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Technical Paper

Automated Outlier Detection in Multidimensional Driveability Data Using AVL-DRIVE

2020-12-23
2020-01-5216
With the increased number of variants, the preservation of a brand-specific vehicle DNA becomes more and more important. Paired with growing customer expectations, brand DNA can be a crucial point in the decision-making process of buying a new vehicle. Whereas the customer will assess the DNA subjectively during driving by evaluating the vehicle drive quality (“driveability”), most manufacturers are not merely relying on subjective evaluations by having test drivers perform maneuvers with prototype vehicles. Nowadays, the assessment is performed objectively during the vehicle development process. As a supporting measure, the Anstalt für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen List (AVL) has made the objective assessment tool AVL-DRIVE commercially available. Up to now, the AVL-DRIVE ratings had to be manually analyzed and checked for outliers. Low ratings and high deviations to a priori specified target values are a good starting point for the search of outliers.
Technical Paper

Design impacts on CVS systems meeting future requirements for equivalent zero emissions vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0347
The latest legislation requires a dramatic reduction of motor vehicle exhaust emission. This is also a big challenge for emission measurement instrumentation, because of almost zero concentrations of certain components in the exhaust. For current measurement devices, which are recommended by the legislation, it is almost impossible to determine such low emission levels with adequate accuracy. The paper describes a new Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) system with reduced dilution, warming and quick flow rate changing capability. Possible solutions are discussed and the properties of data measured with test facilities which are prepared to cover S-ULEV and EURO IV applications are described. Also the selection of used materials is of rising importance. The tests were performed on a dynamic engine test bed which was equipped with such a CVS system and with emission analyzing systems for raw exhaust and diluted measurements.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a New Design for CVS-Systems Meeting the Requirements of S-ULEV and EURO IV

2000-03-06
2000-01-0800
The latest legislation requires the automotive industry to once again reduce the emission levels of their latest vehicles. This leads to a new challenge in the field of emission measurement, because the concentrations of certain components of the exhaust gases are extremely low. For current measurement devices, which are recommended by the legislation, it is almost impossible to determine such low emission levels with the necessary accuracy. This study evaluates the features of an improved CVS system (Constant Volume Sampling) with the possibility of heating and the ability of changing flow rates quickly. Possible solutions are discussed and the properties of data measured with test facilities which are prepared to cover S-ULEV and EURO IV applications are described. The tests were performed on a dynamic engine test bed which was equipped with such a CVS system and with emission analyzing systems for raw exhaust and diluted measurements.
Technical Paper

Fleet Analytics – a data-driven and synergetic fleet validation approach

2021-09-22
2021-26-0499
Current developments in automotive industry such as electrification of powertrains and continuously increasing demands from legislation (e.g. emission control systems), are pushing system complexity still further. Validation of such systems lead to a huge amount of test cases and hence extreme testing efforts on different system levels – but also on road. At the same time the pressure to reduce costs and minimize time-to-market are creating challenging boundaries on development teams. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to utilize testing and validation prototypes in the most efficient way. On the one hand it is necessary to apply high levels of instrumentation and collect as much data as possible. On the other hand, a streamlined data pipeline is required to enable the fleet managers and domain stakeholders to get new insights from the measurement data and steer the validation vehicles as well as the development team in the most efficient way.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation of Vehicle Driveability

1998-02-23
980204
Vehicle driveability evolves more and more as a key decisive factor for marketability and competitiveness of passenger cars, since the final decision of customers to buy a car is usually taken after a more or less intensive test drive. Car manufacturers currently evaluate vehicle driveability with subjective assessments and by having their experienced test drivers fill out form sheets. These assessments are time and cost intensive, limited in repeatability and not objective. The real customer requirements cannot be recognized in detail with this method. This paper describes a completely new approach for an objective and real time evaluation of relevant driveability criteria, for use in a vehicle and on a high dynamic test bed. The vehicle application enables an objective comparison between vehicles and an application as a development tool in many development and calibration phases, where ever fast and objective driveability results are required.
Technical Paper

Results, Assessment and Legislative Relevance of RDE and Fuel Consumption Measurements of Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0042
The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2]. Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation.
Journal Article

Sampling of Non-Volatile Vehicle Exhaust Particles: A Simplified Guide

2012-04-16
2012-01-0443
Recently, a particle number (PN) limit was introduced in the European light-duty vehicles legislation. The legislation requires measurement of PN, and particulate mass (PM), from the full dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling (CVS). Furthermore, PN measurements will be introduced in the next stage of the European Heavy-Duty regulation. Heavy-duty engine certification can be done either from the CVS or from a partial flow dilution system (PFDS). For research and development purposes, though, measurements are often conducted from the raw exhaust, thereby avoiding the high installation costs of CVS and PFDS. Although for legislative measurements requirements exist regarding sampling and transport of the aerosol sample, such requirements do not necessarily apply for raw exhaust measurements. Thus, measurement differences are often observed depending on where in the experimental set up sampling occurs.
Technical Paper

Systematic Development of Hybrid Systems for Commercial Vehicles

2011-10-06
2011-28-0064
The reduction of CO₂ emissions represents a major goal of governments worldwide. In developed countries, approximately 20% of the CO₂ emissions originate from transport, one third of this from commercial vehicles. CO₂ emission legislation is in place for passenger cars in a number of major markets. For commercial vehicles such legislation was also already partly published or is under discussion. Furthermore the commercial vehicles market is very cost sensitive. Thus the major share of fuel cost in the total cost of ownership of commercial vehicles was already in the past a major driver for the development of efficient drivetrain solutions. These aspects make the use of new powertrain technologies, specifically hybridization, mandatory for future commercial powertrains. While some technologies offer a greater potential for CO₂ reduction than others, they might not represent the overall optimum with regard to the total cost of ownership.
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