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Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Technical Paper

An Examination of Spray Stochastics in Single-Hole Diesel Injectors

2015-09-01
2015-01-1834
Recent advances in x-ray spray diagnostics at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source have made absorption measurements of individual spray events possible. A focused x-ray beam (5×6 μm) enables collection of data along a single line of sight in the flow field and these measurements have allowed the calculation of quantitative, shot-to-shot statistics for the projected mass of fuel sprays. Raster scanning though the spray generates a two-dimensional field of data, which is a path integrated representation of a three-dimensional flow. In a previous work, we investigated the shot-to-shot variation over 32 events by visualizing the ensemble standard deviations throughout a two dimensional mapping of the spray. In the current work, provide further analysis of the time to steady-state and steady-state spatial location of the fluctuating field via the transverse integrated fluctuations (TIF).
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Particulate Morphology, Microstructures, and Fractal Geometry for ael Diesel Engine-Simulating Combustor

2004-10-25
2004-01-3044
The particulate matter (PM) produced from a diesel engine-simulating combustor was characterized in its morphology, microstructure, and fractal geometry by using a unique thermophoretic sampling and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) system. These results revealed that diesel PM produced from the laboratory-scale burner showed similar morphological characteristics to the particulates produced from diesel engines. The flame air/fuel ratio and the particulate temperature history have significant influences on both particle size and fractal geometry. The primary particle sizes were measured to be 14.7 nm and 14.8 nm under stoichiometric and fuel-rich flame conditions, respectively. These primary particle sizes are smaller than those produced from diesel engines. The radii of gyration for the aggregate particles were 83.8 nm and 47.5 nm under these two flame conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Internal flow and Spray of Multihole DI Gasoline Spray using X-ray Imaging and CFD

2011-08-30
2011-01-1881
Multi-hole DI injectors are being adopted in the advanced downsized DISI ICE powertrain in the automotive industry worldwide because of their robustness and cost-performance. Although their injector design and spray resembles those of DI diesel injectors, there are many basic but distinct differences due to different injection pressure and fuel properties, the sac design, lower L/D aspect ratios in the nozzle hole, closer spray-to-spray angle and hense interactions. This paper used Phase-Contrast X ray techniques to visualize the spray near a 3-hole DI gasoline research model injector exit and compared to the visible light visualization and the internal flow predictions using with multi-dimensional multi-phase CFD simulations. The results show that strong interactions of the vortex strings, cavitation, and turbulence in and near the nozzles make the multi-phase turbulent flow very complicated and dominate the near nozzle breakup mechanisms quite unlike those of diesel injections.
Journal Article

Comparison of Near-Field Structure and Growth of a Diesel Spray Using Light-Based Optical Microscopy and X-Ray Radiography

2014-04-01
2014-01-1412
A full understanding and characterization of the near-field of diesel sprays is daunting because the dense spray region inhibits most diagnostics. While x-ray diagnostics permit quantification of fuel mass along a line of sight, most laboratories necessarily use simple lighting to characterize the spray spreading angle, using it as an input for CFD modeling, for example. Questions arise as to what is meant by the “boundary” of the spray since liquid fuel concentration is not easily quantified in optical imaging. In this study we seek to establish a relationship between spray boundary obtained via optical diffused backlighting and the fuel concentration derived from tomographic reconstruction of x-ray radiography. Measurements are repeated in different facilities at the same specified operating conditions on the “Spray A” fuel injector of the Engine Combustion Network, which has a nozzle diameter of 90 μm.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Shadowgraph Imaging, Laser-Doppler Anemometry and X-Ray Imaging for the Analysis of Near Nozzle Velocities of GDI Fuel Injectors

2017-10-08
2017-01-2302
The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure gradients and turbulences of the internal flow and in-nozzle cavitation. Therefore, statistical parameters for spray characterization through experiments must be considered. The characterization of spray velocity fields in the near-nozzle region is of particular importance as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during fuel atomization and mixture formation. This knowledge is needed in order to optimize injector nozzles for future requirements. In this study, the results of three experimental approaches for determination of spray velocity in the near-nozzle region are presented. Two different injector nozzle types were measured through high-speed shadowgraph imaging, Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and X-ray imaging.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Split-Injection Needle Lift and Spray Structure

