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Technical Paper

Development of 4WS Control Algorithm for a SUV

Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV) and light duty trucks have gained in popularity for the last several years and the demand for more car-like behavior has increased, accordingly. Two areas for potential improvement are vehicle stability and maneuverability while parking. 4WS (4 wheel steering system) is known as an effective solution to stability and low speed maneuverability. In this paper, we identify a new systematic design method of two degree of freedom vehicle state feedback control algorithm that can improve vehicle stability, and show its control effects for a SUV with trailer towing. Low speed maneuvering is improved when the rear tires are steered in negative phase relative to the front tires. However with a large rear steer angle at low speed, the vehicle's rear overhang tracks a wider swing-out path than a 2WS vehicle. For this concern, we propose a new swing-out reduction control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Development of Power Sliding Door (PSD) System with Push-Pull Cable Driving Method

We have developed a power sliding door (PSD) system driven by a push-pull cable. The door closure and slide are operated by different actuators to limit the force required for a compact, light-weight drive unit. This paper introduces the concept of the PSD system using a push-pull cable drive. Two new technologies to achieve the PSD system are also described. One is the door position control for increasing the push-pull cable reliability. The other is a compact position sensor to accurately detect the sliding door's position.
Technical Paper

Development of Robust Motor Servo Control for Rear Steering Actuator Based on Two-Degree-of-Freedom Control System

Rear steering system can improve vehicle stability using active control of the rear wheel angles. For designing the rear steering system, environmental conditions, performance deterioration due to aging and component variation as a result of manufacturing tolerance under mass production must be taken into consideration. We have applied two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) feedback control with feedforward control for the motor servo control so that the rear steering actuator can track the target rear steering angle accurately and stably. The control system is designed based upon a nominal mathematical model and its variation range. As a result, the rear steering actuator can be controlled with excellent performance and high reliability. This paper describes the mathematical model construction in the frequency domain and a robust motor servo controller design based on 2DOF feedback control with feedforward control.
Technical Paper

Development of Self-Contained Hydraulic Valve Lifter

The conventional hydraulic valve lifters, which eliminate the valve clearance adjustment, normally use the pressurized engine lubricant for the working fluid. We have developed a quite new type lifter, named “self-contained hydraulic valve lifter”, which possesses the working fluid in itself. Because the new type lifter is independent of the pressurized engine lubricant, it has some advantages, especially that it can be applied to the existing engine using the mechanical valve gear without almost any engine modifications. And we have confirmed that the self-contained hydraulic valve lifter has good characteristics and reliability and have applied it to the mass production engine (i.e. Toyota 1.3L gasoline engine) for the first time in the world. This paper describes the construction, the characteristics and the reliability of this lifter.
Technical Paper

Development of Shape Memory Alloy Spring for Oil Flow Control Valve in Clutch System

Drive train components (transmission, differential gears, etc.) can be made smaller and lighter if the excessive torque exerted on them can be reduced during the quick start of a vehicle. An orifice put in the hydraulic clutch piping path is an effective method. However, increased oil viscosity at low temperatures (0°C or below) makes the “pedal feel” worse. In order to increase the orifice diameter for better “pedal feel”, a shape memory alloy spring, for operation at low temperatures, was developed by adding cobalt to the nickel-titanium alloy. Consequently, a Variable-Orifice valve, using the shape memory alloy spring, is practical.
Technical Paper

Development of Switched Reluctance Motor for EV Traction System

Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) mainly has two advantageous characteristics such as no magnet and simple construction. These characteristics contribute lower cost and higher reliability compared with other motor systems such as brushless permanent magnet motors or induction motors. However, acoustic noise and output torque ripple should be improved when the SRM is applied to a traction system for passenger electric vehicle since these characteristics directly affect vehicle quietness and drivability. In this paper, we describe a system configuration of the SRM traction system for passenger electric vehicle. The SRM traction system includes an electric motor, transmission gears and power inverter module. Then, an approach to improve acoustic noise and output torque ripple is introduced. Generation mechanisms of acoustic noise and output torque ripple are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Development of Variable Displacement Oil Pump for Automotive Active Suspension

A new variable displacement pump has been developed. This pump can variably change its discharged flow rate in accordance with the revolution changes of an automotive engine from idling engine speed to 6000rpm. It can quickly discharge oil necessary for controlling the autmotive active suspension system. This pump is of a swash plate, axial piston type which controls optimal fluid flow in time by using a pressure sensing control valve. Further, in order to improve the quietness in the vehicle system, the pulsation of the pump pressure was reduced and this pump's utility was realized for automobile use. This is a report on how the pump was introduced for commercial automobile use.
Technical Paper

