Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Assess the Accuracy of Service Timing Devices for Injection Pumps of Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0823
The correct timing of the diesel injection pump on engine is of major importance for all functions of the engine and for its exhaust emissions, during production pass off as well as in the field. Within the diesel service workshops a variety of devices exist to test the timing of the injection pump on engine. Most of them operate by clamp-on transducer being fitted to the injection pipe. A large uncertainty exists concerning the accuracy of such timing systems. Most diesel engine manufacturers do not have confidence in the timing devices capability and, therefore, do not recommend their usage. A working group within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted a method for the validation of these measurement systems, which usually is used to judge the capability of measurement gauges for industrial production processes.
Journal Article

A Representative Testing Methodology for System Influence on Automotive Fuel Filtration

2013-04-08
2013-01-0891
Filtration of diesel and gasoline fuel in automotive applications is affected by many external and internal parameters, e.g. vibration, temperature, pressure, flow pulsation, and engine start-stop. Current test procedures for automotive fuel filters, proposed by most of the researchers and organizations including Society for Automotive Engineers (SAE) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), do not apply the previously mentioned real-world-conditions. These operating conditions, which are typical for an automotive fueling system, have a significant effect on fuel filtration and need to be considered for the accurate assessment of the filter. This requires the development of improved testing procedures that will simulate the operating conditions in a fuel system as encountered in the real world.
Technical Paper

Active Pedestrian Protection - System Development

2004-03-08
2004-01-1604
Pedestrian protection is an upcoming field for research and development. Active pedestrian protection is described from a system perspective. In this view, the development of an active pedestrian protection system is shown. First an overview on statistics and legal requirements is given and the system requirements are discussed. Sensor concepts and realizations are shown, also different test methods and results are explained. FE-simulations to complete and later replace additional tests are developed, after cross check with the experimental results. In combination with the shown actuator concept this leads to a full functioning active pedestrian protection system.
Technical Paper

Ambient Temperature (20°F, 72°F and 95°F) Impact on Fuel and Energy Consumption for Several Conventional Vehicles, Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1462
This paper determines the impact of ambient temperature on energy consumption of a variety of vehicles in the laboratory. Several conventional vehicles, several hybrid electric vehicles, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and a battery electric vehicle were tested for fuel and energy consumption under test cell conditions of 20°F, 72°F and 95°F with 850 W/m₂ of emulated radiant solar energy on the UDDS, HWFET and US06 drive cycles. At 20°F, the energy consumption increase compared to 72°F ranges from 2% to 100%. The largest increases in energy consumption occur during a cold start, when the powertrain losses are highest, but once the powertrains reach their operating temperatures, the energy consumption increases are decreased. At 95°F, the energy consumption increase ranges from 2% to 70%, and these increases are due to the extra energy required to run the air-conditioning system to maintain 72°F cabin temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Examination of Spray Stochastics in Single-Hole Diesel Injectors

2015-09-01
2015-01-1834
Recent advances in x-ray spray diagnostics at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source have made absorption measurements of individual spray events possible. A focused x-ray beam (5×6 μm) enables collection of data along a single line of sight in the flow field and these measurements have allowed the calculation of quantitative, shot-to-shot statistics for the projected mass of fuel sprays. Raster scanning though the spray generates a two-dimensional field of data, which is a path integrated representation of a three-dimensional flow. In a previous work, we investigated the shot-to-shot variation over 32 events by visualizing the ensemble standard deviations throughout a two dimensional mapping of the spray. In the current work, provide further analysis of the time to steady-state and steady-state spatial location of the fluctuating field via the transverse integrated fluctuations (TIF).
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Particulate Morphology, Microstructures, and Fractal Geometry for ael Diesel Engine-Simulating Combustor

2004-10-25
2004-01-3044
The particulate matter (PM) produced from a diesel engine-simulating combustor was characterized in its morphology, microstructure, and fractal geometry by using a unique thermophoretic sampling and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) system. These results revealed that diesel PM produced from the laboratory-scale burner showed similar morphological characteristics to the particulates produced from diesel engines. The flame air/fuel ratio and the particulate temperature history have significant influences on both particle size and fractal geometry. The primary particle sizes were measured to be 14.7 nm and 14.8 nm under stoichiometric and fuel-rich flame conditions, respectively. These primary particle sizes are smaller than those produced from diesel engines. The radii of gyration for the aggregate particles were 83.8 nm and 47.5 nm under these two flame conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Flow Patterns inside an Autothermal Gasoline Reformer

