies. In the present work, CCV are analyzed in terms of their impact on the engine knock behavior and the related efficiency. Target is to estimate the possible fuel consumption savings in steady-state operation and in the drivecycle, when CCV are reduced. Since CCV are immanent on real engines, such a study can only be done by means of simulation.
Journal Article

A Hybrid Development Process for NVH Optimization and Sound Engineering Considering the Future Pass-by Homologation Demands

2016-11-08
2016-32-0043
Beside hard facts as performance, emissions and fuel consumption especially the brand specific attributes such as styling and sound are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To develop these emotional characters, within the given boundary conditions of the future pass-by regulation, it is necessary to define them at the very beginning of the project and to follow a consequent development process. The following paper shows examples of motorcycle NVH development work on noise cleaning and sound engineering using a hybrid development process combining front loading, simulation and testing. One of the discussed solutions is the investigation of a piston pin offset in combination with a crankshaft offset for the reduction of friction. The optimization of piston slap noise as a result of the piston secondary motion was performed by simulation. As another example a simulation based development was performed for the exhaust system layout.
Technical Paper

A Scalable Simulation Method for the Assessment of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Variations and their impact on Fuel Consumption and Knock

2015-01-14
2015-26-0213
In the present work, a scalable simulation methodology is presented that enables the assessment of the impact of SI-engine cycle-to-cycle combustion variations on fuel consumption and hence CO2 emissions on three different levels of modeling depth: in-cylinder, steady-state engine and transient engine and vehicle simulation. On the detailed engine combustion chamber level, a 3D-CFD approach is used to study the impact of the turbulent in-cylinder flow on the cycle-resolved flame propagation characteristics. On engine level, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations are assessed regarding their impact on indicated mean effective pressure, aiming at estimating the possible fuel consumption savings when cyclic variations are minimized. Finally, on the vehicle system level, a combined real-time engine approach with crank-angle resolved cylinder is used to assess the potential fuel consumption savings for different vehicle drivecycle conditions.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Injection and Combustion with Dimethyl Ether

2015-04-14
2015-01-0932
DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been known to be an outstanding fuel for combustion in diesel cycle engines for nearly twenty years. DME has a vapour pressure of approximately 0.5MPa at ambient temperature (293K), thus it requires pressurized fuel systems to keep it in liquid state which are similar to those for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (mixtures of propane and butane). The high vapour pressure of DME permits the possibility to optimize the fuel injection characteristic of direct injection diesel engines in order to achieve a fast evaporation and mixing with the charged gas in the combustion chamber, even at moderate fuel injection pressures. To understand the interrelation between the fuel flow inside the nozzle spray holes tests were carried out using 2D optically accessed nozzles coupled with modelling approaches for the fuel flow, cavitation, evaporation and the gas dynamics of 2-phase (liquid and gas) flows.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Effect of Fuel Injection System Improvements on the Injection and Combustion of DiMethyl Ether in a Diesel Cycle Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2658
For nearly twenty years, DiMethyl Ether has been known to be an outstanding fuel for combustion in diesel cycle engines. Not only does it have a high Cetane number, it burns absolutely soot free and produces lower NOx exhaust emissions than the equivalent diesel. However, the physical properties of DME such as its low viscosity, lubricity and bulk modulus have negative effects for the fuel injection system, which have both limited the achievable injection pressures to about 500 bar and DME's introduction into the market. To overcome some of these effects, a common rail fuel injection system was adapted to operate with DME and produce injection pressures of up to 1000 bar. To understand the effect of the high injection pressure, tests were carried out using 2D optically accessed nozzles. This allowed the impact of the high vapour pressure of DME on the onset of cavitation in the nozzle hole to be assessed and improve the flow characteristics.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Engine Dynamics Under Transient Run-Up Conditions

2004-03-08
2004-01-1454
The target of dynamic simulation is to investigate complex engine dynamic behavior in the whole speed range under different loading conditions in the most effective way during Engine Development Process (EDP). AVL has developed a method for transient run-up analysis by using the simulation tool AVL EXCITE. The main objective of this new method is the controlled speed increase by defining a speed ramp. Transient run-up analysis is of interest for different kind of analysis during the EDP, such as crankshaft dynamics and strength, low frequency vibration analysis, bracket strength and durability analysis, acoustic analysis, etc. By using this method the time required for simulations and thus the whole project duration is significantly reduced. Conventionally the speed range is divided in single speed steps and for each speed a separate transient simulation has to be performed. The number of these simulations depends on the required speed resolution.
Journal Article

