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Technical Paper

360° vs. 270° vs. 180°: The Difference of Balancing a 2 Cylinder Inline Engine: Design, Simulation, Comparative Measurements

2012-10-23
2012-32-0106
Beside the automotive industry, where 2-cylinder inline engines are catching attention again, twin-cylinder configurations are quite usual in the small engine world. From stationary engines and range-extender use to small motorcycles up to big cruisers and K-Cars this engine architecture is used in many types of applications. Because of very good overall packaging, performance characteristics and not least the possibility of parts-commonality with 4-cylinder engines nearly every motorcycle manufacturer provides an inline twin in its model range. Especially for motorcycle applications where generally the engine is a rigid member of the frame and vibrations can be transferred directly to the rider an appropriate balancing system is required.
Technical Paper

A 3D Linear Acoustic Network Representation of Mufflers with Perforated Elements and Sound Absorptive Material

2017-06-05
2017-01-1789
The acoustics of automotive intake and exhaust systems is typically modeled using linear acoustics or gas-dynamics simulation. These approaches are preferred during basic sound design in the early development stages due to their computational efficiency compared to complex 3D CFD and FEM solutions. The linear acoustic method reduces the component being modelled to an equivalent acoustic two-port transfer matrix which describes the acoustic characteristic of the muffler. Recently this method was used to create more detailed and more accurate models based on a network of 3D cells. As the typical automotive muffler includes perforated elements and sound absorptive material, this paper demonstrates the extension of the 3D linear acoustic network description of a muffler to include the aforementioned elements. The proposed method was then validated against experimental results from muffler systems with perforated elements and sound absorptive material.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study on Different System Level Engine Simulation Models

2013-04-08
2013-01-1116
Engine simulation can be performed using model approaches of different depths in capturing physical effects. The present paper presents a comprehensive comparison study on seven different engine models. The models range from transient 1D cycle resolved approaches to steady-state non-dimensional maps. The models are discussed in the light of key features, amount and kind of required input data, model calibration effort and predictability and application areas. The computational performance of the different models and their capabilities to capture different transient effects is investigated together with a vehicle model under real-life driving conditions. In the trade-off field of model predictability and computational performance an innovative approach on crank-angle resolved cylinder modeling turned out to be most beneficial.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on the Impact of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Fluctuations on Fuel Consumption and Knock in Steady-State and Drivecycle Operation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0030
In spark-ignition engines, fluctuations of the in-cylinder pressure trace and the apparent rate of heat release are usually observed from one cycle to another. These Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) are affected by the early flame development and the subsequent flame front propagation. The CCV are responsible for engine performance (e.g. fuel consumption) and the knock behavior. The occurrence of the phenomena is unpredictable and the stochastic nature offers challenges in the optimization of engine control strategies. In the present work, CCV are analyzed in terms of their impact on the engine knock behavior and the related efficiency. Target is to estimate the possible fuel consumption savings in steady-state operation and in the drivecycle, when CCV are reduced. Since CCV are immanent on real engines, such a study can only be done by means of simulation.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Methodology between AVL Mean Value Engine Model and Measurements with Concept Analysis of Mean Value Representation for Engine Transient Tests

2017-09-04
2017-24-0053
The use of state of the art simulation tools for effective front-loading of the calibration process is essential to support the additional efforts required by the new Real Driving Emission (RDE) legislation. The process needs a critical model validation where the correlation in dynamic conditions is used as a preliminary insight into the bounds of the representation domain of engine mean values. This paper focuses on the methodologies for correlating dynamic simulations with emissions data measured during dynamic vehicle operation (fundamental engine parameters and gaseous emissions) obtained using dedicated instrumentation on a diesel vehicle, with a particular attention for oxides of nitrogen NOx specie. This correlation is performed using simulated tests run within AVL’s mean value engine and engine aftertreatment (EAS) model MoBEO (Model Based Engine Optimization).
Technical Paper

A Cross Domain Co-Simulation Platform for the Efficient Analysis of Mechatronic Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0239
Efficient integration of mechanics and microelectronics components is nowadays a must within the automotive industry in order to minimize integration risks and support optimization of the entire system. We propose in this work a cross domain co-simulation platform for the efficient analysis of mechatronic systems. The interfacing of two state-of-the-art simulation platforms provides a direct link between the two domains at an early development stage, thus enabling the validation and optimization of the system already during modeling phase. The proposed cross-domain co-simulation is used within our TEODACS project for the analysis of the FlexRay technology. We illustrate using a drive-by-wire use case how the different architecture choices may influence the system.
Journal Article

A Hybrid Development Process for NVH Optimization and Sound Engineering Considering the Future Pass-by Homologation Demands

