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Technical Paper

A Development of Aluminum EGR Cooler for Weight Reduction and Fuel Economy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0102
As environmental problems such as global warming are emerging, regulations on automobile exhaust gas are strengthened and various exhaust gas reduction technologies are being developed in various countries in order to satisfy exhaust emission regulations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is a very effective way to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high combustion temperatures by using EGR coolers to lower the combustion temperature. This EGR cooler has been mass-produced in stainless steel, but it is expensive and heavy. Recently, high efficiency and compactness are required for the EGR cooler to meet the new emission regulation. If aluminum material is applied to the EGR cooler, heat transfer efficiency and light weight can be improved due to high heat transfer coefficient of aluminum compared to conventional stainless steel, but durability is insufficient. Therefore, the aluminum EGR cooler has been developed to enhance performance and durability.
Journal Article

A Development of Energy Management System with Semi-Transparent Solar Roof and Off-Cycle Credit Test Methodology for Solar Power Assisted Automobile.

2017-03-28
2017-01-0388
CO2 emission is more serious in recent years and automobile manufacturers are interested in developing technologies to reduce CO2 emissions. Among various environmental-technologies, the use of solar roof as an electric energy source has been studied extensively. For example, in order to reduce the cabin ambient temperature, automotive manufacturers offer the option of mounting a solar cell on the roof of the vehicle [1]. In this paper, we introduce the semi-transparent solar cell mounted on a curved roof glass and we propose a solar energy management system to efficiently integrate the electricity generated from the solar roof into internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. In order to achieve a high efficiency solar system in different driving, we improve the usable power other than peak power of solar roof. Peak power or rated power is measured power (W) in standard test condition (@ 25°C, light intensity of 1000W/m2(=1Sun)).
Technical Paper

A Study of LNT & Urea SCR on DPF System to Meet the Stringent Exhaust Emission Regulation

2014-10-13
2014-01-2810
In diesel engine development, the new technology is coming out to meet the stringent exhaust emission regulation. The regulation demands more eco-friendly vehicles. Euro6c demands to meet not only WLTP mode, but also RDE(Real Driving Emission). In order to satisfy RDE mode, the new technology to reduce emissions should cover all operating areas including High Load & High Speed. It is a big challenge to reduce NOx on the RDE mode and a lot of DeNOx technologies are being developed. So the new DeNOx technology is needed to cover widened operating area and strict acceleration / deacceleration. The existing LNT(Lean NOx Trap) and Urea SCR(Selective Catalytic Reduction) is necessary to meet the typical NEDC or WLTP, but the RDE mode demands the powerful DeNOx technology. Therefore, the LNT & Urea SCR on DPF was developed through this study.
Technical Paper

Assessing Panel Noise Contribution of a Car Engine Using Particle Velocity Sensors

2015-06-15
2015-01-2248
In order to apply an effective noise reduction treatment determining the contribution of different engine components to the total sound perceived inside the cabin is important. Although accelerometer or laser based vibration tests are usually performed, the sound contributions are not always captured accurately with such approaches. Microphone based methods are strongly influenced by the many reflections and other sound sources inside the engine bay. Recently, it has been shown that engine radiation can be effectively measured using microphones combined with particle velocity sensors while the engine remains mounted in the car [6]. Similar results were obtained as with a dismounted engine in an anechoic room. This paper focusses on the measurement of the transfer path from the engine to the vehicle interior in order to calculate the sound pressure contribution of individual engine sections at the listener's position.
Technical Paper

Combustion Process Analysis in a HSDI Diesel Engine Using a Reduced Chemical Kinetics

2004-03-08
2004-01-0108
The combustion characteristics of a HSDI diesel engine were analyzed numerically using a reduced chemical kinetics. The reaction mechanism consisting of 26 steps and 17 species including the Zel'dovich NOx mechanism for the higher hydrocarbon fuel was implemented in the KIVA-3V. The characteristic time scale model was adopted to account for the effects of turbulent mixing on the reaction rates. The soot formation and oxidation processes are represented by Hiroyasu's model and NSC's model. The validation cases include the homogenous fuel/air mixture and the spray combustion in a constant volume chamber. After the validation, the present approach was applied to the analysis of the spray combustion processes in a HSDI diesel engine. The present approach reasonably well predicts the ignition delay, combustion processes, and emission characteristics in the high-pressure turbulent spray flame-field encountered in the practical HSDI diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Control of Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Filter System I (The CPF System Influence Assessment According to a Regeneration Condition)