Analysis of Thermodynamic Characteristics of Diesel Engine Emission Control Strategies Using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model

2012-04-16
2012-01-1340
The paper describes a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved combustion model which was developed for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The model relies on the multi zone combustion model (MZCM) approach of Hiroyasu. The main sub-models were taken from literature and extended with additional features described in this paper. A special procedure described in a previous paper is used to identify the mechanisms of the combustion process on the basis of the measured cylinder pressure trace. Based on the identified mechanisms the present work concentrates on the analysis of the causal effects that predominantly control the combustion process and the formation of NOx and Soot. The focus lies on the changes of the thermodynamic states and the composition of the reaction zones caused by different emission control strategies.
Technical Paper

Analytical Techniques for Engine Structure Using Prediction of Radiated Noise of Diesel Engine with Changing Combustion Excitation

2017-06-05
2017-01-1802
In the automotive industry, various simulation-based analysis methods have been suggested and applied to reduce the time and cost required to develop the engine structure to improve the NVH performance of powertrain. This simulation is helpful to set the engine design concept in the initial phase of the powertrain development schedules. However, when using the conventional simulation method with a uniformed force, the simulation results sometimes show different results than the test results. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for predicting the radiated noise level of a diesel engine using actual combustion excitation force. Based on the analytical radiated noise development target, we identify the major components of the engine that are beyond this development target by in the frequency range. The components of the problem found in this way are reflected in the engine design of the early development stage to shorten the development time.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Multi Zone Combustion Model for Analysis and Prediction of CI Engine Combustion and Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1439
The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. This platform represents a kind of thermodynamic framework which can be linked to single and multi zone combustion models. It is mainly used as work environment for the development and testing of new models which thereafter are implemented to other codes. One recent development task focused on a multi zone combustion model which corresponds to the approach of Hiroyasu. This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform.
Technical Paper

Automatic ECU-Calibration - An Alternative to Conventional Methods

1993-03-01
930395
Due to increasing complexity of engine electronic systems, there is a demand to handle the often more than 10,000 calibration data automatically. Establishing optimized start of injection and EGR tables of a TC DI Diesel engine by conventional methods takes about two weeks of intensive calibration work. By automatic map calibration, this task can be handled in less than 20 hours automatically, with no staff required during optimization. The benefits of automatic calibration therefore are reduced costs and faster response to any changes in parameters, even with complex multidimensional engine calibration problems. The paper describes the optimization method as well as the experimental work on the test stand that produces the results.
Journal Article

CO2 Reduction Potential through Improved Mechanical Efficiency of the Internal Combustion Engine: Technology Survey and Cost-Benefit Analysis

2013-04-08
2013-01-1740
The need for significant reduction of fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions has become the major driver for development of new vehicle powertrains today. For the medium term, the majority of new vehicles will retain an internal combustion engine (ICE) in some form. The ICE may be the sole prime mover, part of a hybrid powertrain or even a range extender; in every case potential still exists for improvement in mechanical efficiency of the engine itself, through reduction of friction and of parasitic losses for auxiliary components. A comprehensive approach to mechanical efficiency starts with an analysis of the main contributions to engine friction, based on a measurement database of a wide range of production engines. Thus the areas with the highest potential for improvement are identified. For each area, different measures for friction reduction may be applicable with differing benefits.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Solutions for Range Extenders - From Concept Considerations to Practical Experiences

