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Journal Article

A Cockpit Point of View on "Human Factors" for a Changing ATM Environment

2011-10-18
2011-01-2709
The vision of SESAR is to integrate and implement new technologies to improve air traffic management (ATM) performance. Enhanced automation and new separation modes characterize the future concept of operations, where the role of the human operator will remain central by integrating more managing and decision-making functions. The expected changes represent challenges for the human actors in the aircraft and on ground and must be taken into account during the development phase. Integrating the human in the ATM system development starting from the early design phase is a key factor for future acceptability. This paper describes the adaptation of currently applied Cockpit Human Factors processes in order to be able to design the aircraft for the future ATM environment.
Journal Article

A Model-based Solution to Robust and Early Detection of Control Surface Runaways

2011-10-18
2011-01-2803
This paper discusses the design of a model-based fault detection scheme for robust and early detection of runaways in aircraft control surfaces servo-loop. The proposed scheme can be embedded within the structure of in-service monitoring systems as a part of the Flight Control Computer (FCC) software. The final goal is to contribute to improve the performance detection of unanticipated runaway faulty profiles having very different dynamic behaviors, while retaining a perfect robustness. The paper discusses also the tradeoffs between adequacy of the technique and its implementation level, industrial validation process with Engineering support tools, as well as the tuning aspects. The proposed methodology is based on a combined data-driven and system-based approach using a dedicated Kalman filtering. The technique provides an effective method ensuring robustness and good performance (well-defined real-time characteristics and well-defined error rates).
Technical Paper

A New Approach Based on Statistical Modeling of Electrical Consumption for Electrical Generator Demand Estimation

2011-10-18
2011-01-2669
With the last generation of large aircraft, the electrical needs have increased to reach a power close to 1MW. A power increase directly impacts one of the prominent criterions in aircraft design process: weight. Therefore, designers face the challenge to reduce generation while the power demand is increasing. The proposed paper details a methodology based on statistical approach to estimate the electrical consumption of an electrical network. Moreover, the modeling proposed in this paper allows taking into account peaks defined by their power and duration. Based on in-service measurements on commercial aircraft flights, this study proposes two methods to estimate electrical consumption of an electrical network. The first method is described. Based on modeling thanks to an efficient clustering, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed on all the loads to estimate the electrical power on the network with relevant results.
Technical Paper

A350XWB Icing Certification Overview

2015-06-15
2015-01-2111
The intent of this paper is to provide a general overview of the main engineering and test activities conducted in order to support A350XWB Ice and Rain Protection Systems certification. Several means of compliance have been used to demonstrate compliance with applicable Certification Basis (CS 25 at Amendment 8 + CS 25.795 at Amendment 9, FAR 25 up to Amendment 129) and Environmental protection requirements. The EASA Type Certificate for the A350XWB was received the 30th September 2014 after 7 years of development and verification that the design performs as required, with five A350XWB test aircraft accumulating more than 2600 flight test hours and over 600 flights. The flight tests were performed in dry air and measured natural icing conditions to demonstrate the performance of all ice and rain protection systems and to support the compliance demonstration with CS 25.1419 and CS25.21g.
Journal Article

ARP4754A/ ED-79A - Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems - Enhancements, Novelties and Key Topics

2011-10-18
2011-01-2564
ARP4754A/ED-79A guidelines addresse the development cycle for aircraft and systems that implement aircraft functions. The current trend in system design is an increasing level of integration between aircraft functions and the systems that implement them. While there can be considerable value gained when integrating systems with other systems, the increased complexity yields increased possibilities for errors, particularly with functions that are performed jointly across multiple systems. Following the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) recommendations to respond to this increased integration which referenced ARP4754/ED-79 in advisory materials for compliance to 14CFR/CS 25.1309 (see AMC 25.1309, published in 2002 and AC25.1309-Arsenal draft) the use of ARP4754A/ED79A in aircraft certification has become increasingly widespread.
Technical Paper

Aeronautical Fuel Cell System Application and Associated Standardization Work

2006-11-07
2006-01-3093
Airbus is a leading aircraft manufacturer with the position as technology driver and a distinct customer orientation, broad commercial know-how and high production efficiencies. It is constantly working on further and new development of its products from ecological and economical points of view. Fuel Cell Systems (FCS) on board of an aircraft provide a good opportunity to address both aspects. Based on existing and upcoming research results it is necessary to find trend-setting measures for the industrial implementation and application of this technology. Past and current research efforts have shown good prospects for the industrial implementation and application of the fuel cell technology. Being an efficient source of primarily electric power the fuel cell would be most beneficial when used in conjunction with electrical systems.
Technical Paper

Application of EASA Part 21 Requirement Regarding Change to Aircraft Type Design by Airbus

2013-09-17
2013-01-2124
Airbus business and Extended Enterprise require more and more involvement of design and built suppliers, tier 1 but also across the complete supply chain i.e. tier 2-n. These suppliers are not working only for Aerospace industry and may have different cultures. The pressure on cost and overall efficiency is high and everybody has to cope with obsolescence and new regulation (e.g. REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals)). So it became very important for Airbus to clarify the criteria under which a change can be done without Airbus review, and criteria under which a change can be done without Airworthiness authority review.
Journal Article

