Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

A New Device for Transient Measurement of Ultralow Soot Emissions

2004-11-16
2004-01-3267
Future legislation, like EURO IV and EURO V or the US 2007 HD regulation will have massive reduction of particulate emission limits. For this beside improvement of engine combustion also exhaust aftertreatment systems are under investigation, like Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), or Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of Nitrogen Oxides. For all those tasks transient soot emission monitoring is one of the key features. To meet this demand a new device for the on-line measurement of soot emitted by combustion engines has been developed. Based on the photoacoustic principle, which has been optimized for automotive applications and easy use in test cells, the instrument shows a sensitivity of 5μg/m3, which is lower than current particulate immission standards in ambient air, and a time resolution of 1 sec. In the paper first the principles of measurement are shown, and then the specifications and results from measurements of very low soot concentration in the exhaust gas are presented.
Technical Paper

A Novel Ultrasonic Intake Air Flow Meter for Test Bed Applications

2013-01-09
2013-26-0118
The development process of a combustion engine is now a days strongly influenced by future emission regulations which require further reduction in fuel consumption and precise control of combustion process based on Intake air measurement, during engine development. Intake air flow meters clearly differentiate themselves from typical industrial gas flow meters because of their ability to measure extremely dynamic phenomenon of combustion engine. Thus, high internal data acquisition rate, short response time, ability to measure pulsating and reverse flows with lower measurement uncertainty are the factors that ensures the reliability of the results without being affected by ambient influences, sensor contamination or sensor aging. The AVL developed FLOWSONIX™ is based on ultrasonic transit time measuring principle with broad-band Capacitive Ultrasonic Transducer (CUT) characterized by an excellent air impedance matching strongly distinguishes itself by fulfilling all those requirements.
Journal Article

A Study on Operation Fluid Consumption for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Application using both, EGR and SCR

2013-09-24
2013-01-2474
This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
Technical Paper

Accuracy of Particle Number Measurements from Partial Flow Dilution Systems

2011-09-11
2011-24-0207
The measurement of the particle number (PN) concentration of non-volatile particles ≻23 nm was introduced in the light-duty vehicles regulation; the heavy-duty regulation followed. Based on the findings of the Particle Measurement Program (PMP), heavy-duty inter-laboratory exercise, the PN concentration measurement can be conducted either from the full dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling (CVS) or from the partial flow dilution system (PFDS). However, there are no other studies that investigate whether the PN results from the two systems are equivalent. In addition, even the PMP study never investigated the uncertainty that is introduced at the final result from the extraction of a flow by a PN system from the PFDS. In this work we investigate the uncertainty for the three possible cases, i.e., considering a constant extracted flow from the PFDS, sending a signal with 1 Hz frequency to the PFDS, or feeding back the extracted flow to the PFDS.
Technical Paper

Analytical Wall-Function Strategy for the Modelling of Turbulent Heat Transfer in the Automotive CFD Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0206
In contrast to the well-established “standard” log-law wall function, the analytical wall function (AWF) as an advanced modelling approach has not been extensively used in the industrial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. As the model was originally developed aiming at computations on relatively coarse meshes, potential stability issues may arise due to the pressure-gradient sensitivity if employing locally inappropriate mesh layers, typically associated with the complex geometry details. This work evaluates performance of the thermal AWF, as proposed by Suga [4], in conjunction with the main flow field computed employing the k-ζ-f turbulence model and the hybrid wall treatment (denoted as AWF-e) within the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) framework.
Technical Paper

Automated Model-Based Calibration for Drivability Using a Virtual Engine Test Cell

2015-04-14
2015-01-1628
Increasing powertrain complexity and the growing number of vehicle variants are putting a strain on current calibration development processes. This is particularly challenging for vehicle drivability calibration, which is traditionally completed late in the development cycle, only after mature vehicle hardware is available. Model-based calibration enables a shift in development tasks from the real world to the virtual world, allowing for increased system robustness while reducing development costs and time. A unique approach for drivability calibration was developed by incorporating drivability analysis software with online optimization software into a virtual engine test cell environment. Real-time, physics-based engine and vehicle simulation models were coupled with real engine controller hardware and software to execute automated drivability calibration within this environment.
Journal Article

Computational Study of the Aerodynamics of a Realistic Car Model by Means of RANS and Hybrid RANS/LES Approaches