2011-06-09
2011-37-0019
For a broad acceptance of electric vehicles, the trade-off between all electric range and battery cost respectively weight represents the most important challenge. The all electric range obtained under real world conditions most often deviates significantly from the nominal value which is measured under idealized conditions. Under extreme conditions - slow traffic and demanding requirements for cabin heating or cooling - the electrical range might become less a question of spatial distance but even more of total operation time. Whereas with conventional powertrain, high flexibility of the total driving range can be obtained without sacrificing cost, with a pure battery vehicle this results in extreme high cost and weight of the energy storage. Therefore the difference between the typical daily driving range (e.g. in Germany 80-90% is below 50 km) and the minimum total range requested by most customers for acceptance of battery vehicles (200- 250 km), becomes essential.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection and Mixing Controlled Combustion for Real-Time Application In Steady-State and Transient Operation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1095
The present works presents a real-time capable engine model with physical based description of the fuel injection and the combustion process. The model uses a crank-angle resolved cylinder model and a filling and emptying approach for cylinder and gas-path interaction. A common rail injection system model is developed and implemented into the real-time engine framework. The injection model calculates injection quantity and injection rate profile from the input of the ECU signals target injection pressure and injection timing. The model accounts for pressure oscillations in the injection system. A phenomenological combustion model for Diesel engines is implemented, which is based on the mixing controlled combustion modeling approach. The combustion model calculates the rate of heat release from the injection rate given by the injection model. The injection and combustion model are validated in detail against steady-state measurement data for two different passenger car sized engines.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection, Combustion and Emission Formation for Engine Optimization and Calibration on Real-Time Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0558
The present work introduces an innovative mechanistically based 0D spray model which is coupled to a combustion model on the basis of an advanced mixture controlled combustion approach. The model calculates the rate of heat release based on the injection rate profile and the in-cylinder state. The air/fuel distribution in the spray is predicted based on momentum conservation by applying first principles. On the basis of the 2-zone cylinder framework, NOx emissions are calculated by the Zeldovich mechanism. The combustion and emission models are calibrated and validated with a series of dedicated test bed data specifically revealing its capability of describing the impact of variations of EGR, injection timing, and injection pressure. A model based optimization is carried out, aiming at an optimum trade-off between fuel consumption and engine-out emissions. The findings serve to estimate an economic optimum point in the NOx/BSFC trade-off.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Real-Time Capable Engine and Vehicle Simulation - Fuel Consumption and Driving Performance

2010-04-12
2010-01-0784
The present work introduces a fully integrated real-time (RT) capable engine and vehicle model. The gas path and drive line are described in the time domain of seconds whereas the reciprocating characteristics of an IC engine are reflected by a crank angle resolved cylinder model. The RT engine model is derived from a high fidelity 1D cycle simulation and gas exchange model to support an efficient and consistent transfer of model data like geometries, heat transfer or combustion. The workflow of model calibration and application is outlined and base ECU functionalities for boost pressure, EGR, smoke and idle speed control are applied for transient engine operation. Steady state results of the RT engine model are compared to experimental data and 1D high fidelity simulations for 19 different engine load points. In addition an NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) is simulated and results are evaluated with data from chassis dynamometer measurements.
Technical Paper

Cylinder- and Cycle Resolved Particle Formation Evaluation to Support GDI Engine Development for Euro 6 Targets

2011-09-11
2011-24-0206
Combustion of premixed stoichiometric charge is free of soot particle formation. Consequently, the development of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines aims at providing premixed charge to avoid or minimize soot formation in order to meet particle emissions targets. Engine development methods not only need precise engine-out particle measurement instrumentation but also sensors and measurement techniques which enable identification of in-cylinder soot formation sources under all relevant engine test conditions. Such identification is made possible by recording flame radiation signals and with analysis of such signals for premixed and diffusion flame signatures. This paper presents measurement techniques and analysis methods under normal engine and vehicle test procedures to minimize sooting combustion modes in transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Demands on Future Timing drives - Chain and Belt in Competition

2015-04-14
2015-01-1275
When designing a new internal combustion engine, the choice of technology for the timing drive system is one of the key decisions that determines the overall characteristics of the engine with far reaching implications on the remaining architecture and overall packaging of the engine. For Passenger car engines there are two mainstream technologies: toothed belts and chains. Each of these offers several sub-variants, such as dry vs. wet belt, or toothed vs. roller chain. This paper examines the differences between these technologies in relation to the key engine attributes including package, cost, weight, durability, NVH and frictional losses. A quantitative evaluation is made where possible, based on data collected from recent engine development programs, backed up by literature study and data from the component supply industry.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of 3D Generic Cells to the Acoustic Modelling of Exhaust Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1526
The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
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