Application of Genetic Algorithm for Preliminary Trajectory Optimization

2011-10-18
2011-01-2594
The aviation sector has played a significant role in shaping the world into what it is today. The rapid growth of global economies and the corresponding sharp rise in the number of people now wanting to travel on business and for pleasure, has largely been responsible for the development of this industry. With a predicted rise in Revenue Passenger Kilometers (RPK) by over 150% in the next 20 years, the industry will correspondingly be a significant contributor to environmental emissions. Under such circumstances optimizing aircraft trajectories for lowered emissions will play a critical role amongst various other measures, in mitigating the probable environmental effects of increased air traffic. Aircraft trajectory optimization using evolutionary algorithms is a novel field and preliminary studies have indicated that a reduction in emissions is possible when set as objectives.
Journal Article

Application of Model Based Functional Specification Methods to Environmental Control Systems Engineering

2011-10-18
2011-01-2504
The paper presents an innovative approach for the functional specification of complex and highly integrated aircraft control systems, such as the Environmental Control System (ECS), by applying model based specification methods. Complexity and effectiveness of modern ECS have significantly increased during the last few years along with development of new technologies and innovations in control engineering as well as digital data distribution and processing. Efficient management of cabin air flows on the one hand makes the ECS more energy-saving and on the other hand more complex with regard to its functionality and interaction with other interfaced aircraft systems. Numerous data interfaces to other systems and a high degree of automation are typical for a modern ECS. The aircraft manufacturer specifies the entire ECS functions and its interactions within the aircraft.
Technical Paper

Applying a Concept for Robot-Human Cooperation to Aerospace Equipping Processes

2011-10-18
2011-01-2655
Significant effort has been applied to the introduction of automation for the structural assembly of aircraft. However, the equipping of the aircraft with internal services such as hydraulics, fuel, bleed-air and electrics and the attachment of movables such as ailerons and flaps remains almost exclusively manual and little research has been directed towards it. The problem is that the process requires lengthy assembly methods and there are many complex tasks which require high levels of dexterity and judgement from human operators. The parts used are prone to tolerance stack-ups, the tolerance for mating parts is extremely tight (sub-millimetre) and access is very poor. All of these make the application of conventional automation almost impossible. A possible solution is flexible metrology assisted collaborative assembly. This aims to optimise the assembly processes by using a robot to position the parts whilst an operator performs the fixing process.
Journal Article

Blind Bolts Developments

2011-10-18
2011-01-2755
There is an ever growing demand for blind fastener in the aerospace industry. This demand is driven not only by the advantages of single sided installation, but also by the potential to fully automate their installation process. Blind fasteners can easily be integrated with innovative end-effectors that combine drilling, installation and inspection systems, enabling the reduction of process cycle times and their associated cost savings. Clearly the advantages of single sided installation are a key benefit, but it cannot be forgotten that currently the mechanical performance of these systems is reduced compared with conventional threaded or swaged parallel shank fasteners. There are other important drawbacks existing around them which could penalise significantly the optimised design and performance of the structures. Specific key characteristics that take into account some of these drawbacks have been established by Airbus which will be referenced in this paper.
Book

Care and Repair of Advanced Composites, Second Edition

2005-06-22
This second edition has been extensively updated to keep pace with the growing use of composite materials in commercial aviation. A worldwide reference for repair technicians and design engineers, the book is an outgrowth of the course syllabus that was developed by the Training Task Group of SAE's Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC) and published as SAE AIR 4938, Composite and Bonded Structure Technician Specialist Training Document. Topics new to this edition include: Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) Methods Fasteners for Composite Materials A Method for the Surface Preparation of Metals Prior to Adhesive Bonding Repair Design Although this book has been written primarily for use in aircraft repair other applications including marine and automotive are also covered.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Hypervisors for Security-Enhanced Avionics Applications

2011-10-18
2011-01-2805
Traditionally, software in avionics has been totally separated from open-world software, in order to avoid any interaction that could corrupt critical on-board systems. However, new aircraft generations need more interaction with off-board systems to offer extended services, which makes these information flows potentially dangerous. In a previous work, we have proposed the use of virtualization to ensure dependability of critical applications despite bidirectional communication between critical on-board systems and untrusted off-board systems. We have developed a test bed to assess the performance impact induced by the use of virtualization. In this work, various configurations have been experimented that range from a basic machine without an OS up to the complete architecture featuring a hypervisor and an OS running in a virtual machine. Several tests (computation, memory, network) are carried out, and timing measures are collected on different hypervisors.
Technical Paper

