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Technical Paper

A 3D Linear Acoustic Network Representation of Mufflers with Perforated Elements and Sound Absorptive Material

2017-06-05
2017-01-1789
The acoustics of automotive intake and exhaust systems is typically modeled using linear acoustics or gas-dynamics simulation. These approaches are preferred during basic sound design in the early development stages due to their computational efficiency compared to complex 3D CFD and FEM solutions. The linear acoustic method reduces the component being modelled to an equivalent acoustic two-port transfer matrix which describes the acoustic characteristic of the muffler. Recently this method was used to create more detailed and more accurate models based on a network of 3D cells. As the typical automotive muffler includes perforated elements and sound absorptive material, this paper demonstrates the extension of the 3D linear acoustic network description of a muffler to include the aforementioned elements. The proposed method was then validated against experimental results from muffler systems with perforated elements and sound absorptive material.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Methodology between AVL Mean Value Engine Model and Measurements with Concept Analysis of Mean Value Representation for Engine Transient Tests

2017-09-04
2017-24-0053
The use of state of the art simulation tools for effective front-loading of the calibration process is essential to support the additional efforts required by the new Real Driving Emission (RDE) legislation. The process needs a critical model validation where the correlation in dynamic conditions is used as a preliminary insight into the bounds of the representation domain of engine mean values. This paper focuses on the methodologies for correlating dynamic simulations with emissions data measured during dynamic vehicle operation (fundamental engine parameters and gaseous emissions) obtained using dedicated instrumentation on a diesel vehicle, with a particular attention for oxides of nitrogen NOx specie. This correlation is performed using simulated tests run within AVL’s mean value engine and engine aftertreatment (EAS) model MoBEO (Model Based Engine Optimization).
Journal Article

A Hybrid Development Process for NVH Optimization and Sound Engineering Considering the Future Pass-by Homologation Demands

2016-11-08
2016-32-0043
Beside hard facts as performance, emissions and fuel consumption especially the brand specific attributes such as styling and sound are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To develop these emotional characters, within the given boundary conditions of the future pass-by regulation, it is necessary to define them at the very beginning of the project and to follow a consequent development process. The following paper shows examples of motorcycle NVH development work on noise cleaning and sound engineering using a hybrid development process combining front loading, simulation and testing. One of the discussed solutions is the investigation of a piston pin offset in combination with a crankshaft offset for the reduction of friction. The optimization of piston slap noise as a result of the piston secondary motion was performed by simulation. As another example a simulation based development was performed for the exhaust system layout.
Journal Article

A Miniature Catalytic Stripper for Particles Less Than 23 Nanometers

2013-04-08
2013-01-1570
The European Emissions Stage 5b standard for diesel passenger cars regulates particulate matter to 0.0045 g/km and non-volatile part/km greater than 23 nm size to 6.0x10₁₁ as determined by the PMP procedure that uses a heated evaporation tube to remove semi-volatile material. Measurement artifacts associated with the evaporation tube technique prevents reliable extension of the method to a lower size range. Catalytic stripper (CS) technology removes possible sources of these artifacts by effectively removing all hydrocarbons and sulfuric acid in the gas phase in order to avoid any chemical reactions or re-nucleation that may cause measurement complications. The performance of a miniature CS was evaluated and experimental results showed solid particle penetration was 50% at 10.5 nm. The sulfate storage capacity integrated into the CS enabled it to chemically remove sulfuric acid vapor rather than rely on dilution to prevent nucleation.
Technical Paper

A Scalable Simulation Method for the Assessment of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Variations and their impact on Fuel Consumption and Knock

2015-01-14
2015-26-0213
In the present work, a scalable simulation methodology is presented that enables the assessment of the impact of SI-engine cycle-to-cycle combustion variations on fuel consumption and hence CO2 emissions on three different levels of modeling depth: in-cylinder, steady-state engine and transient engine and vehicle simulation. On the detailed engine combustion chamber level, a 3D-CFD approach is used to study the impact of the turbulent in-cylinder flow on the cycle-resolved flame propagation characteristics. On engine level, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations are assessed regarding their impact on indicated mean effective pressure, aiming at estimating the possible fuel consumption savings when cyclic variations are minimized. Finally, on the vehicle system level, a combined real-time engine approach with crank-angle resolved cylinder is used to assess the potential fuel consumption savings for different vehicle drivecycle conditions.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Effect of Fuel Injection System Improvements on the Injection and Combustion of DiMethyl Ether in a Diesel Cycle Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2658
For nearly twenty years, DiMethyl Ether has been known to be an outstanding fuel for combustion in diesel cycle engines. Not only does it have a high Cetane number, it burns absolutely soot free and produces lower NOx exhaust emissions than the equivalent diesel. However, the physical properties of DME such as its low viscosity, lubricity and bulk modulus have negative effects for the fuel injection system, which have both limited the achievable injection pressures to about 500 bar and DME's introduction into the market. To overcome some of these effects, a common rail fuel injection system was adapted to operate with DME and produce injection pressures of up to 1000 bar. To understand the effect of the high injection pressure, tests were carried out using 2D optically accessed nozzles. This allowed the impact of the high vapour pressure of DME on the onset of cavitation in the nozzle hole to be assessed and improve the flow characteristics.
Technical Paper

