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Technical Paper

A 3D Linear Acoustic Network Representation of Mufflers with Perforated Elements and Sound Absorptive Material

2017-06-05
2017-01-1789
The acoustics of automotive intake and exhaust systems is typically modeled using linear acoustics or gas-dynamics simulation. These approaches are preferred during basic sound design in the early development stages due to their computational efficiency compared to complex 3D CFD and FEM solutions. The linear acoustic method reduces the component being modelled to an equivalent acoustic two-port transfer matrix which describes the acoustic characteristic of the muffler. Recently this method was used to create more detailed and more accurate models based on a network of 3D cells. As the typical automotive muffler includes perforated elements and sound absorptive material, this paper demonstrates the extension of the 3D linear acoustic network description of a muffler to include the aforementioned elements. The proposed method was then validated against experimental results from muffler systems with perforated elements and sound absorptive material.
Journal Article

A Miniature Catalytic Stripper for Particles Less Than 23 Nanometers

2013-04-08
2013-01-1570
The European Emissions Stage 5b standard for diesel passenger cars regulates particulate matter to 0.0045 g/km and non-volatile part/km greater than 23 nm size to 6.0x10₁₁ as determined by the PMP procedure that uses a heated evaporation tube to remove semi-volatile material. Measurement artifacts associated with the evaporation tube technique prevents reliable extension of the method to a lower size range. Catalytic stripper (CS) technology removes possible sources of these artifacts by effectively removing all hydrocarbons and sulfuric acid in the gas phase in order to avoid any chemical reactions or re-nucleation that may cause measurement complications. The performance of a miniature CS was evaluated and experimental results showed solid particle penetration was 50% at 10.5 nm. The sulfate storage capacity integrated into the CS enabled it to chemically remove sulfuric acid vapor rather than rely on dilution to prevent nucleation.
Technical Paper

An Application of the Linear and Time-Invariant Method for the System-Level Thermal Simulation of an EV Battery

2015-04-14
2015-01-1197
This paper presents a system-level thermal model of a fluid-cooled Li-Ion battery module. The model is a reduced order model (ROM) identified by results from finite element analysis (FEA)/computational fluid dynamic (CFD) coupling simulation using the linear and time-invariant (LTI) method. The ROM consists of two LTI sub-systems: one of which describes the battery temperature response to a transient battery current, and the other of which takes into account of the battery temperature variation due to a heat flux induced by a varied inlet temperature of the battery cooling circuit. The thermal LTI model can be coupled to an electrical model to build a complete system-level battery ROM. Test examples show that the ROM is able to provide as accurate results as those from FEA/CFD coupling simulations.
Technical Paper

Ash Transport and Deposition, Cake Formation and Segregation-A Modeling Study on the Impact of Ash on Particulate Filter Performance

2019-04-02
2019-01-0988
Non-combustible particles, commonly summarized as ash, influence the lifetime performance of wall flow filters. This study aims to investigate this influence by means of simulation. An existing transient 1D+1D wall flow filter model is extended by dedicated transport balances for soot and ash (1), by a discrete cake model describing changing soot and ash compositions over the cake height (2), by a phenomenological cake filtration model (3), by dedicated cake property models (4) and by a phenomenological model capturing the radial mobility of solids within the cake (5). Results of three different types of simulations are shown. First, the various sub-models are assessed in isolated simulation configurations. The combination of these shall serve as theoretical model validation. Second, isolated loading and passive regeneration simulations are performed.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Multi Zone Combustion Model for Analysis and Prediction of CI Engine Combustion and Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1439
The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. This platform represents a kind of thermodynamic framework which can be linked to single and multi zone combustion models. It is mainly used as work environment for the development and testing of new models which thereafter are implemented to other codes. One recent development task focused on a multi zone combustion model which corresponds to the approach of Hiroyasu. This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform.
Technical Paper

Cylinder- and Cycle Resolved Particle Formation Evaluation to Support GDI Engine Development for Euro 6 Targets

2011-09-11
2011-24-0206
Combustion of premixed stoichiometric charge is free of soot particle formation. Consequently, the development of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines aims at providing premixed charge to avoid or minimize soot formation in order to meet particle emissions targets. Engine development methods not only need precise engine-out particle measurement instrumentation but also sensors and measurement techniques which enable identification of in-cylinder soot formation sources under all relevant engine test conditions. Such identification is made possible by recording flame radiation signals and with analysis of such signals for premixed and diffusion flame signatures. This paper presents measurement techniques and analysis methods under normal engine and vehicle test procedures to minimize sooting combustion modes in transient engine operation.
Journal Article

Development of a High Performance Natural Gas Engine with Direct Gas Injection and Variable Valve Actuation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0152
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
Technical Paper