Combination of Experimental and Computational Approaches to A320 Wing Assembly

2017-09-19
2017-01-2085
The paper is devoted to the simulation of A320 wing assembly on the base of numerical experiments carried out with the help of ASRP software. The main goal is to find fasteners’ configuration with minimal number of fastening elements that provides closing of admissible initial gaps. However, for considered junction type initial gap field is not known a priori though it should be provided as input data for computations. In order to resolve this problem the methodology of random initial gap generation based on available results of gap measurements is developed along with algorithms for optimization of fasteners' configuration on generated initial gaps. Presented paper illustrates how this methodology allows optimizing assembly process for A320 wing.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Temperature Power Module Technology with SiC Devices for High Density Power Electronics

2011-10-18
2011-01-2620
This paper presents the development of a high density packaging technology for wide band gap power devices, such as silicon carbide (SiC). These devices are interesting candidates for the next aircraft power electronic converters. Effectively they achieve high switching frequencies thanks to the low losses level. High switching frequencies lead to reduce the passive components size and to an overall weight reduction of power converters. Moreover, SiC devices may enable operation at junction temperatures around 250°C. The cooling requirement is much less stringent than for usual Si devices. This might considerably simplify the cooling system, and reduce the overall weight. To achieve the integration requirements for SiC devices, classical wire bonding interconnection is replaced by a stacked packaging using bump interconnection technologies, called sandwich. These technologies offer two thermal paths to drain heat out and present more power integration possibilities.
Technical Paper

EMA Aileron COVADIS Development

2011-10-18
2011-01-2729
In the frame of the COVADIS project (flight control with distributed intelligence and systems integration) supported by the DPAC and where Airbus and Sagem are partners, an electromechanical actuator (EMA) developed and produced by Sagem (SAFRAN group) flew for the first time in January 2011 as an aileron primary flight control of the Airbus A320 flight test Aircraft. With this new type of actuator, in the scope of the preparation of the future Airbus Aircraft, the perspectives of using EMA technologies for the flight control systems is an important potential enabler in the more electrical aircraft. The paper deals with the development phase of this actuator from the definition phase up to the flight tests campaign. It is focused on : COVADIS project context (flight control with distributed intelligence and systems integration), The challenges of the definition phase, Test results presentation (ground and flight).
Technical Paper

Eco-efficient Materials for Aircraft Application

2011-10-18
2011-01-2742
Due to the importance of fulfilling the actual and upcoming environmental legislation, it is an Airbus main target to develop eco-efficient materials. Under consideration of the economical effects, these processes will be implemented into the production line. This paper gives an overview of Airbus and its partners research work, the results obtained within the frame of the European funded, integrated technology demonstrator (ITD) ECO Design for Airframe. This ITD is part of the joint technology initiative Clean Sky. Developments with different grade of maturity from “upstream” as the investigation of materials from renewable recourses up to materials now in use in production as low volatile organic compounds cleaner are under investigation. As a basis for future eco-efficient developments an approach for a quantitative life cycle assessment will be demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Engine Control, An Aircraft Atypical Computer: How to Set the Standard?

2011-10-18
2011-01-2543
Four years ago Airbus became actively involved in the SAE E36, Electronic Engine Control committee. This paper presents an Airframe Manufacturer view of one current working practices discussion relative to the FADEC electrical hardware change and describes an Airframe Manufacturer views on the committee's effectiveness along with a vision for its future. The SAE E36 committee is a representation of the propulsion control engineering community. The members comes from Airworthiness Authorities and other government and military agencies, airframers, engine manufacturers and control suppliers from North America, South America and Europe (including Russia). An active involvement allows an aircraft manufacturer to participate actively in the process and “to set the standard”. An additional benefit is to be aware of “what's hot”.
Technical Paper

Extended Non-Destructive Testing of Composite Bonds

2011-10-18
2011-01-2514
Composite materials are increasingly being used in the manufacturing of structural components in aeronautics industry. A consequent light-weight design of CFRP primary structures requires adhesive bonding as the optimum joining technique but is limited due to a lack of adequate quality assurance procedures. The successful implementation of a reliable quality assurance concept for adhesive bonding within manufacturing and in-service environments will provide the basis for increased use of lightweight composite materials for highly integrated aircraft structures thus minimizing rivet-based assembly. The expected weight saving for the fuselage airframe is remarkable and therefore the driver for research and development of key-enabling technologies. The performance of adhesive bonds mainly depends on the physico-chemical properties of adherend surfaces.
Technical Paper

Extension of a 2D Algorithm for Catch Efficiency Calculation to Three Dimensions

2019-06-10
2019-01-2013
Accurate calculation of the catch efficiency β is of paramount importance for any ice accretion calculation since β is the most important factor in determining the mass of ice accretion. A new scheme has been proposed recently in [1] for accurately calculating β on a discretized two-dimensional geometry based on the results of a Lagrangian droplet trajectory integrator (start and impact conditions). This paper proposes an extension to the algorithm in Ref. [1], which is applicable to three-dimensional surfaces with arbitrary surface discretization. The 3D algorithm maintains the positive attributes of the original 2D algorithm, namely mass conservation of the impinging water, capability to deal with overlapping impingement regions and with crossing trajectories, computational efficiency of the algorithm, and low number of trajectories required to reach good accuracy in catch efficiency.
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