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Technical Paper

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction(III)

2019-09-15
2019-01-2112
In the latest works [12], we presented the guideline for reducing Metal pick up(MPU, the main component of disc scoring) by controlling the location of the roughness of disc, the brake pad friction coefficients and the disc slot's size. In this study, the previously studied iron transfer theory to 'Cu free' brake pad and the disc surface roughness controlling methods which are based on the mass production manufacturing process are applied. It is possible to suggest the ways to improve the scoring-free disc without reducing friction coefficient between the disc and pad, and any demerit such as increased wear and airplane noise like conventional slot discs [11].
Technical Paper

A Study on Improvement of Sitting Posture Stability for Heavy Truck Drivers

2018-04-03
2018-01-1319
The driver’s seat in heavy trucks is designed for an upright driving posture with narrow back and cushion angles; thus, the seatback offers very little support. This makes the sitting posture prone to shifting during long trips, leading to loss of comfort and increase in fatigue. Sitting posture stability allows initial posture to be maintained during long drives, and the lack of stability causes fatigue and body pain during the drive. This study confirmed that enhancement of sitting posture stability of the driver’s seat in heavy trucks requires appropriate support from the cushion. The study also analyzed the support characteristics of each part of the cushion, and presented development guidelines of new cushion. Although subjective assessments of sitting posture stability have been performed, this study presented a method for quantitative and efficient assessment of sitting posture stability using the PAM-COMFORT simulation tool and virtual testing.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Optimum Reduction of Required Brake Fluid Level for Improvement of the High Speed Continuous Brake Distance

2019-09-15
2019-01-2121
The high speed continuous braking distance assessment is the worst condition for thermal fades. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fade characteristic and friction materials & brake fluid amount for improving braking distance. So, we used the dynamometer to measure the friction coefficient, braking distance and required brake fluid amount. Through the measurements, the research was carried out as follows. First of all, we studied the influence of friction coefficient about different shapes (chamfer shape, area of the friction material, number of slots) on the same friction material. Secondly, we knew the effects of braking distance by the shape of the friction material. Through these two studies, the shape of the friction material favorable to the fade characteristics was derived. Finally, we measured the amount of required brake fluid in caliper after 10 consecutive braking cycles through Dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Muscle Fatigue for Urban Bus Drivers using Electromyography

2011-04-12
2011-01-0801
Professional bus drivers are highly exposed to physical fatigue and work-related injuries because driving task includes complicated actions that require a variety of ability and cause extreme concentration or strain. For this reason, there has always been some sense of concern regarding driver fatigue, especially for drivers of commercial vehicles. In this study, we have tried to analyze quantitative fatigue degree of urban bus drivers by measuring their physiological signals. The investigation is made up of the following approaches: a traditional questionnaire survey and video-ethnographic method with 4-way cameras. The close-circuit cameras are installed to observe the upper and lower body of real drivers when they are in driving or even resting. This approach can help to understand urban bus drivers' behaviors and fatigue-related issues. Based on the video-ethnographic investigation results above, we have got certain patterns of drivers.
Journal Article

Development of Fatigue Durability Analysis Techniques for Engine Piston using CAE

2009-04-20
2009-01-0820
A piston in a diesel engine is subject to the high pressure and the high thermal load. The high structural reliability is required to the piston in the automotive diesel engine and it is important to confirm the design parameters of piston in initial design stage. There are lots of research works proposing new geometries, materials and manufacturing techniques for engine pistons. But, the failures of piston occur frequently in development stage. Failure mechanisms are mainly fatigue related. This paper presents failure mechanisms of the high cycle fatigue and low cycle thermal fatigue cracks which occur on the piston during durability test using engine dynamometer. In this study, FE analysis was carried out to investigate the root cause of piston failure. The analysis includes the FE model of the piston moving system, temperature dependent material properties, mechanical and thermal loadings.
Technical Paper

