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Journal Article

A Metal Fibrous Filter for Diesel Hybrid Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0604
Trends towards lower vehicle fuel consumption and smaller environmental impact will increase the share of Diesel hybrids and Diesel Range Extended Vehicles (REV). Because of the Diesel engine presence and the ever tightening soot particle emissions, these vehicles will still require soot particle emissions control systems. Ceramic wall-flow monoliths are currently the key players in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) market, offering certain advantages compared to other DPF technologies such as the metal based DPFs. The latter had, in the past, issues with respect to filtration efficiency, available filtration area and, sometimes, their manufacturing cost, the latter factor making them less attractive for most of the conventional Diesel engine powered vehicles. Nevertheless, metal substrate DPFs may find a better position in vehicles like Diesel hybrids and REVs in which high instant power consumption is readily offered enabling electrical filter regeneration.
Technical Paper

A New 3D Model For Vaporizing Diesel Sprays Based on Mixing-Limited Vaporization

2000-03-06
2000-01-0949
Results from numerical computations performed to represent the transient behavior of vaporizing sprays injected into a constant volume chamber and into a High Speed Direct Injection combustion chamber are presented. In order to describe the liquid phase, a new model has been developed from ideas brought forward by recent experimental results (Siebers, 1999) and numerical considerations (Abraham, 1999). The liquid penetration length is given by a 1D model which has been validated on a large number of experiments. In the 3D calculation, break-up, vaporization, drag, collision and coalescence are not modeled. The mass, momentum and energy transfers from the liquid to the gas phase are imposed from the nozzle exit surface to the liquid penetration length. This model enables us to reach time step and grid-independent results. The gas penetrations obtained with the model are checked against experimental results in a constant volume chamber (Verhoeven et al., 1998).
Technical Paper

A New Device for Transient Measurement of Ultralow Soot Emissions

2004-11-16
2004-01-3267
Future legislation, like EURO IV and EURO V or the US 2007 HD regulation will have massive reduction of particulate emission limits. For this beside improvement of engine combustion also exhaust aftertreatment systems are under investigation, like Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), or Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of Nitrogen Oxides. For all those tasks transient soot emission monitoring is one of the key features. To meet this demand a new device for the on-line measurement of soot emitted by combustion engines has been developed. Based on the photoacoustic principle, which has been optimized for automotive applications and easy use in test cells, the instrument shows a sensitivity of 5μg/m3, which is lower than current particulate immission standards in ambient air, and a time resolution of 1 sec. In the paper first the principles of measurement are shown, and then the specifications and results from measurements of very low soot concentration in the exhaust gas are presented.
Journal Article

A Study on Operation Fluid Consumption for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Application using both, EGR and SCR

2013-09-24
2013-01-2474
This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
Technical Paper

AVL Spectros - a Concept for Lightweight Modular Engine Design

2000-03-06
2000-01-0672
The AVL Spectros engine is a version of a potential engine family concept and an example of lightweight and modular design. The model shown and described in detail is a powerful V8 spark-ignited engine developed for the sporty limousine called I.DE.A One. The design objectives were high power density, compact overall dimensions and enhanced efficiency. These objectives have been achieved by means of downsizing, lightweight design, direct injection with exhaust gas turbo-charging and modular heat management system. One of the design targets was to match the design of the engine compartment with the outer appearance of the I.DE.A One vehicle. This was achieved by the integration of all tubes and cables in modules and the conscious avoidance of covers. The starter-alternator concept allows almost all secondary systems to be powered electrically and thus to omit any auxiliary belt drives.
Technical Paper

About Describing the Knocking Combustion in Gasoline and Gas Engines by CFD Methods

2015-09-01
2015-01-1911
Spark ignited engines are today operated more and more often under high load conditions, where one reason can be identified in the necessity of increasing the efficiency and hence reducing fuel consumption and specific CO2 emissions. Since the gasoline engine operation is inherently limited by knocking at high loads, strategies must be identified, which allow reliable identification and simulation of the appearance of this undesirable type of combustion. A new numerical model for the description of those kinds of pre-flame reactions in a CFD framework is discussed in this paper. Despite emphasis is put here on the auto-ignition effects, it will also be explained that the model is capable of supporting the engine development process in all combustion and emission related aspects.
Technical Paper

Advanced Methods for Calibration and Validation of Diesel-ECU Models Using Emission and Fuel Consumption Optimization and Prediction During Dynamic Warm Up Tests (EDC)

2013-01-09
2013-26-0113
A calibration and validation workflow will be presented in this paper, which utilizes common static global models for fuel consumption, NOx and soot. Due to the applicability for warm-up tests, e.g. New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the models need to predict the temperature influence and will be fitted with measuring data from a conditioned engine test bed. The applied model structure consisting of a number of global data-based sub-models is configured especially for the requirements of multi-injection strategies of common rail systems. Additionally common global models for several constant coolant water temperature levels are generated and the workflow tool supports the combination and segmentation of global nominal map with temperature correction maps for seamless and direct ECU setting.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Numerical Tool for Engine Noise and Vibration Simulation