An Update on Light Duty Diesel Technologies

2001-11-01
2001-28-0003
Light duty diesel vehicles continue to win recognition and market shares in Europe due to their convincing economy, reliability and driveability features. The diesel boom finds a fresh rationale in the CO2 emission legislation to come, however, the competitiveness of diesel cars may be impaired in future in consequence of the progression of the exhaust emission legislation and its impact on vehicle cost. This paper reviews the technologies currently pursued on the side of the engine and its subsystems, as well as the exhaust gas aftertreatment concepts required to satisfy the European legislation. An integral system approach is suggested, aiming at an optimum match of vehicle design parameters, transmission gear and the engine including aftertreatment elements and control.
Journal Article

Analysis of Thermodynamic Characteristics of Diesel Engine Emission Control Strategies Using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model

2012-04-16
2012-01-1340
The paper describes a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved combustion model which was developed for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The model relies on the multi zone combustion model (MZCM) approach of Hiroyasu. The main sub-models were taken from literature and extended with additional features described in this paper. A special procedure described in a previous paper is used to identify the mechanisms of the combustion process on the basis of the measured cylinder pressure trace. Based on the identified mechanisms the present work concentrates on the analysis of the causal effects that predominantly control the combustion process and the formation of NOx and Soot. The focus lies on the changes of the thermodynamic states and the composition of the reaction zones caused by different emission control strategies.
Technical Paper

Ash Transport and Deposition, Cake Formation and Segregation-A Modeling Study on the Impact of Ash on Particulate Filter Performance

2019-04-02
2019-01-0988
Non-combustible particles, commonly summarized as ash, influence the lifetime performance of wall flow filters. This study aims to investigate this influence by means of simulation. An existing transient 1D+1D wall flow filter model is extended by dedicated transport balances for soot and ash (1), by a discrete cake model describing changing soot and ash compositions over the cake height (2), by a phenomenological cake filtration model (3), by dedicated cake property models (4) and by a phenomenological model capturing the radial mobility of solids within the cake (5). Results of three different types of simulations are shown. First, the various sub-models are assessed in isolated simulation configurations. The combination of these shall serve as theoretical model validation. Second, isolated loading and passive regeneration simulations are performed.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Multi Zone Combustion Model for Analysis and Prediction of CI Engine Combustion and Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1439
The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. This platform represents a kind of thermodynamic framework which can be linked to single and multi zone combustion models. It is mainly used as work environment for the development and testing of new models which thereafter are implemented to other codes. One recent development task focused on a multi zone combustion model which corresponds to the approach of Hiroyasu. This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform.
Journal Article

CO2 Reduction Potential through Improved Mechanical Efficiency of the Internal Combustion Engine: Technology Survey and Cost-Benefit Analysis

2013-04-08
2013-01-1740
The need for significant reduction of fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions has become the major driver for development of new vehicle powertrains today. For the medium term, the majority of new vehicles will retain an internal combustion engine (ICE) in some form. The ICE may be the sole prime mover, part of a hybrid powertrain or even a range extender; in every case potential still exists for improvement in mechanical efficiency of the engine itself, through reduction of friction and of parasitic losses for auxiliary components. A comprehensive approach to mechanical efficiency starts with an analysis of the main contributions to engine friction, based on a measurement database of a wide range of production engines. Thus the areas with the highest potential for improvement are identified. For each area, different measures for friction reduction may be applicable with differing benefits.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection, Combustion and Emission Formation for Engine Optimization and Calibration on Real-Time Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0558
The present work introduces an innovative mechanistically based 0D spray model which is coupled to a combustion model on the basis of an advanced mixture controlled combustion approach. The model calculates the rate of heat release based on the injection rate profile and the in-cylinder state. The air/fuel distribution in the spray is predicted based on momentum conservation by applying first principles. On the basis of the 2-zone cylinder framework, NOx emissions are calculated by the Zeldovich mechanism. The combustion and emission models are calibrated and validated with a series of dedicated test bed data specifically revealing its capability of describing the impact of variations of EGR, injection timing, and injection pressure. A model based optimization is carried out, aiming at an optimum trade-off between fuel consumption and engine-out emissions. The findings serve to estimate an economic optimum point in the NOx/BSFC trade-off.
Technical Paper

Cylinder- and Cycle Resolved Particle Formation Evaluation to Support GDI Engine Development for Euro 6 Targets

2011-09-11
2011-24-0206
Combustion of premixed stoichiometric charge is free of soot particle formation. Consequently, the development of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines aims at providing premixed charge to avoid or minimize soot formation in order to meet particle emissions targets. Engine development methods not only need precise engine-out particle measurement instrumentation but also sensors and measurement techniques which enable identification of in-cylinder soot formation sources under all relevant engine test conditions. Such identification is made possible by recording flame radiation signals and with analysis of such signals for premixed and diffusion flame signatures. This paper presents measurement techniques and analysis methods under normal engine and vehicle test procedures to minimize sooting combustion modes in transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of 3D Generic Cells to the Acoustic Modelling of Exhaust Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1526
The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
Technical Paper