2005-04-11
2005-01-0661
Environmental standards concerning Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) are continuously becoming stricter. The light-duty diesel passenger car market is rapidly increasing due to performance improvements and the economic advantages of the diesel engine. To meet EURO 4 diesel passenger car emission regulations, regeneration experiments of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) system have been performed with 2.0L common-rail diesel engine. For effective regeneration of the CPF system, we investigated the effects of various regeneration conditions on the system. Conditions such as exhaust gas temperature, oxygen/hydrocarbon concentrations, gas compositions, etc. were investigated. We found that the regeneration efficiency was improved when the exhaust gas temperature increased to more than 700°C during CPF regeneration using engine post injection. An additional amount of post injection increased the exhaust gas temperature and residual hydrocarbon content.
Technical Paper

Development Work on HMC'S Natural Gas-Fueled 1.5 L MPI DOHC Engine

1993-11-01
931869
Thii paper describes Hyundai's research and development work on the dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) engine, A conventional light duty gasoline engine, a 1.5 liter four cylinder DOHC, has been modified to run on natural gas (NG) by a gas injection system and engine dynamometer test has been performed with emphasis on optimizations of compression ratio and intake port. Also presented are the results on the exhaust emissions characteristic and the purification performance of three-way catalytic converters developed for NG engine. Fuel composition and THC emissions are analyzed quantitatively using gas chromatography devices.
Technical Paper

Development of Driving Cycle for CO2 Emission Test of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2013-10-14
2013-01-2520
As a part of the global efforts to reduce CO2 emission, studies are in progress to derive regulation measures for CO2 emission from heavy-duty vehicles. Thus, identification of emission characteristics of CO2 for heavy-duty vehicle is required and test driving cycle for this would be necessary. Before developing a test driving cycle to identify the emission characteristics of CO2, selection of test subject vehicles and actual road test was carried out. Through this, road drive characteristics per diverse vehicle type and emission levels of CO2 were identified. Correlations between the currently used cycles of each country and the actual road were analyzed and the cycle most similar to the actual road situations was selected among various countries' cycles to verify whether its easy use was possible for the actual tests. The test driving cycle selected after comparison with actual road situations was modified so as to enable actual tests for all heavy-duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-Functioning Lean NOx Trap Catalysts for the On-board NH3 Generation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1430
Improved Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts with enhanced NH3 generation feature were developed for the small diesel engine. The next generation LNT system needs to perform good NOx conversions over the wide temperature range including below 200°C for urban driving and above 400°C for motorway of real road driving. However, the extended use of BaO, a component of LNT known to be very effective for high temperature NOx storage, results in the decrease of low temperature NOx conversion due to the degradation of NO oxidation associating with sulfur over time. The improvement of the low-temperature LNT performance is a key requirement for the real driving emission control as the best operation temperature for urea-SCR is above ~250°C. In this study, our next generation LNT with new washcoat architecture has demonstrated improved NOx removal efficiencies under the wider operation temperature window than the current production technology.
Technical Paper

Development of Ultra-Stable Cu-SCR Aftertreatment System for Advanced Lean NOx Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-0743
The integration of SCR catalyst into diesel-particulate filter (SDPF) may be one of most viable ways to meet upcoming stringent emission regulations with new test protocols such as Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC) and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements. The chabazite-structured SSZ-13-based catalysts enabled the wide implementation of urea-SCR technology for mobile applications due to their robust thermal stability up to 750°C compared to the thermally unstable ZSM-5-based technologies. However, the thermally stable Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst starts losing its initial activity with the increase of aging time at 850°C, where the SCR catalyst on SDPF can possibly be exposed during filter regeneration under a drop-to-idle (DTI) condition. Therefore, more durable SCR catalysts that survive under higher temperatures have been strongly desired in automotive industry. Recently, we found Cu-exchanged high silica LTA revealed an excellent hydrothermal stability.
Technical Paper