Diffusion Supporting Passive Filter Regeneration- A Modeling Contribution on Coated Filters

2018-04-03
2018-01-0957
Wall flow particulate filters have been used as a standard exhaust aftertreatment device for many years. The interaction of particulate matter (PM) regeneration and catalytically supported reactions strongly depends on the given operating conditions. Temperature, species concentration and mass flow cause a change from advective to diffusive-controlled flow conditions and influence the rate controlling dominance of individual reactions. A transient 1D+1D model is presented considering advective and diffusive transport phenomena. The reaction scheme focuses on passive PM conversion and catalytic oxidation of NO. The model is validated with analytical references. The impact of back-diffusion is explored simulating pure advective and combined advective diffusive species transport. Rate approaches from literature are applied to investigate PM conversion at various operating conditions.
Journal Article

EU6c Particle Number on a Full Size SUV - Engine Out or GPF?

2014-10-13
2014-01-2848
This paper describes the findings of a design, simulation and test study into how to reduce particulate number (Pn) emissions in order to meet EU6c legislative limits. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Pn potential of a modern 6-cylinder engine with respect to hardware and calibration when fitted to a full size SUV. Having understood this capability, to redesign the combustion system and optimise the calibration in order to meet an engineering target value of 3×1011 Pn #/km using the NEDC drive cycle. The design and simulation tasks were conducted by JLR with support from AVL. The calibration and all of the vehicle testing was conducted by AVL, in Graz. Extensive design and CFD work was conducted to refine the inlet port, piston crown and injector spray pattern in order to reduce surface wetting and improve air to fuel mixing homogeneity. The design and CFD steps are detailed along with the results compared to target.
Journal Article

Immersion Quenching Simulation of Realistic Cylinder Head Geometry

2014-04-01
2014-01-0641
In this paper, a recently improved Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology for virtual prototyping of the heat treatment of cast aluminum parts, above most of cylinder heads of internal combustion engines (ICE), is presented. The comparison between measurement data and numerical results has been carried out to simulate the real time immersion quenching cooling process of realistic cylinder head structure using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®. The Eulerian multi-fluid modeling approach is used to handle the boiling flow and the heat transfer between the heated structure and the sub-cooled liquid. While for the fluid region governing equations are solved for each phase separately, only the energy equation is solved in the solid region. Heat transfer coefficients depend on the boiling regimes which are separated by the Leidenfrost temperature.
Journal Article

Measures to Reduce Particulate Emissions from Gasoline DI engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1219
Particulate emission reduction has long been a challenge for diesel engines as the diesel diffusion combustion process can generate high levels of soot which is one of the main constituents of particulate matter. Gasoline engines use a pre-mixed combustion process which produces negligible levels of soot, so particulate emissions have not been an issue for gasoline engines, particularly with modern port fuel injected (PFI) engines which provide excellent mixture quality. Future European and US emissions standards will include more stringent particulate limits for gasoline engines to protect against increases in airborne particulate levels due to the more widespread use of gasoline direct injection (GDI). While GDI engines are typically more efficient than PFI engines, they emit higher particulate levels, but still meet the current particulate standards.
Technical Paper

MiL-Based Calibration and Validation of Diesel-ECU Models Using Emission and Fuel Consumption Prediction during Dynamic Warm-Up Tests (NEDC)

2012-04-16
2012-01-0432
A calibration and validation workflow will be presented in this paper, which utilizes common static global models for fuel consumption, NOx and soot. Due to the applicability for warm-up tests, e. g. New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the models need to predict the temperature influence and will be fitted with measuring data from a conditioned engine test bed. The applied model structure - consisting of a number of global data-based sub-models - is configured especially for the requirements of multi-injection strategies of common rail systems. Additionally common global models for several constant coolant water temperature levels are generated and the workflow tool supports the combination and segmentation of global nominal map with temperature correction maps for seamless and direct ECU setting.
Journal Article

Modeling Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in 0-D/1-D Simulation by Means of Combustion Model Parameter Perturbations based on Statistics of Cycle-Resolved Data