2014-04-01
2014-01-0594
The aerodynamic properties of a BMW car model, representing a 40%-scaled model of a relevant car configuration, are studied computationally by means of the Unsteady RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) and Hybrid RANS/LES (Large-Eddy Simulation) approaches. The reference database (geometry, operating parameters and surface pressure distribution) are adopted from an experimental investigation carried out in the wind tunnel of the BMW Group in Munich (Schrefl, 2008). The present computational study focuses on validation of some recently developed turbulence models for unsteady flow computations in conjunction with the universal wall treatment combining integration up to the wall and high Reynolds number wall functions in such complex flow situations. The turbulence model adopted in both Unsteady RANS and PANS (Partially-Averaged Navier Stokes) frameworks is the four-equation ζ − f formulation of Hanjalic et al. (2004) based on the Elliptic Relaxation Concept (Durbin, 1991).
Technical Paper

Current Findings in Measurement Technology and Measurement Methodology for RDE and Fuel Consumption for Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0041
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Cylinder- and Cycle Resolved Particle Formation Evaluation to Support GDI Engine Development for Euro 6 Targets

2011-09-11
2011-24-0206
Combustion of premixed stoichiometric charge is free of soot particle formation. Consequently, the development of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines aims at providing premixed charge to avoid or minimize soot formation in order to meet particle emissions targets. Engine development methods not only need precise engine-out particle measurement instrumentation but also sensors and measurement techniques which enable identification of in-cylinder soot formation sources under all relevant engine test conditions. Such identification is made possible by recording flame radiation signals and with analysis of such signals for premixed and diffusion flame signatures. This paper presents measurement techniques and analysis methods under normal engine and vehicle test procedures to minimize sooting combustion modes in transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Design Of SI Engines In Regard To Volume Production Beyond Year 2000

1999-03-01
1999-01-0327
The principal engine used in passenger cars is, and in the foreseeable future will be, the SI Engine. This paper summarizes AVL's experience in developing SI Engines for these vehicles. Special attention is given to the new targets of SI Engine development and the resulting design strategies during the concept phase of new engine families. The new modular concept of engine families includes a broad range of different engine designs like three to five cylinder inline and six to ten cylinder V-block engines, direct injection or fully variable valve actuation. It is shown that the design of central engine components, for example, that of the cylinder head, can be adapted for the different SI valve-train concepts by simply switching specific modular components.
Technical Paper

Design impacts on CVS systems meeting future requirements for equivalent zero emissions vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0347
The latest legislation requires a dramatic reduction of motor vehicle exhaust emission. This is also a big challenge for emission measurement instrumentation, because of almost zero concentrations of certain components in the exhaust. For current measurement devices, which are recommended by the legislation, it is almost impossible to determine such low emission levels with adequate accuracy. The paper describes a new Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) system with reduced dilution, warming and quick flow rate changing capability. Possible solutions are discussed and the properties of data measured with test facilities which are prepared to cover S-ULEV and EURO IV applications are described. Also the selection of used materials is of rising importance. The tests were performed on a dynamic engine test bed which was equipped with such a CVS system and with emission analyzing systems for raw exhaust and diluted measurements.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Measurement with Partial Flow Sampling: Systems A New Probe and Tunnel Design that Correlates with Full Flow Tunnels

2002-03-04
2002-01-0054
Partial flow sampling methods in emissions testing are interesting and preferred because of their lower cost, smaller size and applicability to engines of all sizes. However the agreement of the results obtained with instruments based on this method to those obtained with the traditional, large tunnel full flow sampling systems needs to be achieved, and the factors of construction that influence this agreement must be understood. These issues have received more attention lately in connection with ISO and WHDC standardization efforts underway to achieve a world-wide harmony in the sampling methods for heavy duty diesel engines, and with the introduction of similar Bag-minidiluter techniques into light duty SULEV gaseous pollutant measurement. This paper presents the theory and practice of a partial flow probe and tunnel design that addresses and minimizes the undesirable effects of the necessary differences between the two sampling methods.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a New Design for CVS-Systems Meeting the Requirements of S-ULEV and EURO IV

2000-03-06
2000-01-0800
The latest legislation requires the automotive industry to once again reduce the emission levels of their latest vehicles. This leads to a new challenge in the field of emission measurement, because the concentrations of certain components of the exhaust gases are extremely low. For current measurement devices, which are recommended by the legislation, it is almost impossible to determine such low emission levels with the necessary accuracy. This study evaluates the features of an improved CVS system (Constant Volume Sampling) with the possibility of heating and the ability of changing flow rates quickly. Possible solutions are discussed and the properties of data measured with test facilities which are prepared to cover S-ULEV and EURO IV applications are described. The tests were performed on a dynamic engine test bed which was equipped with such a CVS system and with emission analyzing systems for raw exhaust and diluted measurements.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations and Computations of Unsteady Flow Past a Real Car Using a Robust Elliptic Relaxation Closure with a Universal Wall Treatment