2011-04-12
2011-01-0383
While the use of injection strategies utilizing multiple injection events for each engine cycle has become common, there are relatively few studies of the spray structure of split injection events. Optical spray measurements are particularly difficult for split injection events with a short dwell time between injections, since droplets from the first injection will obscure the end of the first and the start of the second injection. The current study uses x-ray radiography to examine the near-nozzle spray structure of split injection events with a short dwell time between the injection events. In addition, x-ray phase-enhanced imaging is used to measure the injector needle lift vs. time for split injections with various dwell timings. Near the minimum dwell time needed to create two separate injection events, the spray behavior is quite sensitive to the dwell time.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Geometry on the Common-Rail Diesel Spray

2002-05-06
2002-01-1625
Diesel injections with various nozzle geometries were tested to investigate the spray characteristics by optical imaging techniques. Sac-nozzle and VCO nozzle with single guided needle coupled with rotary-type mechanical pump were compared in terms of macroscopic spray development and microscopic behavior. These nozzles incorporated with common-rail system were tested to see the effect of high pressure injection. Detailed investigation into spray characteristics from the holes of VCO nozzles, mostly with double guided needle, was performed. A variety of injection hole geometries were tested and compared to give tips on better injector design. Different hole sizes and taper ratio, represented as K factor, were studied through comprehensive spray imaging techniques. Global characteristics of a diesel spray, such as spray penetration, spray angle and its pattern, were observed from macroscopic images.
Journal Article

Effect of Off-Axis Needle Motion on Internal Nozzle and Near Exit Flow in a Multi-Hole Diesel Injector

2014-04-01
2014-01-1426
The internal structure of Diesel fuel injectors is known to have a significant impact on the nozzle flow and the resulting spray emerging from each hole. In this paper the three-dimensional transient flow structures inside a Diesel injector is studied under nominal (in-axis) and realistic (including off-axis lateral motion) operating conditions of the needle. Numerical simulations are performed in the commercial CFD code CONVERGE, using a two-phase flow representation based on a mixture model with Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. Moving boundaries are easily handled in the code, which uses a cut-cell Cartesian method for grid generation at run time. First, a grid sensitivity study has been performed and mesh requirements are discussed. Then the results of moving needle calculations are discussed. Realistic radial perturbations (wobbles) of the needle motion have been applied to analyze their impact on the nozzle flow characteristics.
Technical Paper

Emissions, Performance, and In-Cylinder Combustion Analysis in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operating on a Fischer-Tropsch, Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel

2005-10-24
2005-01-3670
SunDiesel™ is an alternative bio-fuel derived from wood chips that has certain properties that are superior to those of conventional diesel (D2). In this investigation, 100% SunDiesel was tested in a Mercedes A-Class (model year 1999), 1.7L, turbocharged, direct-injection diesel engine (EURO II) equipped with a common-rail injection system. By using an endoscope system, Argonne researchers collected in-cylinder visualization data to compare the engine combustion characteristics of the SunDiesel with those of D2. Measurements were made at one engine speed and load condition (2,500 rpm, 50% load) and four start-of-injection (SOI) points, because of a limited source of SunDiesel fuel. Significant differences in soot concentration, as measured by two-color optical pyrometry, were observed. The optical and cylinder pressure data clearly show significant differences in combustion duration and ignition delay between the two fuels.
Journal Article

Fabrication and Characterization of Micro-Orifices for Diesel Fuel Injectors

2008-06-23
2008-01-1595
Stringent emission standards are driving the development of diesel-fuel injection concepts to mitigate in-cylinder formation of particulates. While research has demonstrated significant reduction in particulate formation using micro-orifice technology, implementation requires development of industrial processes to fabricate micro-orifices with diameters as low as 50 μm and with large length-to-diameter ratios. This paper reviews the different processes being pursued to fabricate micro-orifices and the advanced techniques applied to characterize the performance of micro-orifices. The latter include the use of phase-contrast x-ray imaging of electroless nickel-plated micro-orifices and laser imaging of fuel sprays at elevated pressures. The experimental results demonstrate an industrially viable process to create small uniform orifices that improve spray formation for fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Ignition Characteristics of Methane-air Mixtures at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures

2005-05-11
2005-01-2189
Lean operation of natural gas fired reciprocating engines has been the preferred mode of operation as it allows low NOx emissions and simultaneous high overall efficiencies. In such engines, the operation point is often close to where the ignition boundary and the knock limiting boundary cross-over. While knocking is, to a large extent, limited by engine design, ignition of lean-mixtures is limited by the mode of ignition. Since significant benefits can be achieved by extending the lean-ignition limits, many groups have been researching alternate ways to achieve ignition reliably. One of the methods, laser ignition, appears promising as it achieves ignition at high pressures and under lean conditions relatively easily. However, most of the current knowledge about laser ignition is based on measurements performed at room temperature. In this paper, ignition studies on methane-air mixtures under in-cylinder conditions are presented.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Mapping and Analysis of the Toyota Prius HEV Engine

2000-08-21
2000-01-3096
The Prius is a major achievement by Toyota: it is the first mass-produced HEV with the first available HEV-optimized engine. Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Test Facility has been testing the Prius for model validation and technology performance and assessment. A significant part of the Prius test program is focused on testing and mapping the engine. A short-length torque sensor was installed in the powertrain in-situ. The torque sensor data allow insight into vehicle operational strategy, engine utilization, engine efficiency, and specific emissions. This paper describes the design and process necessary to install a torque sensor in a vehicle and shows the high-fidelity data measured during chassis dynamometer testing. The engine was found to have a maximum thermodynamic efficiency of 36.4%. Emissions and catalyst efficiency maps were also produced.
Technical Paper

Issues for Measuring Diesel Exhaust Particulates Using Laser Induced Incandescence

2001-03-05
2001-01-0217
A number of studies in the recent past have identified Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) as a versatile technique for measurement of soot concentration in flames. Recently, a number of researchers have focused their attention in adapting this technique to measure particulates in diesel exhausts. However, the agreement with established physical sampling techniques, such as the EPA recommended filter paper collection method, was found to be less than ideal. This paper reports our efforts to adapt this technique for diesel exhaust characterization. Many of the factors affecting LII signal were identified through computer modeling. Parameters that could not be determined through such a model were determined experimentally following a parametric study. Subsequently, LII measurements were performed in the exhaust of a modified lab burner, with conditions close to that of diesel engine exhausts.
Technical Paper

Near-Frictionless Carbon Coatings for Use in Fuel Injectors and Pump Systems Operating with Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuels

2000-03-06
2000-01-0518
While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO2 emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. Our research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Structure of Diesel Sprays Affected by Internal Geometry of Injector Nozzle: Visualized by Single-Shot X-ray Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0877
By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Optical Evolution of Gaseous Jets in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0675
This paper performs a parametric analysis of the influence of numerical grid resolution and turbulence model on jet penetration and mixture formation in a DI-H2 ICE. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located single-hole injector nozzle. The simulation includes the intake and exhaust port geometry, in order to account for the actual flow field within the cylinder when injection of hydrogen starts. A reduced geometry is then used to focus on the mixture formation process. The numerically predicted hydrogen mole-fraction fields are compared to experimental data from quantitative laser-based imaging in a corresponding optically accessible engine. In general, the results show that with proper mesh and turbulence settings, remarkable agreement between numerical and experimental data in terms of fuel jet evolution and mixture formation can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

2001-03-05
2001-01-1293
A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
Journal Article

Recent Developments in X-ray Diagnostics for Cavitation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0918
Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle's internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly from phase interfaces. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle.
Technical Paper

Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure Fuel Sprays Directly Imaged by X-Radiography

2002-06-03
2002-01-1892
Synchrotron x-radiography and a novel fast x-ray detector are used to visualize the detailed, time-resolved structure of the fluid jets generated by a high pressure diesel-fuel injection. An understanding of the structure of the high-pressure spray is important in optimizing the injection process to increase fuel efficiency and reduce pollutants. It is shown that x-radiography can provide a quantitative measure of the mass distribution of the fuel. Such analysis has been impossible with optical imaging due to the multiple-scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. In addition, direct visualization of the jet-induced shock wave proves that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions. The radiographic images also allow quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock wave.
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