Diesel/Gasoline Dual Fuel Powered Combustion System based on Diesel Compression Ignition Triggered Ignition Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-1718
The author's new approach, diesel and gasoline dual fuel powered combustion system based on diesel CI triggered ignition control, provides not only how key ideas extracted from LTC concept could be established in a small bore HSDI turbocharged diesel engine but also which mechanism works to bring almost same benefits as we have experienced in both conventional diesel combustion and LTC based advanced combustion systems like HCCI, PCCI and PPCI combustions. The combustion system presented in the paper physically combines both mixing controlled diesel compression ignition combustion and gasoline premixed charge combustion in one power generation cycle. Gasoline fuel in the system is provided by the conventional gasoline PFI system firstly into the cylinder in which premixed charge spreads out. In compression stroke, the exact amount of diesel fuel is injected into the highly diluted EGR ambient with premixed gasoline charge.
Journal Article

Direct Sound Radiation Testing on a Mounted Car Engine

2014-06-30
2014-01-2088
For (benchmark) tests it is not only useful to study the acoustic performance of the whole vehicle, but also to assess separate components such as the engine. Reflections inside the engine bay bias the acoustic radiation estimated with sound pressure based solutions. Consequently, most current methods require dismounting the engine from the car and installing it in an anechoic room to measure the sound emitted. However, this process is laborious and hard to perform. In this paper, two particle velocity based methods are proposed to characterize the sound radiated from an engine while it is still installed in the car. Particle velocity sensors are much less affected by reflections than sound pressure microphones when the measurements are performed near a radiating surface due to the particle velocity's vector nature, intrinsic dependency upon surface displacement and directivity of the sensor. Therefore, the engine does not have to be disassembled, which saves time and money.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injection Rate on Pollutant Emissions in DI Diesel Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0195
Recent advanced technologies in diesel engine FIE(Fuel Injection Equipment) allow high pressure and multiple injection to be used to reduce particulate emissions without significant penalty in NOx emission. It is also well known that diesel engine particulate matter(PM) and NOx emissions can be reduced by the exact injection rate control according to engine conditions. This study was conducted based on such engine conditions as engine speed, load, swirl ratio and solenoid pulse timing and duration. The fast solenoid valve was installed between the connecting part of nozzle and fuel line. The ball valve driven by solenoid is open after the controller generates pulse and it spills the high pressure fuel in the high pressure nozzle chamber. Fuel line pressure, injection rate, cylinder pressure and exhaust emissions were measured with the variation of control method(pulse timing and pulse duration period).
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen as an Additive on Lean Limit and Emissions of a Turbo Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1886
For gasoline engine, thermal efficiency can be improved by using lean burn. However, combustion instability occurs when gasoline engine is operated on lean condition. Hydrogen has features that can be used for improving combustion stability of gasoline engine. In this paper, an experimental study of hydrogen effect on lean limit was carried out using a four-cylinder 2.0L turbo gasoline direct injection engine. The engine torque was fixed at 110Nm on 1600RPM, 2000RPM and 2400RPM. The results showed that lean limit was extended and brake thermal efficiency was improved by hydrogen addition. Especially, at lower engine speed, the large improvement of lean limit was achieved. However, improvement of brake thermal efficiency was achieved at high speed. HC and CO2 emissions were decreased and NO emissions increased with hydrogen addition. CO emissions were slightly reduced with hydrogen addition.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Nozzle Hole Geometry on Particulate Emissions in a Downsized Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0111
In this study, the effect of the nozzle tip geometry on the nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions was investigated. Various designs for the injector nozzle hole were newly developed for this study, focusing on the step hole geometry to reduce the nozzle tip wetting. The laser induced fluorescence technique was applied to evaluate the fuel wetting on the nozzle tip. A vehicle test and an emissions measurement in a Chassi-Dynamo were performed to investigate the particulate emission characteristics for injector nozzle designs. In addition, the in-cylinder combustion light signal measurement by the optical fiber sensor was conducted to observe diffusion combustion behavior during the vehicle test. Results showed that the step hole surface area is strongly related to nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions characteristics. Injectors without the step hole and with a smaller step hole geometry showed significant reduction of nozzle tip wetting and number of particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on the Efficiency and Knock Characteristics in a Single-Cylinder GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1138
As a result of stringent global regulations on fuel economy and CO2 emissions, the development of high-efficiency SI engines is more urgent now than ever before. Along with advanced techniques in friction reduction, many researchers endeavor to decrease the B/S (bore-to-stroke) ratio from 1.0 (square) to a certain value, which is expected to reduce the heat loss and enhance the burning rate of SI engines. In this study, the effects of B/S ratios were investigated in aspects of efficiency and knock characteristics using a single-cylinder LIVC (late intake valve closing) GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Three B/S ratios (0.68, 0.83 and 1.00) were tested under the same mechanical compression ratio of 12:1 and the same displacement volume of 0.5 L. The head tumble ratio was maintained at the same level to solely investigate the effects of geometrical changes caused by variations in the B/S ratio.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on the Air Quality of Vehicle’s Cabin by Evaluating CO2 Concentration and Fine Dust on the Actual Road

