Well-to-Wheels Analysis of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Use of Vehicles with Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines on Low Octane Gasoline-Like Fuel
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines using a low octane gasoline-like fuel (LOF) have good potential to achieve lower NOx and lower particulate matter emissions with higher fuel efficiency compared to the modern diesel compression ignition (CI) engines. In this work, we conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of the potential LOF GCI vehicle technology. A detailed linear programming (LP) model of the US Petroleum Administration for Defense District Region (PADD) III refinery system - which produces more than 50% of the US refined products - is modified to simulate the production of the LOF in petroleum refineries and provide product-specific energy efficiencies. Results show that the introduction of the LOF production in refineries reduces the throughput of the catalytic reforming unit and thus increases the refinery profit margins.