2013-04-08
2013-01-1314
The presented paper deals with a methodology to model cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) in 0-D/1-D simulation tools. This is achieved by introducing perturbations of combustion model parameters. To enable that, crank angle resolved data of individual cycles (pressure traces) have to be available for a reasonable number of engine cycles. Either experimental data or 3-D CFD results can be applied. In the presented work, experimental data of a single-cylinder research engine were considered while predicted LES 3-D CFD results will be tested in the future. Different engine operating points were selected - both stable ones (low CCV) and unstable ones (high CCV). The proposed methodology consists of two major steps. First, individual cycle data have to be matched with the 0-D/1-D model, i.e., combustion model parameters are varied to achieve the best possible match of pressure traces - an automated optimization approach is applied to achieve that.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Reactive Spray Processes in DI Diesel Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0547
Commonly, the spray process in Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines is modeled with the Euler Lagrangian discrete droplet approach which has limited validity in the dense spray region, close to the injector nozzle hole exit. In the presented research, a new reactive spray modelling method has been developed and used within the 3D RANS CFD framework. The spray process was modelled with the Euler Eulerian multiphase approach, extended to the size-of-classes approach which ensures reliable interphase momentum transfer description. In this approach, both the gas and the discrete phase are considered as continuum, and divided into classes according to the ascending droplet diameter. The combustion process was modelled by taking into account chemical kinetics and by solving general gas phase reaction equations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation Study of Cavitating Nozzle Flow and Spray Propagation with Respect to Liquid Compressibility Effects

2014-04-01
2014-01-1421
The paper addresses aspects of modeling cavitating flows within high pressure injection equipment while considering the effects of liquid compressibility. The presented numerical study, performed using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®, mimics common rail conditions, where the variation in liquid density as a function of pressure may be relevant owing to very high pressure injection scenarios. The flow through the injector has been calculated and the conditions at the outlet of the nozzle orifice have been applied as inlet condition for subsequent Euler-Lagrangian spray calculations to investigate the effects of liquid compressibility treatment on spray propagation. Flows of such nature are of interest within automotive and other internal combustion (IC) related industries to obtain good spray and emissions characteristics.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Classification in Filtration and Regeneration-Plant Modeling for SiL and HiL Environment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0970
The present work describes an existing transient, non-isothermal 1D+1D particulate filter model to capture the impact of different types of particulate matter (PM) on filtration and regeneration. PM classes of arbitrary characteristics (size, composition etc.) are transported and filtered following standard mechanisms. PM deposit populations of arbitrary composition and contact states are used to describe regeneration on a micro-kinetical level. The transport class and deposit population are linked by introducing a splitting deposit matrix. Filtration and regeneration modes are compared to experimental data from literature and a brief numerical assessment on the filtration model is performed. The filter model as part of an exhaust line is used in a concept study on different coating variants. The same exhaust line model is connected to an engine thermodynamic and vehicle model. This system model is run through a random drive cycle in office simulation.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Calibration Techniques

2019-09-09
2019-24-0196
Meeting the particle number (PN) emissions limits in vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). ICE power variations arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the hybrid vehicle’s drive environment.
Technical Paper

The 2-Step VCR Conrod System - Modular System for High Efficiency and Reduced CO2

2017-03-28
2017-01-0634
In order to achieve future CO2 targets - in particular under real driving conditions - different powertrain technologies will have to be introduced. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the internal combustion engine. In addition to further optimization of the combustion processes and the reduction of mechanical losses in the thermal- and energetic systems, the introduction of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is probably the measure with the highest potential for fuel economy improvement. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The basic principle of the AVL VCR system described in this paper is a 2-stage variation of the conrod length and thus the Compression Ratio (CR).
Technical Paper

The Creation of a Car Interior Noise Quality Index for the Evaluation of Rattle Phenomena

1997-05-20
972018
Rattle noise produced in the vehicle interior due to broadband excitation by road irregularities is a major concern with respect to driving comfort, and therefore has become one of the most important topics of acoustic development in recent years. A quantification i.e. measurement of this rattle noise is of fundamental importance for systematic development work and production control. Common noise level measurements (dB, dBA, etc. ) do not represent the rattle character in the vehicle interior as revealed during initial investigations. To overcome this problem and to substitute the subjective assessment with a combination of measurable parameters, the psychoacoustic software AVL-EAR was applied to create an Interior Rattle Quality Index. Based on more than 40 different vehicles that have been subjectively assessed by approximately 70 test persons, the index was generated by means of multiple pair comparisons and statistics on measurement data.
Journal Article

Use of a Catalytic Stripper as an Alternative to the Original PMP Measurement Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1563
The Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) developed an exhaust particle number measurement protocol that has been adopted by current light duty vehicle emission regulations in Europe. This includes thermal treatment of the exhaust aerosol to isolate solid particles only and a number counting device with a lower cutpoint of 23 nm to avoid measurement of smaller particles that may affect the repeatability of the measurement. In this paper, we examine a potential alternative to the PMP system, where the thermal treatment is replaced by a catalytic stripper (CS). This offers oxidation and not just evaporation of the volatile components. Alternative sampling systems, either fulfilling the PMP recommendations or utilizing a CS, have been explored in terms of their volatile particle removal efficiency. Tests have been conducted on diesel exhaust, diesel equipped with DPF and gasoline direct injection emissions.
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