Development of High Wear Resistant and Durable Coatings for Al Valve Spring Retainer

2007-04-16
2007-01-1748
The use of light-weight materials in automotive engine components has increased in order to achieve better fuel efficiency and engine performance. In this study, Al alloy (AI5056) valve spring retainer can reduce a weight by 63% in comparison to steel and improve the upper limit of engine speed by about 500rpm. The Al valve spring retainer was fabricated by cold forging and coated with hard anodizing, DLC (diamond like coating), cold spray and thermal spray for better wear resistance and durability. We conclude that among these materials the DLC coating improves the wear resistance of Al valve spring retainer and has a sufficient durability after endurance testing.
Journal Article

Development of Nano Diamond Polymer Coating on Piston Skirt for Fuel Efficiency

2011-04-12
2011-01-1401
Various polymer-based coatings are applied on piston skirt to reduce friction loss between the piston skirt and cylinder bore which is one of main factors of energy loss in an automotive engine system. These coatings generally consist of polymer binder (PAI) and solid lubricants (graphite or MoS₂) for low friction property. On the other hand, the present study found that PTFE as a solid lubricant and nano diamond as hard particles can be used to improve the low friction and wear resistance simultaneously. In the process of producing coating material, diamond particles pulverized to a nano size tend to agglomerate. To prevent this, silane (silicon coupling agent) treatment was applied. The inorganic functional groups of silane are attached to the nano diamond surface, which keep the diamond particles are apart.
Technical Paper

Development of Polymer Composite Battery Pack Case for an Electric Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1177
A battery pack case of an electric vehicle was developed with a fibrous thermoplastic composite material. Due to cost effectiveness, long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics by direct process (D-LFT) were adopted. PA6 (Polyamide 6)-based composites were processed using a D-LFT pilot machine at the temperature range between 250° and 290°. Glass and carbon fibers were added in the matrix varying the mixture ratio of the fibers while keeping the weight fraction 40%. The increase of carbon fibers in the mixture increased tensile modulus and strength, however, decreased Izod impacts strength. The fatigue life of developed composites was evaluated by fatigue tests in tension, which were over one million cycles at the maximum fatigue loading less than 60% of the composite strength. Associated with fiber orientation, anisotropic mechanical behavior was investigated in terms of flexural properties and mold shrinkage.
Technical Paper

Development of Si-DLC Coated Tappet for Improved Wear Resistance

2015-04-14
2015-01-0685
Most bucket type valvetrain engines use DLC coated tappet for low friction and fuel efficiency. However the requirements on coating robustness have been increased as the tribological environments have become more severe by use of low viscosity oil or higher engine output. In order to obtain higher coating efficiency and improved wear resistance, 5∼9 at.% Si doped DLC (Si-DLC) coated tappet has been developed using PACVD process. Thermal stability and wear resistance of Si-DLC were improved impressively than those of DLC, although mechanical properties such as hardness and adhesion were degradated. It seems that Si suppresses a graphitization of DLC and thin SixOy film on coating surface acts as a barrier to oxidation or flash heat.
Technical Paper

Development of Special Heat Treatment to Improve the Bearing Fatigue Life

1999-03-01
1999-01-0289
A new technique of heat treatment is developed for the bearings of automotive transmission and chassis to maximize their service life under contaminated and severe environments. This study demonstrates an improvement of the microstructure of bearing steels by applying special heat treatments. The microstructure is developed by optimizing various heat treating parameters (temperature, cycle time and gas atmosphere, etc.) as well as by modifying the quenching processes (double quenching and press quenching). We obtained a desirable microstructure of dense and fine martensite with optimum levels of retained austenite and compressive residual stress on the subsurface. The size and distribution of carbides and grains are found to be very fine and homogeneous. The endurance test results show that the specimens with new treatment have an excellent fatigue life compared with the conventional bearing samples.
Technical Paper

