CFD and X-Ray Analysis of Gaseous Direct Injection from an Outward Opening Injector
Using natural gas in an internal combustion engine (ICE) is emerging as a promising way to improve thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. In the development of such engine platforms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a fundamental role in the optimization of geometries and operating parameters. One of the most relevant issues in the simulation of direct injection (DI) gaseous processes is the accurate prediction of the gas jet evolution. The simulation of the injection process for a gaseous fuel does not require complex modeling, nevertheless properly describing high-pressure gas jets remains a challenging task. At the exit of the nozzle, the injected gas is under-expanded, the flow becomes supersonic and shocks occur due to compressibility effects. These phenomena lead to challenging computational requirements resulting from high grid resolution and low computational time-steps.