2009-04-20
2009-01-0536
For a complete automotive HVAC system, it is desirable to keep good air quality control for the interior vehicle cabin. This experimental study for evaluating the CO2 concentration levels in a vehicle cabin was done on the roads in South Korea. Increasing levels of CO2 can cause a passenger to become tired, sleepy and cause headaches or discomfort. The study results shows that CO2 and fine dust concentration is a result of the number of passengers,_driving condition and HVAC user settings. The result from this investigation can be used to establish a development guide for air quality in a vehicle cabin.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Durability in HSDI Diesel Cylinder Head

2005-04-11
2005-01-0655
In order to cope with new exhaust emission regulations, automotive industry is interested in research and development of HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engines with common rail systems. Since HSDI diesel engine operates under highly loaded condition due to increased power output, cylinder head of HSDI diesel engine is susceptible to high cycle fatigue cracks. In this study, FE analysis was used to find the mechanism of high cycle fatigue crack in the HSDI diesel cylinder head. In order to improve the durability of HSDI diesel cylinder head, the modifications of cylinder head and head bolt pre-load were investigated. Experiments were performed to prove the existence of residual stress created during the heat treatment of cylinder head. The results of experiments showed that residual stress can affect the durability of HSDI diesel cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Economy and Transient Control in a Passenger Diesel Engine Using LP(Low Pressure)-EGR

2011-04-12
2011-01-0400
Diesel engines are the most commonly used power train of the freight and public transportations in the world. From the viewpoint of global warming restraint, however, reduction of exhaust emissions from the diesel engine is urgent demand. Stringent emission regulations are being proposed with growing concern on NOx, PM and CO2 emissions. Future emission regulations require advanced emission control technologies, such as SCR(Selective Catalytic Reduction), LNT(Lean NOx Trap) and EGR(Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The EGR is a commonly used technique to reduce emission. In this study, a LP-EGR(Low Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system was investigated to evaluate its potential on emission reduction and fuel economy improvement, especially for a passenger diesel engine. A 3.0ℓ diesel engine equipped with the LP-EGR system was tested using an in-house control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Injector Geometry at 250 MPa Injection in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0693
This paper investigated the influence of the injector nozzle geometry on fuel consumption and exhaust emission characteristics of a light-duty diesel engine with 250 MPa injection. The engine used for the experiment was the 0.4L single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The diesel fuel injection equipment was operated under 250MPa injection pressure. Three injectors with nozzle hole number of 8 to 10 were compared. As the nozzle number of the injector increased, the orifice diameter decreased 105 μm to 95 μm. The ignition delay was shorter with larger nozzle number and smaller orifice diameter. Without EGR, the particulate matter(PM) emission was lower with larger nozzle hole number. This result shows that the atomization of the fuel was improved with the smaller orifice diameter and the fuel spray area was kept same with larger nozzle number. However, the NOx-PM trade-offs of three injectors were similar at higher EGR rate and higher injection pressure.
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