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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Alternatives to Electrodeposited Cadmium for Threaded Fastener Applications (II)

Cadmium electroplating is coming under increasing pressure due to both environmental and worker safety issues. Since 2005, Alcoa Fastening Systems (AFS) and Lockheed Martin have been conducting a collaborative research program to identify the most appropriate fastener coating materials for a Cadmium (Cd) plating replacement. Four candidate coatings were selected for the initial Phase I evaluation: electroless nickel (EN), electroless nickel composite (EN-PTFE), electrodeposited surface mineralization based zinc-nickel (Zn-Ni), and electroplated aluminum (Al). The Phase I testing results indicated that the Zn-Ni and Al coatings were the best of the four candidates for Cd replacement. However, it is hard to conduct direct comparisons with different coating thicknesses, surface treatments, and lubrication among various Cd alternatives. Thus, further evaluation with more careful control of these parameters would be necessary.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Alternatives to Electrodeposited Cadmium for Threaded Fasteners Applications (III)

Since 2005, Alcoa Fastening Systems (AFS) and Lockheed Martin have been partnering to identify a Cadmium (Cd) plating replacement for threaded fasteners. Previously reported Phase I, II and III studies resulted in alternative coatings that indicated promise as suitable plating materials. Phase IV and V studies continued the program by testing two different fasteners (NAS1580 and NAS4452) manufactured in AFS facilities. Testing included plating material characterization such as coating thickness, torque-tension relationships, locking and breakaway torque measurements, salt spray (fog) corrosion, stress corrosion, and push-in and interference properties. Additionally, mechanical properties of the plated fasteners were tested (tensile, double shear, durability, and fatigue). Candidates included two electroplated zinc-nickel coating systems (Zn-Ni and Zn-Ni2) and an electrodeposited aluminum coating (AI).
Technical Paper

Influence of Fastener Coatings on Fretting Fatigue

Previous fatigue tests on mechanically fastened aerospace joints showed fatigue cracks often initiated in the countersink of the fastener hole where the fastener head was in contact with and caused fretting on, the hole bore. The work presented here evaluated the potential of a number of possible fastener coatings to reduce fretting and increase the fatigue life of the joint. The coatings were tested in a fretting fatigue test and in a ‘zero load’ fatigue test. The results showed that the best fretting resistance and fatigue life was obtained when aluminum pigmented coating (in accordance with NAS 4006) was used. The results also suggest that both test methods provide a similar ranking of performance. This means that the simpler fretting fatigue test may be useful as an initial screening method. However, more testing is needed to confirm this relationship.
Journal Article

The Effects of Surface Texture on Fretting Fatigue between Fastener and Aluminum Structure

Multi-fastener lap joints are vulnerable to fretting fatigue when they are subjected to repeated loading. In general the fretting fatigue condition leads to degraded properties of metallic structures due to the presence of the surface stress concentration resulting at the sites of fretting pits. In many cases, fretting can result in premature structure failures therefore a series of counter measures are frequently taken to minimize fretting especially at the fastener holes. One of major factors that affect the fretting phenomena between the fastener and fastener hole is the surface condition of the fasteners. In this study, the influences of the surface texture and the surface plating of the fastener on the joint life were investigated by conducting double lap shear fatigue testing. It has been found that the joint fretting fatigue resistance is very sensitive to the surface texture of the fastener and as the surface roughness of the fastener is reduced the joint life increases.