Diffusion Supporting Passive Filter Regeneration- A Modeling Contribution on Coated Filters

2018-04-03
2018-01-0957
Wall flow particulate filters have been used as a standard exhaust aftertreatment device for many years. The interaction of particulate matter (PM) regeneration and catalytically supported reactions strongly depends on the given operating conditions. Temperature, species concentration and mass flow cause a change from advective to diffusive-controlled flow conditions and influence the rate controlling dominance of individual reactions. A transient 1D+1D model is presented considering advective and diffusive transport phenomena. The reaction scheme focuses on passive PM conversion and catalytic oxidation of NO. The model is validated with analytical references. The impact of back-diffusion is explored simulating pure advective and combined advective diffusive species transport. Rate approaches from literature are applied to investigate PM conversion at various operating conditions.
Journal Article

EU6c Particle Number on a Full Size SUV - Engine Out or GPF?

2014-10-13
2014-01-2848
This paper describes the findings of a design, simulation and test study into how to reduce particulate number (Pn) emissions in order to meet EU6c legislative limits. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Pn potential of a modern 6-cylinder engine with respect to hardware and calibration when fitted to a full size SUV. Having understood this capability, to redesign the combustion system and optimise the calibration in order to meet an engineering target value of 3×1011 Pn #/km using the NEDC drive cycle. The design and simulation tasks were conducted by JLR with support from AVL. The calibration and all of the vehicle testing was conducted by AVL, in Graz. Extensive design and CFD work was conducted to refine the inlet port, piston crown and injector spray pattern in order to reduce surface wetting and improve air to fuel mixing homogeneity. The design and CFD steps are detailed along with the results compared to target.
Technical Paper

Effects of Pulsating Flow on Exhaust Port Flow Coefficients

1999-03-01
1999-01-0214
Five very different exhaust ports of diesel and gasoline engines are investigated under steady and unsteady flow to determine whether their flow coefficients are sensitive to unsteady flow. Valve lift is fixed for a specific test but varied from test to test to determine whether the relationship between steady and unsteady flow is lift dependent. The pulse frequency is chosen to correspond to the blow-down phase of an engine running at approximately 6000 rpm, but the pressure drop across the port is much smaller than that present in a running engine. Air at room temperature is used as the working fluid. It is shown that unsteady flow through the five exhaust ports causes, at most, a 6% increase or a 7% decrease in flow coefficient.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Valve Train Variability in Diesel Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2532
The continuously decreasing emission limits lead to a growing importance of exhaust aftertreatment in Diesel engines. Hence, methods for achieving a rapid catalyst light-off after engine cold start and for maintaining the catalyst temperature during low load operation will become more and more necessary. The present work evaluates several valve timing strategies concerning their ability for doing so. For this purpose, simulations as well as experimental investigations were conducted. A special focus of simulation was on pointing out the relevance of exhaust temperature, mass flow and enthalpy for these thermomanagement tasks. An increase of exhaust temperature is beneficial for both catalyst heat-up and maintaining catalyst temperature. In case of the exhaust mass flow, high values are advantageous only in case of a catalyst heat-up process, while maintaining catalyst temperature is supported by a low mass flow.
Technical Paper

High Performance Linearization Procedure for Emission Analyzers

2000-03-06
2000-01-0798
Increasing requirements for the result quality of exhaust emission analyzers and state of the art analyzer technology require a new point of view regarding measuring range definitions and linearization procedures. To make best use of the power of this analyzer technology, linearization procedures need reconsideration. In certification laboratories, legislation defines the procedures to linearize an exhaust emission analyzer more or less stringently. On the other hand, on testbeds for development purposes there are many possibilities for making use of today's improved analyzers. However, procedures are often used in development labs that are very similar to those mentioned in the legislation. For some measurement purposes it is necessary to leave these procedures regarding measuring ranges and their specifications behind. The exhaust gas analyzing system has to provide consistent result quality during the whole test procedure.
Technical Paper

High Power Discharge Combustion Effects on Fuel Consumption, Emissions, and Catalyst Heating

2014-10-13
2014-01-2626
A key element to achieving vehicle emission certification for most light-duty vehicles using spark-ignition engine technology is prompt catalyst warming. Emission mitigation largely does not occur while the catalyst is below its “light-off temperature”, which takes a certain time to achieve when the engine starts from a cold condition. If the catalyst takes too long to light-off, the vehicle could fail its emission certification; it is necessary to minimize the catalyst warm up period to mitigate emissions as quickly as possible. One technique used to minimize catalyst warm up is to calibrate the engine in such a way that it delivers high temperature exhaust. At idle or low speed/low-load conditions, this can be done by retarding spark timing with a corresponding increase in fuel flow rate and / or leaning the mixture. Both approaches, however, encounter limits as combustion stability degrades and / or nitrogen oxide emissions rise excessively.
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