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Technical Paper

Advancements in High Temperature Cylinder Liner and Piston Ring Tribology

The high temperature tribology issue for uncooled Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engines where the cylinder liner piston ring interface exceeds temperatures of 225°C to 250°C has existed for decades. It is a problem that has persistently prohibited advances in non-watercooled LHR engine development. Though the problem is not specific to non-watercooled LHR diesel engines, it is the topic of this research study for the past two and one half years. In the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, a tremendous amount of research had been placed upon the development of the LHR diesel engine. LHR engine finite element design and cycle simulation models had been generated. Many of these projected the cylinder liner piston ring top ring reversal (TRR) temperature to exceed 540°C[1]. In order for the LHR diesel to succeed, a tribological solution for these high TRR temperatures had to be developed.
Technical Paper

Coatings for Improving Engine Performance

Thermal barrier coatings are becoming increasingly important in providing thermal insulation for heat engine components. Thermal insulation reduces in-cylinder heat transfer from the engine combustion chamber as well as reducing component structural temperatures. Containment of heat also contributes to increased in-cylinder work and offers higher exhaust temperatures for energy recovery. Lower component structural temperatures will result in greater durability. Advanced ceramic composite coatings also offer the unique properties that can provide reductions in friction and wear. Test results and analysis to evaluate the performance benefits of thin thermal barrier coated components in a single cylinder diesel engine are presented.
Technical Paper

Development of High Temperature Diesel Engine Piston Ring and Cylinder Liner Tribology

Adiabatics, Inc. with the support of the U.S. Army Tank Automotive & Armaments Command has examined the feasibility of using Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) films and Iron Titanate (Fe2TiO5 or IT) for sliding contact surfaces in Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engines. DLCs have long been a popular candidate for use in sliding contact tribo-surfaces where a perceived reduction of friction losses will result in increased engine efficiency [1]. There exists a broad range of technologies for applying DLC films. This paper examines several types of these technologies and their future application to automotive internal combustion engines. Our work focuses upon DLC use for LHR military diesel engines where operating temperatures and pressures are higher than conventional diesel engines. However, a direct transfer of this technology to automotive diesel or gasoline engines exists for these thin films.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Bore Coating for Extreme Operating Conditions

Adiabatics, Inc., with the support of the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research & Development Engineering Center (TARDEC) has developed a low cost, durable ceramic composite cylinder bore coating for diesel engines operating under severe conditions. This bore coating is a ceramic composite consisting primarily of Iron Oxide, Iron Titanate and Partially Stabilized Zirconia. It is applied by unique chemical thermal bonding technology developed at Adiabatics, Inc. and is referred to as Low Temperature Iron Titanate (LTIT). This coating has been tested against a wide range of cylinder bore treatments ranging from hard chrome plate to hard Nickel Silicon Carbide (NikaSil) and found to provide a superior sliding wear surface. It is superior because it is compatible against most common piston ring materials and coatings.
Technical Paper

Emissions Comparisons of an Insulated Turbocharged Multi-Cylinder Miller Cycle Diesel Engine

The experimental emissions testing of a turbocharged six cylinder Caterpillar 3116 diesel engine converted to the Miller cycle operation was conducted. Delayed intake valve closing times were also investigated. Effects of intake valve closing time, injection time, and insulation of piston, head, and liner on the emission characteristics of the Miller cycle engine were experimentally verified. Superior performance and emission characteristic was achieved with a LHR insulated engine. Therefore, all emission and performance comparisons are made with LHR insulated standard engine with LHR insulated Miller cycle engine. Particularly, NOx, CO2, HC, smoke and BSFC data are obtained for comparison. Effect of increasing the intake boost pressure on emission was also studied. Poor emission characteristics of the Miller cycle engine are shown to improve with increased boost pressure. Performance of the insulated Miller cycle engine shows improvement in BSFC when compared to the base engine.
Technical Paper

High Pressure Fuel Injection for High Power Density Diesel Engines

High-pressure fuel injection combustion is being applied as an approach to increase the power density of diesel engines. The high-pressure injection enables higher air utilization and thus improved smoke free low air-fuel ratio combustion is obtained. It also greatly increases the injection rate and reduces combustion duration that permits timing retard for lower peak cylinder pressure and improved emissions without a loss in fuel consumption. Optimization of these injection parameters offers increased power density opportunities. The lower air-fuel ratio is also conducive to simpler air-handling and lower pressure ratio turbocharger requirements. This paper includes laboratory data demonstrating a 26 percent increase in power density by optimizing these parameters with injection pressures to 200 mPa.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Economy of Insulated Engine by Matching the Fuel System