Development of a Heat Resistant Cast Iron Alloy for Engine Exhaust Manifolds

2005-04-11
2005-01-1688
A new heat-resistant cast iron alloy has been developed for the exhaust manifolds of new passenger-car diesel engines. This development occurred because operating demands on exhaust manifolds have increased significantly over the past decade. These demands are due to higher exhaust gas temperatures resulting from tighter emission requirements, improved fuel efficiencies, and designs for higher specific engine power. These factors have led to much higher elevated temperature strength and oxidation resistance requirements on exhaust manifold alloys. Additionally, thermal fatigue that occurs directly as a result of thermal expansions and mechanical constraint has become an increasingly important issue. The research detailed in this paper focused on the optimization of the chemical composition of a Si-Mo ductile iron to improve the mechanical and physical properties for use in an engine exhaust manifold.
Technical Paper

Development of a Pre-Validation Mode for Cooling Module by Test and CAE

2018-04-03
2018-01-0466
In case of cooling module rotated by belt, many sources (vehicle’s vibration, belt’s tension and thrust force by rotated fan) are acting on it. Because it is not easy to analyze them individually, there were no rig test modes for pre-validation while developing a new vehicle. In this study, we correlated the strain gauges signal to belt’s tension and fan’s thrust force, and measured acceleration of a vehicle and cooling module by driving a vehicle on the several test roads. In that case of measured acceleration data, we could analyze it by using PDF and construct the representative rig test modes considering vibrational fatigue characteristics by using the FDS. These modes can be utilized while developing a new vehicle without measuring anymore. Also, we could understand each load’s characteristics. It is confirmed that the factors affecting the fatigue were not only the vehicle’s vibration but also the belt’s installation tension.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Estimation of Suspension Components using Statistical Method

2009-04-20
2009-01-0080
Depending on the scatter of material properties, geometrical shapes and load conditions, the fatigue life of mechanical components has wide range of scatter although they were tested under same conditions. This scatter is the main reason of different results between observed and predicted fatigue life. This study shows how to estimate the fatigue life distribution by analysis. Dominant factors for fatigue life distributions and their scatter could be obtained by comparing the analysis results and fatigue test results. Applying the scatter of these factors to fatigue analysis, it was possible to predict fatigue life distributions. This will improve the reliability of fatigue life estimation, therefore a more robust and reliable component design is possible.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Strength Evaluation for the Leaf Spring of Commercial Vehicle Considering U Bolt Fixing Force

2007-04-16
2007-01-0853
Suspension system of vehicle is very important because it has an effect on ride comfort and safety. And the leaf spring is one of the major parts of commercial vehicle. By that reason it has to be designed to operate under severe condition to ensure enough endurance. But the traditional method for fatigue design needs repeated fatigue tests for each design according to its geometry, material, and operating condition. This means that a lot of time and money is needed for those tests. Thus, in this paper, a fatigue design method for leaf spring based on numerical analysis is proposed. At first, stress analysis is performed to get the stress under operation load or rig tests. And fatigue analysis is performed to get the fatigue life and to ensure the safety of leaf spring. Through this study, design parameters that play vital role in fatigue life of the leaf spring can be found out.
Technical Paper

High Strength Light-Weight Valve Spring for Automotive Engine to Enhance Fuel Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-0528
High strength oil-tempered wire was developed to apply to light-weight valve spring for automotive engine. By adding Mo, V, B and Ni, tensile strength increased by 20% compared to the conventional oil-tempered wire. Higher tensile strength of wire enabled a constant of valve spring to lower by reducing the size of spring. As a result, reduction of spring constant lowers the load of spring, thereby enhancing fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Durability in HSDI Diesel Cylinder Head

