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Technical Paper

A Modeling Framework for Connectivity and Automation Co-simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0607
This paper presents a unified modeling environment to simulate vehicle driving and powertrain operations within the context of the surrounding environment, including interactions between vehicles and between vehicles and the road. The goal of this framework is to facilitate the analysis of the energy impacts of vehicle connectivity and automation, as well as the development of eco-driving algorithms. Connectivity and automation indeed provide the potential to use information about the environment and future driving to minimize energy consumption. To achieve this goal, the designers of eco-driving control strategies need to simulate a wide range of driving situations, including the interactions with other vehicles and the infrastructure in a closed-loop fashion.
Technical Paper

Ambient Temperature (20°F, 72°F and 95°F) Impact on Fuel and Energy Consumption for Several Conventional Vehicles, Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1462
This paper determines the impact of ambient temperature on energy consumption of a variety of vehicles in the laboratory. Several conventional vehicles, several hybrid electric vehicles, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and a battery electric vehicle were tested for fuel and energy consumption under test cell conditions of 20°F, 72°F and 95°F with 850 W/m₂ of emulated radiant solar energy on the UDDS, HWFET and US06 drive cycles. At 20°F, the energy consumption increase compared to 72°F ranges from 2% to 100%. The largest increases in energy consumption occur during a cold start, when the powertrain losses are highest, but once the powertrains reach their operating temperatures, the energy consumption increases are decreased. At 95°F, the energy consumption increase ranges from 2% to 70%, and these increases are due to the extra energy required to run the air-conditioning system to maintain 72°F cabin temperatures.
Journal Article

Analyzing the Energy Consumption Variation during Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Conventional, Hybrid Electric, and Battery Electric Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1805
Production vehicles are commonly characterized and compared using fuel consumption (FC) and electric energy consumption (EC) metrics. Chassis dynamometer testing is a tool used to establish these metrics, and to benchmark the effectiveness of a vehicle's powertrain under numerous testing conditions and environments. Whether the vehicle is undergoing EPA Five-Cycle Fuel Economy (FE), component lifecycle, thermal, or benchmark testing, it is important to identify the vehicle and testing based variations of energy consumption results from these tests to establish the accuracy of the test's results. Traditionally, the uncertainty in vehicle test results is communicated using the variation. With the increasing complexity of vehicle powertrain technology and operation, a fixed energy consumption variation may no longer be a correct assumption.
Technical Paper

Analyzing the Uncertainty in the Fuel Economy Prediction for the EPA MOVES Binning Methodology

2007-04-16
2007-01-0280
Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Multi-scale mOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) is used to estimate inventories and projections through 2050 at the county or national level for energy consumption, nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) from highway vehicles. To simulate a large number of vehicles and fleets on numerous driving cycles, EPA developed a binning technique characterizing the energy rate for varying Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) under predefined vehicle speed ranges. The methodology is based upon the assumption that the vehicle behaves the same way for a predefined vehicle speed and power demand. While this has been validated for conventional vehicles, it has not been for advanced vehicle powertrains, including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) where the engine can be ON or OFF depending upon the battery State-of-Charge (SOC).
Technical Paper

Application of PHEV Fractional Utility Factor Weighting to EcoCAR On-Road Emissions and Energy Consumption Testing

2016-04-05
2016-01-1180
EcoCAR is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors, and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. In the last competition series, EcoCAR 2, fifteen university teams from across North America were challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. This paper examines the results of the EcoCAR 2 competition’s emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) on-road test results for several prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The official results for each vehicle are presented along with brief descriptions of the hybrid architectures.
Technical Paper

Assessing Tank-to-Wheel Efficiencies of Advanced Technology Vehicles

2003-03-03
2003-01-0412
This paper analyzes four recent major studies carried out by MIT, a GM-led team, Directed Technologies, Inc., and A. D. Little, Inc. to assess advanced technology vehicles. These analyses appear to differ greatly concerning their perception of the energy benefits of advanced technology vehicles, leading to great uncertainties in estimating full-fuel-cycle (or “well-to-wheel”) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials and/or fuel feedstock requirements per mile of service. Advanced vehicles include, but are not limited to, advanced gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) ICEs, and various kinds of fuel-cell based vehicles (FCVs), such as direct hydrogen FCVs and gasoline or methanol fuel-based FCVs.
Video

Beyond MPG: Characterizing and Conveying the Efficiency of Advanced Plug-In Vehicles 

2011-11-08
Research in plug in vehicles (PHEV and BEV) has of course been ongoing for decades, however now that these vehicles are finally being produced for a mass market an intense focus over the last few years has been given to proper evaluation techniques and standard information to effectively convey efficiency information to potential consumers. The first challenge is the development of suitable test procedures. Thanks to many contributions from SAE members, these test procedures have been developed for PHEVs (SAE J1711 now available) and are under development for BEVs (SAE J1634 available later this year). A bigger challenge, however, is taking the outputs of these test results and dealing with the issue of off-board electrical energy consumption in the context of decades-long consumer understanding of MPG as the chief figure of merit for vehicle efficiency.
Technical Paper