2016-11-08
2016-32-0043
Beside hard facts as performance, emissions and fuel consumption especially the brand specific attributes such as styling and sound are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To develop these emotional characters, within the given boundary conditions of the future pass-by regulation, it is necessary to define them at the very beginning of the project and to follow a consequent development process. The following paper shows examples of motorcycle NVH development work on noise cleaning and sound engineering using a hybrid development process combining front loading, simulation and testing. One of the discussed solutions is the investigation of a piston pin offset in combination with a crankshaft offset for the reduction of friction. The optimization of piston slap noise as a result of the piston secondary motion was performed by simulation. As another example a simulation based development was performed for the exhaust system layout.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Approach for Vehicle Life-Time Thermal Analysis Applied to a HEV Battery System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0201
In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Global vehicle simulation is already a well-established tool to support the vehicle development process. In contrast to conventional vehicles, electrified powertrains offer an additional challenge to the thermal conditioning: the durability of E-components is not only influenced by temperature peaks but also by the duration and amplitude of temperature swings as well as temperature gradients within the components during their lifetime. Keeping all components always at the preferred lowest temperature level to avoid ageing under any conditions (driving, parking, etc.) will result in very high energy consumption which is in contradiction to the efficiency targets.
Journal Article

A ‘Microscopic’ Structural Mechanics FE Model of a Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell for Quasi-Static Load Cases

2013-04-08
2013-01-1519
This study deals with the experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of a lithium-ion pouch cell and its modelling in an explicit finite element simulation code. One can distinguish between ‘macroscopic’ and ‘microscopic’ modelling approaches. In the ‘macroscopic’ approach, one material model approximates the behaviour of multiple inner cell layers. In the ‘microscopic’ approach, which is used in the present study, all layers and their interactions are modelled separately. The cell under study is a pouch-type lithium-ion cell with a liquid electrolyte. With its cell chemistry, design, size and capacity it is usable for automotive applications and can be assembled into traction batteries. One cell sample was fully discharged and disassembled, and its components (anode, cathode, separator and pouch) were examined and measured by electron microscopy. Components were also tensile tested.
Technical Paper

Advanced CAE Methods for NVH Development of High-Speed Electric Axle

2020-09-30
2020-01-1501
The rate in the electrification of vehicles has risen in recent years. With intensified development more and more attention is paid to the noise and vibration in such vehicles especially from the EDU (Electric Drive Unit). In this paper the main NVH simulation process of a high-speed E-axle up to 30,000 rpm for premium class vehicle application is presented. The high speed, high-power density and lightweight design introduces new challenges. Benchmarking of different EDUs and vehicles leads to targets which can be used at the early stage of development as subsystem targets. This paper shows the CAE methodology which can be used to verify the design and guarantee the target achievement. Using CAE both source and structure can be optimized to improve the NVH behavior.
Technical Paper

An Application of the Linear and Time-Invariant Method for the System-Level Thermal Simulation of an EV Battery

2015-04-14
2015-01-1197
This paper presents a system-level thermal model of a fluid-cooled Li-Ion battery module. The model is a reduced order model (ROM) identified by results from finite element analysis (FEA)/computational fluid dynamic (CFD) coupling simulation using the linear and time-invariant (LTI) method. The ROM consists of two LTI sub-systems: one of which describes the battery temperature response to a transient battery current, and the other of which takes into account of the battery temperature variation due to a heat flux induced by a varied inlet temperature of the battery cooling circuit. The thermal LTI model can be coupled to an electrical model to build a complete system-level battery ROM. Test examples show that the ROM is able to provide as accurate results as those from FEA/CFD coupling simulations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Engine Dynamics Under Transient Run-Up Conditions

2004-03-08
2004-01-1454
The target of dynamic simulation is to investigate complex engine dynamic behavior in the whole speed range under different loading conditions in the most effective way during Engine Development Process (EDP). AVL has developed a method for transient run-up analysis by using the simulation tool AVL EXCITE. The main objective of this new method is the controlled speed increase by defining a speed ramp. Transient run-up analysis is of interest for different kind of analysis during the EDP, such as crankshaft dynamics and strength, low frequency vibration analysis, bracket strength and durability analysis, acoustic analysis, etc. By using this method the time required for simulations and thus the whole project duration is significantly reduced. Conventionally the speed range is divided in single speed steps and for each speed a separate transient simulation has to be performed. The number of these simulations depends on the required speed resolution.
Technical Paper

Analytical Techniques for Engine Structure Using Prediction of Radiated Noise of Diesel Engine with Changing Combustion Excitation

2017-06-05
2017-01-1802
In the automotive industry, various simulation-based analysis methods have been suggested and applied to reduce the time and cost required to develop the engine structure to improve the NVH performance of powertrain. This simulation is helpful to set the engine design concept in the initial phase of the powertrain development schedules. However, when using the conventional simulation method with a uniformed force, the simulation results sometimes show different results than the test results. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for predicting the radiated noise level of a diesel engine using actual combustion excitation force. Based on the analytical radiated noise development target, we identify the major components of the engine that are beyond this development target by in the frequency range. The components of the problem found in this way are reflected in the engine design of the early development stage to shorten the development time.
Technical Paper

Ash Transport and Deposition, Cake Formation and Segregation-A Modeling Study on the Impact of Ash on Particulate Filter Performance