1997-05-20
971992
The development of low noise engines and vehicles, accompanied by the reduction of costs and development time, can be obtained only if the design engineer is supported by complex calculation tools in a concurrent engineering process. In this respect, the reduction of vibrations (passenger comfort) and of vehicle noise (accelerated pass by noise) are important targets to meet legislative limits. AVL has been developing simulation programs for the dynamic-acoustic optimization of engines and gear trains for many years. To simulate the structure-born and air-born noise behavior of engines under operating conditions, substantial efforts on the mathematical simulation model are necessary. The simulation tool EXCITE, described in this paper, allows the calculation of the dynamic-acoustic behavior of power units.
Technical Paper

An integrated 1D/3D workflow for analysis and optimization of injection parameters of a diesel engine

2001-09-23
2001-24-0004
The present contribution gives an overview of the use of different simulation tools for the optimization of injection parameters of a diesel engine. With a one-dimensional tool, the behavior of the mechanics and fluid dynamics of the entire injection system is calculated. This simulation provides information on the dynamic needle lift, injection rates, pressures, etc. The flow within the injector is simulated using a three-dimensional CFD tool. By use of a two-phase model, it is possible to analyze the cavitating flow inside the injector and to calculate the effective nozzle hole area as well as the exit flow characteristics. Mixture formation, combustion and pollutant formation simulation is performed adopting three-dimensional CFD. In order to provide the initial and boundary conditions for the engine CFD simulation and to optimize the engine cycle performance a one-dimensional tool is adopted.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Transient Drive Cycles using CRUISE-BOOST Co-Simulation Techniques

2002-03-04
2002-01-0627
In order to improve the accuracy of vehicle simulation under transient cycle conditions and thus predict performance and fuel consumption, consideration of the complete system engine/drivetrain/vehicle is necessary. The coupling of otherwise independent simulation programs is therefore necessary for the vehicle and engine. The description of thermally transient processes enables the calculation of the heat balance of the engine, which in turn enables the simulation of warming up operation. Through consideration of the engine warming up process, the quality of the prediction of fuel consumption and emissions is improved. The combination of the simulation programs CRUISE and BOOST to determine the engine heat balance has proven to be successful for the analysis of transient drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Analytical Wall-Function Strategy for the Modelling of Turbulent Heat Transfer in the Automotive CFD Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0206
In contrast to the well-established “standard” log-law wall function, the analytical wall function (AWF) as an advanced modelling approach has not been extensively used in the industrial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. As the model was originally developed aiming at computations on relatively coarse meshes, potential stability issues may arise due to the pressure-gradient sensitivity if employing locally inappropriate mesh layers, typically associated with the complex geometry details. This work evaluates performance of the thermal AWF, as proposed by Suga [4], in conjunction with the main flow field computed employing the k-ζ-f turbulence model and the hybrid wall treatment (denoted as AWF-e) within the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) framework.
Technical Paper

Analytical system for combustion engine exhaust emissions

2000-06-12
2000-05-0346
As emission regulations become tighter and tighter, equipment must evolve to be able to achieve the new standards. Also additional test requirements demand a system that is flexible and can accommodate differences both in the tests and the test facility. By that test cell equipment for chassis dynamometer as well as engine dynamometer applications is getting increasingly complex. That also will require new concepts for the design of such systems. In the past emission system design was more likely a collection and packaging process, which has interfaced various independent components. Now, the development of modern analytical emission systems requires a true holistic design process. This paper will describe the demands and the realization of a modern emission system. It can be shown that an extended effort during the design process will result in a high performance system, which still remains simple and robust.
Technical Paper

Automated Model-Based Calibration for Drivability Using a Virtual Engine Test Cell

2015-04-14
2015-01-1628
Increasing powertrain complexity and the growing number of vehicle variants are putting a strain on current calibration development processes. This is particularly challenging for vehicle drivability calibration, which is traditionally completed late in the development cycle, only after mature vehicle hardware is available. Model-based calibration enables a shift in development tasks from the real world to the virtual world, allowing for increased system robustness while reducing development costs and time. A unique approach for drivability calibration was developed by incorporating drivability analysis software with online optimization software into a virtual engine test cell environment. Real-time, physics-based engine and vehicle simulation models were coupled with real engine controller hardware and software to execute automated drivability calibration within this environment.
Technical Paper

Automated Model-Based GDI Engine Calibration Adaptive Online DoE Approach

2002-03-04
2002-01-0708
Due to its high number of free parameters, the new generation of gasoline engines with direct injection require an efficient calibration process to handle the system complexity and to avoid a dramatic increase in calibration costs. This paper presents a concept of specific toolboxes within a standardized and automated calibration environment, supporting the complexity of GDI engines and establishing standard procedures for distributed development. The basic idea is the combination of a new and more efficient online DoE approach with the automatic and adaptive identification of the region of interest in the high dimensional parameter space. This guarantees efficient experimental designs even for highly non-linear systems with often irregularly shaped valid regions. As the main advantage for the calibration engineer, the new approach requires almost no pre-investigations and no specific statistical knowledge.
Journal Article