Comparing Apples to Apples: Well-to-Wheel Analysis of Current ICE and Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies

2004-03-08
2004-01-1015
Because of their high efficiency and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development. When considering the introduction of advanced vehicles, a complete well-to-wheel evaluation must be performed to determine the potential impact of a technology on carbon dioxide and Green House Gases (GHGs) emissions. Several modeling tools developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were used to evaluate the impact of advanced powertrain configurations. The Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) transient vehicle simulation software was used with a variety of fuel cell system models derived from the General Computational Toolkit (GCtool) for pump-to-wheel (PTW) analysis, and GREET (Green house gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation) was used for well-to-pump (WTP) analysis. This paper compares advanced propulsion technologies on a well-to-wheel energy basis by using current technology for conventional, hybrid and fuel cell technologies.
Technical Paper

Control Analysis and Model Validation for BMW i3 Range Extender

2017-03-28
2017-01-1152
The control analysis and model validation of a 2014 BMW i3-Range Extender (REX) was conducted based on the test data in this study. The vehicle testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer set within a thermal chamber at the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The BMW i3-REX is a series-type plug-in hybrid range extended vehicle which consists of a 0.65L in-line 2-cylinder range-extending engine with a 26.6kW generator, 125kW permanent magnet synchronous AC motor, and 18.8kWh lithium-ion battery. Both component and vehicle model including thermal aspects, were developed based on the test data. For example, the engine fuel consumption rate, battery resistance, or cabin HVAC energy consumption are affected by the temperature. Second, the vehicle-level control strategy was analyzed at normal temperature conditions (22°C ambient temperature). The analysis focuses on the engine on/off strategy, battery SOC balancing, and engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

Control Analysis under Different Driving Conditions for Peugeot 3008 Hybrid 4

2014-04-01
2014-01-1818
This paper includes analysis results for the control strategy of the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, a diesel-electric hybrid vehicle, under different thermal conditions. The analysis was based on testing results obtained under the different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives were to determine the principal concepts of the control strategy for the vehicle at a supervisory level, and to understand the overall system behavior based on the concepts. Control principles for complex systems are generally designed to maximize the performance, and it is a serious challenge to determine these principles without detailed information about the systems. By analyzing the test results obtained in various driving conditions with the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, we tried to figure out the supervisory control strategy.
Technical Paper

Critical Factors in the Development of Well-To-Wheel Analyses of Alternative Fuel and Advanced Powertrain Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1284
A heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation of light-duty vehicles. The addition of the HDV module to the GREET model allows for well-to-wheel (WTW) analyses of heavy-duty advanced technology and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which has been lacking in the literature. WTW analyses of HDVs becomes increasingly important to understand the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of newly enacted and future HDV regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Journal Article

Design of an On-Road PHEV Fuel Economy Testing Methodology with Built-In Utility Factor Distance Weighting

2012-04-16
2012-01-1194
As vehicle technology progresses to new levels of sophistication, so too, vehicle test methods must evolve. This is true for analytical testing in a laboratory and for on-road vehicle testing. Every year since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and original equipment manufacturer (OEM) sponsors have organized a series of competitions featuring advanced hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology to develop and promote DOE goals in fuel savings and alternative fuel usage. The competition has evolved over many years and has included many alternative fuels feeding the prime mover (including hydrogen fuel cells). EcoCAR turned its focus to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and it was quickly realized that to keep using on-road testing methods to evaluate fuel and electricity consumption, a new method needed to be developed that would properly weight depleting operation with the sustaining operation, using the established Utility Factor (UF) method.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Ford Focus Battery Electric Vehicle Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-1809
This paper presents the vehicle model development and validation process for the Ford Focus battery electric vehicles (BEVs) using Autonomie and test results from Advanced Powertrain Research Facility in Argonne National Laboratory. The parameters or characteristic values for the important components such as the electric machine and battery pack system are estimated through analyzing the test data of the multi cycle test (MCT) procedure under the standard ambient condition. A novel process was used to import vehicle test data into Autonomie. Through this process, a complete vehicle model of the Ford Focus BEV is developed and validated under ambient temperature for different drive cycles (UDDS, HWFET, US06 and Steady-State). The simulation results of the developed vehicle model show coincident results with the test data within 0.5% ∼ 4% discrepancies for electrical consumption.
Technical Paper