2019-04-02
2019-01-0988
Non-combustible particles, commonly summarized as ash, influence the lifetime performance of wall flow filters. This study aims to investigate this influence by means of simulation. An existing transient 1D+1D wall flow filter model is extended by dedicated transport balances for soot and ash (1), by a discrete cake model describing changing soot and ash compositions over the cake height (2), by a phenomenological cake filtration model (3), by dedicated cake property models (4) and by a phenomenological model capturing the radial mobility of solids within the cake (5). Results of three different types of simulations are shown. First, the various sub-models are assessed in isolated simulation configurations. The combination of these shall serve as theoretical model validation. Second, isolated loading and passive regeneration simulations are performed.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Multi Zone Combustion Model for Analysis and Prediction of CI Engine Combustion and Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1439
The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. This platform represents a kind of thermodynamic framework which can be linked to single and multi zone combustion models. It is mainly used as work environment for the development and testing of new models which thereafter are implemented to other codes. One recent development task focused on a multi zone combustion model which corresponds to the approach of Hiroyasu. This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform.
Technical Paper

Automated Calibration for Transmission on Powertrain Dynamometers

2015-04-14
2015-01-1625
Today, OEMs are challenged with an increasing number of powertrain variants and complexity of controls software. They are facing internal pressure to provide mature and refined calibrations earlier in the development process. Until now, it was difficult to respond to these requests as the drivability's calibration tasks are mostly done in vehicles. This paper describes a new methodology designed to answer these challenges by performing automated shift quality calibration prior to the availability of vehicles. This procedure is using a powertrain dynamometer coupled with a real-time vehicle dynamics model. By using a Power Train Test Bed (PTTB), a physical vehicle is not required. As soon as the vehicle dynamics model and its parameters have been defined, it can be simulated on the PTTB and drivability calibrations can be developed. A complete powertrain is coupled with low inertia and highly dynamic dynamometers.
Technical Paper

Automated EMS Calibration using Objective Driveability Assessment and Computer Aided Optimization Methods

2002-03-04
2002-01-0849
Future demands regarding emissions, fuel consumption and driveability lead to complex engine and power train control systems. The calibration of the increasing number of free parameters in the ECU's contradicts the demand for reduced time in the power train development cycle. This paper will focus on the automatic, unmanned closed loop optimization of driveability quality on a high dynamic engine test bed. The collaboration of three advanced methods will be presented: Objective real time driveability assessment, to predict the expected feelings of the buyers of the car Automatic computer assisted variation of ECU parameters on the basis of statistical methods like design of experiments (DoE). Thus data are measured in an automated process allowing an optimization based on models (e.g. neural networks).
Technical Paper

Automated Test Case Generation and Virtual Assessment Framework for UN Regulation on Automated Lane Keeping Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0870
Validation of highly automated or autonomous vehicles is nowadays still a major challenge for the automotive industry. Furthermore, the homologation of ADAS/AD vehicles according to global regulations is getting more essential for their safe development and deployment around the world. In order to assure that the autonomous driving function is able to cope with the huge number of possible situations during operation, comprehensive testing of the functions is required. However, conventional testing approaches such as driving distance-based validation approach in the real world, can be time- and cost-consuming. Therefore, a scenario-based virtual validation and testing method is considered to be a proper solution. In this paper, we propose a virtual assessment framework using a fully automated test case generation method. This framework is embedded into the continuous development and validation process.
Technical Paper

Battery Thermal Management Simulation - 1D+1D Electrochemical Battery and 3D Module Modeling on Vehicle System Level

2021-04-06
2021-01-0757
Approaching engineering limits for the thermal design of battery modules requires virtual prototyping and appropriate models with respect to physical depth and computational effort. A multi-scale and multi-domain model describes the electrochemical behavior of a single battery unit cell in 1D+1D at the level of intra-cell phenomena, and it applies a 3D thermal model at module level. Both models are connected within a common vehicle simulation platform. The models are discussed with special emphasis on battery degradation such as solid electrolyte interphase layer formation, decomposition and lithium plating. The performance of the electrochemical model is assessed by discharge cycles and repeated charge/discharge simulations. The thermal module model is compared to CFD reference data and studied with respect to its grid sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection and Mixing Controlled Combustion for Real-Time Application In Steady-State and Transient Operation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1095
The present works presents a real-time capable engine model with physical based description of the fuel injection and the combustion process. The model uses a crank-angle resolved cylinder model and a filling and emptying approach for cylinder and gas-path interaction. A common rail injection system model is developed and implemented into the real-time engine framework. The injection model calculates injection quantity and injection rate profile from the input of the ECU signals target injection pressure and injection timing. The model accounts for pressure oscillations in the injection system. A phenomenological combustion model for Diesel engines is implemented, which is based on the mixing controlled combustion modeling approach. The combustion model calculates the rate of heat release from the injection rate given by the injection model. The injection and combustion model are validated in detail against steady-state measurement data for two different passenger car sized engines.
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