Development of the Synchronizer-Less System for HV-AMT

Recently, for the aspects of ecology and economy, fuel efficiency improvement demand has been increased globally. And, various types of hybrid systems have been suggested. In response to this market demand, AISIN SEIKI has been developing Synchronizer-less hybrid automated manual transmission (HV-AMT) system aiming excellent transmission efficiency, excellent agility, and shift change quality like a step automatic transmission (AT). This hybrid system is constructed based upon a parallel 2-axis manual transmission (MT) which originally has high transmission efficiency. The synchronizer system of a MT is replaced by a Dog clutch system which does not spoil the transmission efficiency and never makes failure in synchronization. This Dog clutch system includes a modified detent function, a shift actuator of linear motor, advanced function controls for a clutch and a shift actuator.
Technical Paper

Experimental Approach for Evaluating Tire Characteristics and ABS Performance

Chassis control systems, including ABS, traction control and vehicle stability control, utilize the available tire forces to improve vehicle acceleration, deceleration, handling and stability for active safety. Thus, it can be very beneficial to evaluate the tire force characteristics on actual road surfaces and use this information in the chassis control systems. In this paper, the research activities on evaluating the tire force characteristics and the performance of chassis control systems are introduced. The test procedure described for measuring the tire force characteristics on actual road surfaces using a test vehicle is relatively easy. The brake and side force characteristics are shown from the experimental data. The tire force characteristics during ABS braking were measured on various road surfaces. ABS performance is discussed based on the measured tire force characteristics.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Vehicle Directional Stability for Transient Steering Maneuvers Using Active Brake Control

In this paper, we discuss vehicle directional stability and introduce advanced stability control (ASTC) to stabilize the vehicle during severe cornering. Vehicle behavior in a transient steering condition during severe cornering was analyzed by computer simulation. It was found that applying an external yaw moment makes the vehicle more stable. The effect of controlling the brake force response is also evaluated by simulation to determine the brake actuator response criteria. The actual vehicle test was performed with a pylon slalom using a hydraulic brake actuator. It is verified that the ASTC stabilizes the vehicle for transient steering maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Long-Life Potentiometer for Automobiles

Aiming at improved reliability and cost reduction of position sensors for automobiles, we tackled with the challenge of developing long life contact type potentiometer which has a simple construction and cost advantage. We made clear the wear characteristics of the resistor materials and the mechanism how noise occurs, and developed a long life, low noise resistor material, and the double - layer resistor structure which has excellent characteristic in durability. We also clarified the ways of using brushes according to applications through the investigation of the relationship between the contact shape and the amount of wear of the resistor. Based on these investigation, we have developed a highly reliable throttle position sensor and a long life vehicle height sensor.
Technical Paper

Preview Ride Comfort Control for Electric Active Suspension (eActive3)

This paper reports the results of a study into a preview control that uses the displacement of the road surface in front of the vehicle to improve for front and rear actuator responsiveness delays, as well as delays due to calculation, communication, and the like. This study also examined the effect of a preview control using the eActive3 electric active suspension system, which is capable of controlling the roll, pitch, and warp modes of vehicle motion.
Technical Paper

Study on Stabilization Friction Coefficient of Disc Brake Pads in Cold Condition

Resolving the brake squeal that occurs under various environments is a major topic, and a resolution method is eagerly anticipated. We focused on the phenomenon that, amid various environmental conditions, squeal occurs easily when an automobile has been left standing in a cold environment. We checked the details focusing on the friction coefficient (hereafter, μ). As a result, we found that μ increases when squeal is generated, and that the sliding surface film contributes to the μ behavior. We studied measures to be taken to increase the μ in cold conditions.
Technical Paper

Thin Film Strain Gauge Sensors for Automotive Applications

We developed amorphous alloy thin films having TCR(temperature coefficient of resistivity) less than ±5 ppm/°C for strain gauge applications. Thin film strain gauges are directly formed on metal substrates insulated with SiO2. These gauges have excellent aging stability at high temperature. The resistivity shows a drift in ▵R/R less than ±0.03% at 120°C in 1000 hours. We developed a pressure sensor and an acceleration sensor with high accuracy and reliability, employing these gauges.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Control Valve for Active Suspension

An active suspension system controls a spring constant and an attenuater in real time using a power supply. Generally, the hydraulic pressures are used for transmitting the power. Therefore, a highly reliable and inexpensive control system has been required for a commercial use. This has been achieved by developing a mechanical fluid servo valve which comprises a simple combination of a solenoid valve and a spool valve. The technical problem of the valve vibrations has been solved through the numerical analyses, the fluid flow visualization tests and the vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Wheel Speed Sensor Applying the Eddy Current Effect Through the High-Frequency Modulated Magnetic Field

This active-drive wheel speed sensor, developed by the high-frequency magnetic system, enables detection of very slow wheel speeds - hitherto difficult to accomplish with any conventional type of Magnetic Pick up - by applying the eddy current effect through the high-frequency magnetic field. The following report presents an analysis of the magnetic circuit which integrates the magnetic-field generating coil with the detection rotor, and the unique circuit system which ensures strength against eccentricity of the wheel rotor and air gap variations, etc.