2007-04-16
2007-01-0104
In the present work we investigated experimentally and computationally the unsteady flow around a BMW car model including wheels*. This simulation yields mean flow and turbulence fields, enabling the study aerodynamic coefficients (drag and lift coefficients, three-dimensional/spatial wall-pressure distribution) as well as some unsteady flow phenomena in the car wake (analysis of the vortex shedding frequency). Comparisons with experimental findings are presented. The computational approach used is based on solving the complete transient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (TRANS) equations. Special attention is devoted to turbulence modelling and the near-wall treatment of turbulence. The flow calculations were performed using a robust, eddy-viscosity-based ζ - ƒ turbulence model in the framework of the elliptic relaxation concept and in conjunction with the universal wall treatment, combining integration up to the wall and wall functions.
Technical Paper

Flame Visualisation in Standard SI-Engines - Results of a Tomographic Combustion Analysis

1997-02-24
970870
An optical sensor system provides access to standard SI engine combustion chambers via the cylinder head gasket. Flame radiation within the plane of the gasket is observed with optical fibers which are arranged to allow the tomographic reconstruction of flame distribution. The effect of convective in-cylinder air motion generated by variations of inlet ports and combustion chamber geometries on flame propagation is directly visible. A high degree of correlation between flame intensity distribution and NOx emission levels yields a useful assessment of combustion chamber configurations with minimum emission levels. The location of knock centers is identified.
Technical Paper

Highly Integrated Fuel Cell Analysis Infrastructure for Advanced Research Topics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1180
The limitation of global warming to less than 2 °C till the end of the century is regarded as the main challenge of our time. In order to meet COP21 objectives, a clear transition from carbon-based energy sources towards renewable and carbon-free energy carriers is mandatory. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) allow an energy-efficient, resource-efficient and emission-free conversion of regenerative produced hydrogen. For these reasons fuel cell technologies emerge in stationary, mobile and logistic applications with acceptable cruising ranges as well as short refueling times. In order to perform applied research in the area of PEMFC systems, a highly integrated fuel cell analysis infrastructure for systems up to 150 kW electric power was developed and established within a cooperative research project by HyCentA Research GmbH and AVL List GmbH in Graz, Austria. A novel open testing facility with hardware in the loop (HiL) capability is presented.
Technical Paper

Objective Driveability Development of Motorcycles with AVL-DRIVE

2014-11-11
2014-32-0020
Originally developed for the automotive market, a fully automatic real-time measurement tool AVL-DRIVE is commercially available for analyzing and scoring vehicle drive quality, also known as “Driveability”. This system from AVL uses its own transducers, calibrated to the sensitivity and response of the human body to measure the forces felt by the driver, such as acceleration, shock, surging, vibration, noise, etc. Simultaneously, the vehicle operating conditions are measured, (throttle grip angle, engine speed, gear, vehicle speed, temperature, etc.). Because the software is pre-programmed with the scores from a multitude of different vehicles in each vehicle class via neural networks and fuzzy logic formula, a quality score with reference to similar competitor vehicles is instantly given. This tool is already successfully implemented in the market for years to investigate such driveability parameters for passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation of Vehicle Driveability

1998-02-23
980204
Vehicle driveability evolves more and more as a key decisive factor for marketability and competitiveness of passenger cars, since the final decision of customers to buy a car is usually taken after a more or less intensive test drive. Car manufacturers currently evaluate vehicle driveability with subjective assessments and by having their experienced test drivers fill out form sheets. These assessments are time and cost intensive, limited in repeatability and not objective. The real customer requirements cannot be recognized in detail with this method. This paper describes a completely new approach for an objective and real time evaluation of relevant driveability criteria, for use in a vehicle and on a high dynamic test bed. The vehicle application enables an objective comparison between vehicles and an application as a development tool in many development and calibration phases, where ever fast and objective driveability results are required.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Validation Programs with the Load Matrix Method

2004-10-26
2004-01-2668
The AVL Load Matrix is a systematic approach to optimize durability and reliability test programs. It is based on component-specific test acceleration factors and uses damage models as well as statistics. Using the Load Matrix approach helps to achieve complete test programs while avoiding unrealistic over-testing. The paper describes the Load Matrix concept and structure as well as the process of setting up the Load Matrix for a system or component. Examples are provided on damage models, and the procedure to estimate the acceleration factors is discussed.
Technical Paper

Pass-By Noise Prediction for Trucks Based on Powertrain Test-Cell Measurements

2001-04-30
2001-01-1564
The paper outlines and discusses the possibilities of a new instrumentation tool for the analysis of engine and gearbox noise radiation and the prediction of pass-by noise from powertrain test cell measurements. Based on a 32 channel data acquisition board, the system is intended to be quick and easy to apply in order to support engineers during their daily work in the test cell. The pass-by prediction is a purely experimental approach with test cell recordings being weighted by measured transfer functions (from the powertrain compartment to the pass-by point).
X