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Journal Article

Assessing the Importance of Radiative Heat Transfer for ECN Spray A Using the Transported PDF Method

The importance of radiative heat transfer on the combustion and soot formation characteristics under nominal ECN Spray A conditions has been studied numerically. The liquid n-dodecane fuel is injected with 1500 bar fuel pressure into the constant volume chamber at different ambient conditions. Radiation from both gas-phase as well as soot particles has been included and assumed as gray. Three different solvers for the radiative transfer equation have been employed: the discrete ordinate method, the spherical-harmonics method and the optically thin assumption. The radiation models have been coupled with the transported probability density function method for turbulent reactive flows and soot, where unresolved turbulent fluctuations in temperature and composition are included and therefore capturing turbulence-chemistry-soot-radiation interactions. Results show that the gas-phase (mostly CO2 ad H2O species) has a higher contribution to the net radiation heat transfer compared to soot.
Journal Article

Assessment of Large-Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Round Jets Using Low-Order Numerical Schemes

The basic idea behind large-eddy simulation (LES) is to accurately resolve the large energy-containing scales and to use subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the smaller scales. The accuracy of LES can be significantly impacted by the numerical discretization schemes and the choice of the SGS model. This work investigates the accuracy of low-order LES codes in the simulation of a turbulent round jet which is representative of fuel jets in engines. The turbulent jet studied is isothermal with a Reynolds number of 6800. It is simulated using Converge, which is second-order accurate in space and first-order in time, and FLEDS, developed at Purdue University, which is sixth-order accurate in space and fourth-order in time. The high-order code requires the resolution of acoustic time-scales and hence is approximately 10 times more expensive than the low-order code.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Internal flow and Spray of Multihole DI Gasoline Spray using X-ray Imaging and CFD

Multi-hole DI injectors are being adopted in the advanced downsized DISI ICE powertrain in the automotive industry worldwide because of their robustness and cost-performance. Although their injector design and spray resembles those of DI diesel injectors, there are many basic but distinct differences due to different injection pressure and fuel properties, the sac design, lower L/D aspect ratios in the nozzle hole, closer spray-to-spray angle and hense interactions. This paper used Phase-Contrast X ray techniques to visualize the spray near a 3-hole DI gasoline research model injector exit and compared to the visible light visualization and the internal flow predictions using with multi-dimensional multi-phase CFD simulations. The results show that strong interactions of the vortex strings, cavitation, and turbulence in and near the nozzles make the multi-phase turbulent flow very complicated and dominate the near nozzle breakup mechanisms quite unlike those of diesel injections.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Shadowgraph Imaging, Laser-Doppler Anemometry and X-Ray Imaging for the Analysis of Near Nozzle Velocities of GDI Fuel Injectors

The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure gradients and turbulences of the internal flow and in-nozzle cavitation. Therefore, statistical parameters for spray characterization through experiments must be considered. The characterization of spray velocity fields in the near-nozzle region is of particular importance as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during fuel atomization and mixture formation. This knowledge is needed in order to optimize injector nozzles for future requirements. In this study, the results of three experimental approaches for determination of spray velocity in the near-nozzle region are presented. Two different injector nozzle types were measured through high-speed shadowgraph imaging, Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and X-ray imaging.
Technical Paper

Computing Statistical Averages from Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Flames

The primary strength of large eddy simulation (LES) is in directly resolving the instantaneous large-scale flow features which can then be used to study critical flame properties such as ignition, extinction, flame propagation and lift-off. However, validation of the LES results with experimental or direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets requires the determination of statistically-averaged quantities. This is typically done by performing multiple realizations of LES and performing a statistical averaging among this sample. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using a well-mixed turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions. The computational cost of each calculation was in the order of 3 weeks on 200 processors with a peak cell count of about 22 million at 1 ms.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Primary Breakup Model for Diesel Engine Applications

Fuel injection characteristics, in particular the atomization and penetration of the fuel droplets in the region close to the nozzle orifice, are known to affect emission and particulate formation in Diesel engines. It is also well established that the primary fuel atomization process is induced by aerodynamics in the near nozzle region as well as cavitation and turbulence from the injector nozzle. Typical breakup models in the literature however, do not consider the effects of cavitation and turbulence from nozzle injector. In this paper, a comprehensive primary breakup model incorporating the inner nozzle flow effects such as cavitation and turbulence along with aerodynamically induced breakup is developed and incorporated in the CONVERGE CFD code. This new primary breakup model is tested in a constant volume spray chamber against various spray data available in the literature.
Journal Article

Eulerian CFD Modeling of Coupled Nozzle Flow and Spray with Validation Against X-Ray Radiography Data

This paper implements a coupled approach to integrate the internal nozzle flow and the ensuing fuel spray using a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method in the CONVERGE CFD software. A VOF method was used to model the internal nozzle two-phase flow with a cavitation description closed by the homogeneous relaxation model of Bilicki and Kestin [1]. An Eulerian single velocity field approach by Vallet et al. [2] was implemented for near-nozzle spray modeling. This Eulerian approach considers the liquid and gas phases as a complex mixture with a highly variable density to describe near nozzle dense sprays. The mean density is obtained from the Favreaveraged liquid mass fraction. The liquid mass fraction is transported with a model for the turbulent liquid diffusion flux into the gas.
Technical Paper

LES Analysis on Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion Process in a DISI Engine

Combustion cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of Spark-Ignition (SI) engines can be influenced by the cyclic variations in charge motion, trapped mass and mixture composition inside the cylinder. A high CCV leads to misfire or knock, limiting the engine’s operating regime. To understand the mechanism of the effect of flow field and mixture compositions on CCV, the present numerical work was performed in a single cylinder Direct Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engine. A large eddy simulation (LES) approach coupled with the G-equation combustion model was developed to capture the CCV by accurately resolving the turbulent flow field spatially and temporally. Further, the ignition process was modeled by sourcing energy during the breakdown and arc phases with a line-shape ignition model which could move with the local flow. Detailed chemistry was solved both inside and outside the flame front. A compact 48-species 152-reactions primary reference fuel (PRF) reduced mechanism was used.
Journal Article

LES of Diesel and Gasoline Sprays with Validation against X-Ray Radiography Data

This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays were simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time were compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations were performed and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior were investigated.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Structure of Diesel Sprays Affected by Internal Geometry of Injector Nozzle: Visualized by Single-Shot X-ray Imaging

By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
Journal Article

Novel Tabulated Combustion Model Approach for Lifted Spray Flames with Large Eddy Simulations

In this work, a turbulent combustion model is developed for large eddy simulation (LES) using a novel flamelet tabulation technique based on the framework of the multi-flamelet representative interactive flamelet (RIF) model. The overall aim is to develop a detailed model with elaborate chemistry mechanisms, LES turbulence models and highly resolved grids leveraging the computational cost advantage of a tabulated model. A novel technique of implementing unsteady flamelet libraries by using the residence time instead of the progress variables is proposed. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using the tabulated turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions. This model is then validated against igniting n-dodecane sprays under diesel engine conditions.