This paper deals with the analysis of heat release characteristics of an insulated turbocharged, six cylinder, DI contemporary diesel engine. The engine is fully insulated with thin thermal barrier coatings. Effect of insulation on the heat release was experimentally verified. Tests were carried over a range of engine speeds at 100%, 93%, 75% and 50% of rated torque. Fuel injection system was instrumented to obtain injection pressure characteristics. The study shows that rate of heat release, particularly in the major portion of the combustion, is higher for the insulated engine. Improvement in heat release and performance are primarily attributed to reduction in heat transfer loss due to the thin thermal barrier coating. Injection pressure at the rated speed and torque was found to be 138 MPa and there was no degradation of combustion process in the insulated engine. Improvements in BSFC at 93% load are 3.25% and 6% at 1600 and 2600 RPM, respectively.
Technical Paper

Low Heat Rejection From High Output Ceramic Coated Diesel Engine and Its Impact on Future Design

A high output experimental single cylinder diesel engine that was fully coated and insulated with a ceramic slurry coated combustion chamber was tested at full load and full speed. The cylinder liner and cylinder head mere constructed of 410 Series stainless steel and the top half of the articulated piston and the cylinder head top deck plate were made of titanium. The cylinder liner, head plate and the piston crown were coated with ceramic slurry coating. An adiabaticity of 35 percent was predicted for the insulated engine. The top ring reversal area on the cylinder liner was oil cooled. In spite of the high boost pressure ratio of 4:1, the pressure charged air was not aftercooled. No deterioration in engine volumetric efficiency was noted. At full load (260 psi BMEP) and 2600 rpm, the coolant heat rejection rate of 12 btu/hp.min. was achieved. The original engine build had coolant heat rejection of 18.3 btu/hp-min and exhaust energy heat rejection of 42.3 btu/hp-min at full load.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Measurement of Tribological Parameters between Piston Rings and Liner in Turbocharged Diesel Engine

This paper presents tribological modeling, experimental work, and validation of tribology parameters of a single cylinder turbocharged diesel engine run at various loads, speeds, intake boost pressures, and cylinder liner temperatures. Analysis were made on piston rings and liner materials, rings mechanical and thermal loads, contact pressure between rings and liner, and lubricant conditions. The engine tribology parameters were measured, and used to validate the engine tribology models. These tribology parameters are: oil film thickness, coefficient of friction between rings and liner, friction force, friction power, friction torque, shear rate, shear stress and wear of the sliding surfaces. In order to measure the oil film thickness between rings and liner, a single cylinder AVL turbocharged diesel engine was instrumented to accept the difference in voltage drop method between rings, oil film, and liner.
Technical Paper

Nato Durability Test of an Adiabatic Truck Engine

A previous paper (1)* described the performance improvements which can be obtained by using an “adiabatic” (uncooled) engine for military trucks. The fuel economy improved 16% to 37% (depending upon the duty cycle) and was documented by dynamometer testing and vehicle testing and affirmed by vehicle simulation. The purpose of this paper is to document a NATO cycle 400 hour durability test which was performed on the same model adiabatic engine. The test results showed that the engine has excellent durability, low lubricating oil consumption and minimal deposits.
Technical Paper

Performance of Thin Thermal Barrier Coating on Small Aluminum Block Diesel Engine

The cylinder of the aluminum engine block without iron sleeve was coated directly with thin thermal barrier coatings of zirconia and chrome oxide. The cylinder head and valve face and the piston crown were also coated. These three engine components were tested individually and together. The fuel consumption performance of this 84 x 70 mm direct injection diesel engine improved 10% with only coated cylinder bore. When the fuel injection timing of the coated cylinder bore engine was retarded by about 2°CA, emissions characteristics were approximately the same level as for the baseline engine with 8% improvement in brake specific fuel consumption compared with the baseline engine. At constant fuel flow rate to the engine, the exhaust and cylinder head temperatures were higher for the insulated bore case. One can summarize the combustion temperature must have been higher and heat release rates were faster in the insulated case.
Technical Paper

Recent Development of Tribological Coatings for High Temperature Engines

Lubrication of advanced high temperature engines has been one of the greatest obstacles in the development of the Adiabatic engine. Liquid lubricants which gave lubricating properties as well as heat removal function can no longer carry out this duty when piston ring top ring reversal temperatures approach 540°C. Solid lubricants offer some hope. Since solid lubricants cannot perform the heat removal function, its coefficient of friction must be very low, at least <0.10, in order to prevent heat build up and subsequent destruction to the piston rings and cylinder liners. The Hybrid Piston concept developed in the U.S. Army Advanced Tribology program offers some hope, since the top solid lubricant ring slides over the bottom hydrodynamic lubricant film section during each stroke. This paper presents the progress made with the solid lubricant top ring in the Hybrid Piston. Four materials have shown promise in the laboratory to fullfil its mission.