2005-04-11
2005-01-0655
In order to cope with new exhaust emission regulations, automotive industry is interested in research and development of HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engines with common rail systems. Since HSDI diesel engine operates under highly loaded condition due to increased power output, cylinder head of HSDI diesel engine is susceptible to high cycle fatigue cracks. In this study, FE analysis was used to find the mechanism of high cycle fatigue crack in the HSDI diesel cylinder head. In order to improve the durability of HSDI diesel cylinder head, the modifications of cylinder head and head bolt pre-load were investigated. Experiments were performed to prove the existence of residual stress created during the heat treatment of cylinder head. The results of experiments showed that residual stress can affect the durability of HSDI diesel cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fatigue Strength of Automatic Transmission Gear by Developing Controlled Rolled Alloy Steel

2000-03-06
2000-01-0614
The controlled rolling process has been introduced to increase strength and toughness of alloy steels for the application of transmission gear. Cr-Mo alloy steel containing 0.02% Nb was controlled rolled in the temperature range of 870-970°C, showed fine austenite grain size, about ASTM No.11, resulted from the effects of recrystallization and Nb(C,N) precipitation. To investigate the effects of grain refinement on mechanical properties, several tests were conducted for the newly developed controlled rolled steel and conventional Ni-Cr-Mo alloy steel after carburizing. The new steel showed 2.1 times higher pitting resistance than the conventional steel. Fatigue limits of new and conventional steels were 950 and 930 MPa respectively. Charpy impact energy of new steel was improved about 35% compared with the conventional steel. Consequently, the pinion gear from the new steel instead of conventional one showed enhanced performance, especially pitting resistance, in dynamometer test.
Technical Paper

Microstructure and Tribological Behavior of CrN-Cu Nanocoatings Deposited by PVD Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0492
The present study focused on CrN-Cu nanocoatings composed of nano-meter grains with CrN, Cr and Cu functioning low-friction, anti-wear and heat resistance. The coatings were synthesized by hybrid PVD including metal arc source, magentron sputter source and ion-gun source. Although Cu has low hardness, the hardness of CrNCu is not declined because it was composed of below 20nm sized grains of CrN, Cr, and Cu. However, CrN-Cu had lower friction than CrN owing to Cu’s low shear strength. CrN-Cu films optimized using the Reaction Surface Method (RSM) showed the excellent tribological behavior and low coefficient of friction compared with DLC. The tribological properties of the Cr-Cu-N demonstrated superior wear resistance and low friction at normal and high temperature conditions. The CrN-Cu nanocoatings can be used for the downsizing automotive engines working at severe tribological conditions.
Technical Paper

Noble Materials for Thin-Walled Bumper Fascia with Enhanced Processibility and Dimensional Stability

1998-02-01
980105
A new noble material for automotive bumper fascia has been developed by compounding of ethylene-propylene block copolymers with ethylene-α-olefin copolymers and some additives. Also mineral fillers are added, if necessary. This material is suitable for injection molding of large parts including automotive bumper fascia. By using selected rubbers which have proper melt viscosity, molecular weight, and co-monomer content, and adding modified polymer containing polar group, it has enhanced processibility and paintability maintaining general properties such as tensile strength, impact strength at low temperature, and thermal and UV stability. The remarkable characteristics of this material is good processibility compared to the conventional TPOs. This material has especially high melt flow index(20∼30g/10min at 230°C) and stable flow behavior at the processing conditions.
Technical Paper

Strength Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction of an Extra Large Dump Truck Deck and Subframe

2013-04-08
2013-01-1211
An engineering strategy to develop a new 27-ton dump truck is introduced in the process of design and analysis. Main engineering concerns in development of the new dump truck are focused on reducing weight as much as 180kg without deteriorating structural strength and fatigue life of its upper body - deck and subframe. To achieve this goal, a stress analysis and a fatigue life prediction based on CAE technique are employed at the early stage of design process. A finite element model of the full vehicle was constructed for the strength analysis. Then the fatigue life was predicted through the strength analysis and an S-N curve of high strength steel. The S-N curve for welded structures made of high strength steel was used along with a prototype vehicle's endurance test in order to set strength targets. As a result, the upper body was successfully developed without any fatigue issues.
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