Eco-Driving Strategies for Different Powertrain Types and Scenarios

2019-10-22
2019-01-2608
Connected automated vehicles (CAVs) are quickly becoming a reality, and their potential ability to communicate with each other and the infrastructure around them has big potential impacts on future mobility systems. Perhaps one of the most important impacts could be on network wide energy consumption. A lot of research has already been performed on the topic of eco-driving and the potential fuel and energy consumption benefits for CAVs. However, most of the efforts to date have been based on simulation studies only, and have only considered conventional vehicle powertrains. In this study, experimental data is presented for the potential eco-driving benefits of two specific intersection approach scenarios and four different powertrain types.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficient Speed Optimization for Real-World Highway Cruising

2018-04-03
2018-01-0589
This paper introduces an eco-driving highway cruising algorithm based on optimal control theory that is applied to a conventionally-powered connected and automated vehicle. Thanks to connectivity to the cloud and/or to infrastructure, speed limit and slope along the future route can be known with accuracy. This can in turn be used to compute the control variable trajectory that will minimize energy consumption without significantly impacting travel time. Automated driving is necessary to the implementation of this concept, because the chosen control variables (e.g., torque and gear) impact vehicle speed. An optimal control problem is built up where quadratic models are used for the powertrain. The optimization is solved by applying Pontryagin’s minimum principle, which reduces the problem to the minimization of a cost function with parameters called co-states.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Impacts of Propulsion System/Fuel Alternatives for Tripled Fuel-Economy Vehicles

1999-03-01
1999-01-1118
This paper presents the results of Argonne National Laboratory's assessment of the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of 13 combinations of fuels and propulsion systems that are potential candidates for light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles). These vehicles are being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Eleven fuels were considered: reformulated gasoline (RFG), reformulated diesel (RFD), methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and hydrogen. RFG, methanol, ethanol, LPG, CNG and LNG were assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection (SIDI) engines. RFD, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, biodiesel and dimethyl ether were assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) engines. Hydrogen, RFG and methanol were assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Options for Light-Duty Vehicles

1999-08-17
1999-01-2929
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) offer great promise in improving fuel economy. In this paper, we analyze why, how, and by how much vehicle hybridization can reduce energy consumption and improve fuel economy. Our analysis focuses on efficiency gains associated solely with vehicle hybridization. We do not consider such other measures as vehicle weight reduction or air- and tire-resistance reduction, because such measures would also benefit conventional technology vehicles. The analysis starts with understanding the energy inefficiencies of light-duty vehicles associated with different operation modes in U.S. and Japanese urban and highway driving cycles, with the corresponding energy-saving potentials.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ambient Temperature and Climate Control on Energy Consumption and Operational Behavior for Various HEVs on the Urban Drive Cycle

2014-04-01
2014-01-1814
Ambient temperature plays an important role in the operational behavior of a vehicle. Temperature variances from 20 F to 72 F to 95 F produce different operation from different HEVs, as prescribed by their respective energy management strategies. The extra variable of Climate Control causes these behaviors to change again. There have been studies conducted on the differences in operational behavior of conventional vehicles as against HEVs, with and without climate control. Lohse-Bush et al conclude that operational behavior of conventional vehicles is much more robust as compared to HEVs and that the effect of ambient temperature is felt more prominently in HEVs (1).
Technical Paper

Impact of Connectivity and Automation on Vehicle Energy Use

2016-04-05
2016-01-0152
Connectivity and automation are increasingly being developed for cars and trucks, aiming to provide better safety and better driving experience. As these technologies mature and reach higher adoption rates, they will also have an impact on the energy consumption: Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) may drive more smoothly, stop less often, and move at faster speeds, thanks to overall improvements to traffic flows. These potential impacts are not well studied, and any existing studies tend to focus solely on conventional engine-powered cars, leaving aside electrified vehicles such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). This work intends to address this issue by analyzing the energy impact of various CAV scenarios on different types of electric vehicles using high-fidelity models. The vehicles-all midsize, one HEV, one BEV, and a conventional-are modeled in Autonomie, a high-fidelity, forward-looking vehicle simulation tool.
Technical Paper

Impact of Recycling Automotive Lightweighting Materials on Sustainability

2009-04-20
2009-01-0317
A sustainable activity is one that is economically attractive, environmentally friendly and provides a beneficial service to society in a safe and responsible manner. Having a sustainable operation is a target that today’s industries are striving to attain. The automotive industry and its products are major users of natural resources and a source of greenhouse emissions. In order to reduce its energy consumption and greenhouse emissions the industry is using more lightweighting materials in manufacturing its products. These materials include polymers, composites, aluminum and magnesium. The increased interest in hybrid vehicles will increase the need for new materials such as lithium, cobalt and nickel. At the same time, regulations are calling for recycling more of the obsolete vehicles. Replacing the steel, which is recyclable, with lighter materials will result in a reduction in the recycling rate of vehicles unless the lightweighting materials are recycled.
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