Blowdown Interference on a V8 Twin-Turbocharged Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0337
The exhaust blowdown pulse from each cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine propagates through the exhaust manifold and can affect the in-cylinder pressure of other cylinders which have open exhaust valves. Depending on the firing interval between cylinders connected to the same exhaust manifold, this blowdown interference can affect the exhaust stroke pumping work and the exhaust pressure during overlap, which in turn affects the residual fraction in those cylinders. These blowdown interference effects are much greater for a turbocharged engine than for one which is naturally aspirated because the volume of the exhaust manifolds is minimized to improve turbocharger transient response and because the turbines restrict the flow out of the manifolds. The uneven firing order (intervals of 90°-180°-270°-180°) on each bank of a 90° V8 engine causes the blowdown interference effects to vary dramatically between cylinders.
Technical Paper

CAE Process for Developing Cylinder Head Design Including Statistical Correlation and Shape Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0494
Design of cylinder heads involves complex constraints that must satisfy thermal, strength, performance, and manufacturing requirements which present a great challenge for successful development. During development of a new highly loaded cylinder head, CAE methods predicted unacceptable fatigue safety factors for the initial prototype design. Hydropulsator component testing was undertaken and the results were correlated with the analysis predictions using a statistical method to calculate failure probability. Shape optimization was undertaken to improve high cycle fatigue safety in vulnerable regions of the cylinder head water jacket for the subsequent design release. The optimization process provided more efficient design guidance than previously discovered through a traditional iterative approach. Follow-on investigations examined other shape optimization software for fatigue improvement in the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converters in a 1d Cycle Simulation Code Considering 3d Behavior

2003-03-03
2003-01-1002
The objective of this study to introduce the newly developed Discrete Channel Method (DCM) as a fast and efficient method for the prediction of the 3d and transient behavior of honeycomb-type catalytic converters in automotive applications. The approach is based on the assumption that the regions between the channels are treated as a reactor with a homogeneously distributed heat source due to chemical conversion. Therefore, each radial direction can be described by a center, a boundary and only a few intermediate channels between them. The discrete channels are described by transient, 1d conservation equations that characterize the behavior of channels at different radial positions. The heat entering and leaving each discrete channel is evaluated by the gradients of the temperature field in conjunction with the heat conductivity of the substrate. The approach is validated by experimental data and serves as a module in the thermodynamic and engine analysis design tool BOOST.
Technical Paper

Combustion System Development of a High Performance and Fuel Efficient TGDI Engine Guided by CFD Simulation and Test

2017-10-08
2017-01-2282
A TGDI (turbocharged gasoline direct injection) engine is developed to realize both excellent fuel economy and high dynamic performance to guarantee fun-to-drive. In order to achieve this target, it is of great importance to develop a superior combustion system for the target engine. In this study, CFD simulation analysis, steady flow test and transparent engine test investigation are extensively conducted to ensure efficient and effective design. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation is firstly conducted to optimize controlling parameters for each representative engine operating condition, and the results serve as the input and boundary condition for the subsequent Three-dimensional CFD simulation. 3D CFD simulation is carried out to guide intake port design, which is then measured and verified on steady flow test bench.
Technical Paper

Comparison of CO2 Emission Levels for Internal Combustion Engine and Fuel Cell Automotive Propulsion Systems

2001-11-12
2001-01-3751
The well-to-wheel CO2 emissions and energy use of internal combustion engines (diesel and gasoline) are compared to fuel cell automotive propulsion systems. The fuel cell technologies investigated are polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The fuels are assumed to be produced from either crude oil or natural gas. The comparison is based on driving cycle simulations of a mid-class passenger car with an inertia test weight of 1350 kg. The study shows that the optimized diesel drive train (downsized mated to an integrated starter generator) achieves the best overall energy efficiency. The lowest CO2 emissions are produced by compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. Fuel cell propulsion systems achieve similar or even better CO2 emission values under hot start conditions but suffer from high energy input required during warm-up.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particle Number Measurements from the Full Dilution Tunnel, the Tailpipe and Two Partial Flow Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1299
The regulation of particle number (PN) has been introduced in the Euro 5/6 light-duty vehicle legislation, as a result of the light duty inter-laboratory exercise of the Particle Measurement Program (PMP). The heavy-duty inter-laboratory exercise investigates whether the same or a similar procedure can be applied to the heavy-duty regulation. In the heavy-duty exercise two "golden" PN systems sample simultaneously; the first from the full dilution tunnel and the second from the partial flow system. One of the targets of the exercise is to compare the PN results from the two systems. In this study we follow a different approach: We use a PMP compliant system at different positions (full flow, partial flow and tailpipe) and we compare its emissions with a "reference" system always sampling from the full flow dilution tunnel.
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