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Technical Paper

Co-operative Control of Regenerative Braking using a Front Electronic Wedge Brake and a Rear Electronic Mechanical Brake Considering the Road Friction Characteristic

In this study, a co-operative regenerative braking control algorithm was developed for an electric vehicle (EV) equipped with an electronic wedge brake (EWB) for its front wheels and an electronic mechanical brake (EMB) for its rear wheels. The co-operative regenerative braking control algorithm was designed considering the road friction characteristic to increase the recuperation energy while avoiding wheel lock. A powertrain model of an EV composed of a motor, and batteries and a MATLAB model of the control algorithm were also developed. They were linked to the CarSim model of the vehicle under study to develop an EV simulator. The EMB and EWB were modeled with an actuator, screw, and wedge to develop an EMB and EWB simulator. A co-simulator for an EV equipped with an EWB for the front wheels and an EMB for the rear wheels was fabricated, composed of the EV and the EMB and EWB simulator.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Alternator and Battery Systems with a Recuperation Control Algorithm for a Mid-Sized Sedan

The fuel economy of a vehicle can be improved by recuperating the kinetic energy when the vehicle is decelerated. However, if there is no electrical traction component, the recuperated energy can be used only by the other electrical systems of the vehicle. Thus, the fuel economy improvement can be maximized by balancing the recuperated energy and the consumed energy. Also, suitable alternator and battery management is required to maximize the fuel economy. This paper describes a design optimization process of the alternator and battery system equipped with recuperation control algorithms for a mid-sized sedan based on the fuel economy and system cost. A vehicle model using AVL Cruise is developed for cycle simulations and validated with experimental data. The validated model is used for the parametric study and design optimization of the alternator and battery systems with single and dual energy storage.
Technical Paper

Development of Hyundai's Tucson FCEV

Hyundai Motor Company developed its second-generation fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCEV) based on its small Tucson SUV. Compared to Hyundai's first generation fuel cell vehicle, the Santa Fe FCEV, the Tucson FCEV has an extended driving range plus cold weather starting capability. It incorporates numerous technical advances including a fuel cell that operates at sub-zero temperatures and a new high voltage lithium ion polymer battery. Using both a fuel cell and a high voltage battery as sources for driving energy, the Tucson hybrid system provides optimum driving conditions, which ensures high tank to wheel efficiency. The Tucson FCEV's power plant has been located in the front - under the front hood - unlike its predecessor Santa Fe FCEV, which featured an under-floor installation. More importantly, Tucson FCEV's driving range has been extended to 300km thanks to its 152-liter hydrogen storage tanks.
Technical Paper

Development of Output Voltage Adjusting Control Based on ADAS Map Information in Low-Voltage DCDC Converter System for HEV Fuel Efficiency

One of the ways to improve the fuel efficiency of the HEV (Hybrid and Electric Vehicles) is to optimize automotive electric system. In order to achieve this, the LDC (Low voltage DC-DC Converter) variable voltage was controlled. Using the ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) map, the charge-discharge behaviors of 12V lead-acid battery was predicted during driving so that, the battery could be charged efficiently. In this study, the feedback control system for 12V battery discharging was designed to compromise between the 12V battery SOC (State of Charge) and the driving conditions at different traffic points. In contrast to earlier approaches, this experimental result indicates that the LDC variable voltage control based on ADAS is able to reduce the LDC average output power by 17.1% therefore, increasing fuel efficiency and ensuring the durability of the 12V battery.
Technical Paper

Development of Polymer Composite Battery Pack Case for an Electric Vehicle

A battery pack case of an electric vehicle was developed with a fibrous thermoplastic composite material. Due to cost effectiveness, long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics by direct process (D-LFT) were adopted. PA6 (Polyamide 6)-based composites were processed using a D-LFT pilot machine at the temperature range between 250° and 290°. Glass and carbon fibers were added in the matrix varying the mixture ratio of the fibers while keeping the weight fraction 40%. The increase of carbon fibers in the mixture increased tensile modulus and strength, however, decreased Izod impacts strength. The fatigue life of developed composites was evaluated by fatigue tests in tension, which were over one million cycles at the maximum fatigue loading less than 60% of the composite strength. Associated with fiber orientation, anisotropic mechanical behavior was investigated in terms of flexural properties and mold shrinkage.
Journal Article

