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Technical Paper

Advancements in High Temperature Cylinder Liner and Piston Ring Tribology

The high temperature tribology issue for uncooled Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engines where the cylinder liner piston ring interface exceeds temperatures of 225°C to 250°C has existed for decades. It is a problem that has persistently prohibited advances in non-watercooled LHR engine development. Though the problem is not specific to non-watercooled LHR diesel engines, it is the topic of this research study for the past two and one half years. In the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, a tremendous amount of research had been placed upon the development of the LHR diesel engine. LHR engine finite element design and cycle simulation models had been generated. Many of these projected the cylinder liner piston ring top ring reversal (TRR) temperature to exceed 540°C[1]. In order for the LHR diesel to succeed, a tribological solution for these high TRR temperatures had to be developed.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Measurement of Tribological Parameters between Piston Rings and Liner in Turbocharged Diesel Engine

This paper presents tribological modeling, experimental work, and validation of tribology parameters of a single cylinder turbocharged diesel engine run at various loads, speeds, intake boost pressures, and cylinder liner temperatures. Analysis were made on piston rings and liner materials, rings mechanical and thermal loads, contact pressure between rings and liner, and lubricant conditions. The engine tribology parameters were measured, and used to validate the engine tribology models. These tribology parameters are: oil film thickness, coefficient of friction between rings and liner, friction force, friction power, friction torque, shear rate, shear stress and wear of the sliding surfaces. In order to measure the oil film thickness between rings and liner, a single cylinder AVL turbocharged diesel engine was instrumented to accept the difference in voltage drop method between rings, oil film, and liner.
Technical Paper

Nato Durability Test of an Adiabatic Truck Engine

A previous paper (1)* described the performance improvements which can be obtained by using an “adiabatic” (uncooled) engine for military trucks. The fuel economy improved 16% to 37% (depending upon the duty cycle) and was documented by dynamometer testing and vehicle testing and affirmed by vehicle simulation. The purpose of this paper is to document a NATO cycle 400 hour durability test which was performed on the same model adiabatic engine. The test results showed that the engine has excellent durability, low lubricating oil consumption and minimal deposits.
Technical Paper

Recent Development of Tribological Coatings for High Temperature Engines

Lubrication of advanced high temperature engines has been one of the greatest obstacles in the development of the Adiabatic engine. Liquid lubricants which gave lubricating properties as well as heat removal function can no longer carry out this duty when piston ring top ring reversal temperatures approach 540°C. Solid lubricants offer some hope. Since solid lubricants cannot perform the heat removal function, its coefficient of friction must be very low, at least <0.10, in order to prevent heat build up and subsequent destruction to the piston rings and cylinder liners. The Hybrid Piston concept developed in the U.S. Army Advanced Tribology program offers some hope, since the top solid lubricant ring slides over the bottom hydrodynamic lubricant film section during each stroke. This paper presents the progress made with the solid lubricant top ring in the Hybrid Piston. Four materials have shown promise in the laboratory to fullfil its mission.