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Technical Paper

Assessment of the Strain-Rate Dependent Tensile Properties of Automotive Sheet Steels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0507
High strain rate test methods to obtain strain-rate dependent sheet steel tensile properties are considered. A tensile test method for sheet steels was developed to obtain accurate stress-strain data over the strain rate range from 0.001 s-1 to 500 s-1 using a servo-hydraulic test machine and tensile samples instrumented with strain gages. Results on several different automotive sheet steels, including interstitial free (IF), high strength low alloy (HSLA), dual phase (DP), and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, are presented. The results show that strain rate response differs between the various alloy systems. These results are compared with previously published data on strain-rate dependent steel properties. The importance of stress-strain curve shapes, which depend on alloy system, on energy absorption calculations using areas under stress-strain curves are also described.
Technical Paper

Bending Fatigue Properties of Prestrained Interstitial Free Zinc-Coated Sheet Steels

2000-03-06
2000-01-0309
The effects of prestrain and zinc coating type on the bending fatigue behavior of titanium-stabilized interstitial free steel were evaluated. From a single zinc bath chemistry, coated sheet steel samples were prepared with either a hot dip galvanized or galvannealed coating. Uniaxial tensile prestrains of 2 and 4 pct. were introduced parallel to the rolling direction on 12.7 cm wide strips. Krouse-type fatigue samples were machined both parallel and transverse to the rolling/prestrain direction. Reversed bending S-N fatigue data showed that the fatigue resistance depended on a complex interaction between the strength increase due to work hardening and fatigue crack development as altered by the presence of the coatings. For both coating types the fatigue resistance increased with prestrain. During prestrain, coating cracks oriented perpendicular to the tensile prestrain direction developed and the crack density was greater in the galvannealed materials.
Technical Paper

Bending Fatigue of Carburized Steels: A Statistical Analysis of Process and Microstructural Parameters

2000-03-06
2000-01-0611
A large set of bending fatigue data on carburized steels has been statistically analyzed to quantitatively describe the effects of process and microstructural variables. Increasing demands on gear steels require a broad examination of past bending fatigue research to reveal the primary factors that determine fatigue performance and guide future gear steel design. Fatigue performance was correlated to specimen characteristics such as retained austenite content, case and core grain size, extent of intergranular oxidation, surface roughness, and the case profiles of residual stress, hardness, and carbon content. Prior austenite grain size in the case and surface residual stress were found to most strongly influence bending fatigue endurance limit. A multiple regression model to predict endurance limit achieved an R-squared value of 0.56.
Technical Paper

Deep Rolling Response of Notched Medium Carbon Bar Steels

2004-03-08
2004-01-1528
The effects of deep rolling were evaluated by reviewing the fatigue performance of three medium-carbon (0.4 C) bar steels representing microstructural classes characteristic of forging steels used for crankshaft and other automotive applications. Deep rolling is a surface deformation process whereby a radially symmetric work piece undergoes a surface deformation operation. The steel grades included a quenched and tempered alloy steel (4140) that demonstrated a high yield stress and low strain hardening rate, a non-traditional bainitic experimental grade (1.2 Mn, 0.72 Si) containing high amounts of retained austenite with low yield stress and high strain hardening rate, and a ferritic/pearlitic grade (1.3 Mn, 0.56 Si) with a low yield stress and medium strain rate hardening rate. A reproducible test methodology to assess fatigue behavior was developed, based on flex-beam, fully reversed, S-N type laboratory fatigue testing.
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