Development of Standardized Battery Pack for Next-Generation PHEVs in Considering the Effect of External Pressure on Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells

The performance and marketability of eco-friendly vehicles highly depend on their high-voltage battery system. Lithium-ion pouch cells have advantages of high energy density and cost-effectiveness than other types of batteries. However, due to their low mechanical stability, their characteristics are strongly influenced by external conditions. Especially, external pressure on pouch cell is a crucial factor for the performance, life cycle, and structural safety of battery pack. Therefore, optimizing pressure level has been a critical consideration in designing battery pack structures for lithium-ion pouch cell. In this work, we developed an optimized structure of the battery module and pack to apply appropriate pressure on pouch cells. They also include a standardization strategy to meet the varied demand in capacity and power for automotive application.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle Electric Power Simulator for Optimizing the Electric Charging System

The electric power system of a modern vehicle has to supply enough electrical energy to numerous electrical and electronic systems. The electric power system of a vehicle consists of two major components: a generator and a battery. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands, and the driving environment such as road, season, and vehicle weight are required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. In order to avoid the over/under design problem of the electric power system, an easy-to-use and inexpensive simulation program may be needed. In this study, a vehicle electric power simulator is developed. The simulator can be utilized to determine the optimized capacities of generators and batteries appropriately. To improve the flexibility and easy usage of the simulation program, the program is organized in modular structures, and is run on a PC.
Technical Paper

Development of an Automotive Thermal Energy Storage Unit (I: Preliminary Study)

A preliminary study was conducted to develop an automotive thermal energy storage unit for reduction in emissions and for increase in occupants comfort in winter. To prevent thermal storage performance degradation of the thermal storage media some additives were mixed with the base material Bariumhydroxide-octahydrated(Ba(OH)2·8H2O), and offers promising degradation-resist characteristics. The thermal energy storage unit was then optimally designed based on parameter study and empirical analysis. A comparison was made with a commercially available heat battery. Peak power of the developed thermal energy storage unit was about three times higher than that of the existing one.
Technical Paper

Electrical System Modeling Based on Lead Acid Battery Aging

Recently electric and electronic devices in vehicle have been rapidly increasing. Because the dynamic characteristics of these systems are too much complicated, it is getting very difficult to predict the change of electrical energy accurately. Especially, since the lead-acid battery has a fast aging process, managing the electrical energy in vehicle becomes more difficult. This paper shows the electrical energy simulator, which consists of a battery, an alternator and various electrical devices. In particular, proposed aging battery model was implemented using a finite element method (FEM) based on electrochemical approach. And the thermal characteristic of alternator is also focused on getting reliable performance. Finally, we validated the electrical energy simulator including this battery model on the actual conditions in vehicle.
Technical Paper

Model Based Design and Real-Time Simulation of the Electric Bike using RT-LAB and Simulink

This paper describes real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulator using the RT-Lab, Simulink and Bikesim to simulate an each major part of electric bike system in real time. The major components of electric powered bike system consist of a PMSM fed by a 3 phase MOSFET inverter, battery and main controller. SimPowerSystem that is one of the toolbox of the Matlab/Simulink is used for modeling and simulation of power components. Each major electric component of the electric powered bike is modeled by Model-Based Design (MBD) method with Simulink. Interworking methods between software such as battery, motor/inverter, bike dynamics model and hardware such as battery, motor/inverter, power supply, electric loader are also described for real-time hardware-inthe- loop simulation based on RT-Lab and Simulink. Especially, this paper describes how to assess the performance of each component with rest of the electric parts in real time.
Journal Article

Thermal Behavior Analysis of Polymer Composites in Lithium-Ion Battery Cell

Polyamide 6(PA6)/hexagonal boron nitride(h-BN) and polyphenylene sulfide(PPS)/graphite composites have been prepared to investigate the possible usage as battery housing materials. The addition of the highly conductive filler improved thermal conductivity of polymer matrix more than 2 times. On the basis of the experimental results and intrinsic material parameters, thermal behavior in a battery pack has been monitored by computational simulation. The heat generated within a cell was readily dissipated as a highly thermal conductive aluminum(Al) was used and thus the temperature was evenly distributed over a whole package. In the case of a battery pack made of polymer or polymer composites, on the other hand, the temperature inside cell is much higher due to the accumulation of heat. The predicted heat flow behavior may be useful in selecting proper housing materials.