2001-05-07
2001-01-1917
The present paper concentrates on the option of catalytic autothermal reforming of gasoline for fuel cell applications. Major parameters of this process are the “Steam to Carbon Ratio” S/C and the air to fuel ratio λ. Computations assuming thermodynamic equilibrium in the autothermal reactor outlet (ATR) were carried out to attain information about their proper choice, as failure in adjusting the parameters within narrow limits has severe consequences on the reforming process. In order to quantify velocity distribution just ahead the catalyst and to evaluate mixing uniformity we designed an ATR featuring an optical access: Thus flow visualization using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) technique is possible. Preliminary PIV-results are presented and compared with CFD computations (Computational Fluid D ynamics).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Non-Police Reported Accidents on Indian Highways

2017-01-10
2017-26-0005
The official Indian accident statistics show that the number of road accidents and fatalities are one of the highest worldwide. These official statistics provide important facts about the current accident situation. It is suspected that for various reasons not all accidents are reported to the official statistic. This study estimates the degree of underreporting of traffic accidents with casualties in India. In order to get a national overview of the traffic accident situation it is necessary to improve the knowledge about underreported accidents. Therefore, the in-depth accident database of “Road Accident Sampling System India” (RASSI) was analyzed [1]. This project is organized by a consortium that has collected traffic accidents scientifically in four different regions since 2011 on the spot which have been reported either by police or by local hospitals and own patrol by RASSI engineers.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

2011-04-12
2011-01-1288
This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Automated Model-Based GDI Engine Calibration Adaptive Online DoE Approach

2002-03-04
2002-01-0708
Due to its high number of free parameters, the new generation of gasoline engines with direct injection require an efficient calibration process to handle the system complexity and to avoid a dramatic increase in calibration costs. This paper presents a concept of specific toolboxes within a standardized and automated calibration environment, supporting the complexity of GDI engines and establishing standard procedures for distributed development. The basic idea is the combination of a new and more efficient online DoE approach with the automatic and adaptive identification of the region of interest in the high dimensional parameter space. This guarantees efficient experimental designs even for highly non-linear systems with often irregularly shaped valid regions. As the main advantage for the calibration engineer, the new approach requires almost no pre-investigations and no specific statistical knowledge.
Journal Article

Battery Charge Balance and Correction Issues in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Individual Phases of Certification Dynamometer Driving Cycles as Used in EPA Fuel Economy Label Calculations

2012-04-16
2012-01-1006
This study undertakes an investigation of the effect of battery charge balance in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) on EPA fuel economy label values. EPA's updated method was fully implemented in 2011 and uses equations which weight the contributions of fuel consumption results from multiple dynamometer tests to synthesize city and highway estimates that reflect average U.S. driving patterns. For the US06 and UDDS cycles, the test results used in the computation come from individual phases within the overall certification driving cycles. This methodology causes additional complexities for hybrid vehicles, because although they are required to be charge-balanced over the course of a full drive cycle, they may have net charge or discharge within the individual phases. As a result, the fuel consumption value used in the label value calculation can be skewed.
Technical Paper

CARTRONIC - An Open Architecture for Networking the Control Systems of an Automobile

1998-02-23
980200
The car industry has reached a point where electronic systems, which were so far essentially autonomous, begin to grow together to a Car-Wide Web. The main driving force is the demand for more safety, security, and comfort implemented economically. Already various parties are working on control networks. In the long run, vehicle motion and dynamic systems, safety, security, comfort as well as mobile multimedia systems will integrate and reach out for the vision of accident-free, comfortable, and well-informed driving. As a foundation for a Car-Wide Web, Bosch is developing an open architecture called CARTRONIC. The essence of CARTRONIC is to define structuring rules, modeling rules and patterns for total, integrated control of vehicles. The rules and patterns allow the mapping of high-level functions onto several physical implementations, for instance one logical description of functional connections could be created for cars with different equipment packages.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Internal flow and Spray of Multihole DI Gasoline Spray using X-ray Imaging and CFD

2011-08-30
2011-01-1881
Multi-hole DI injectors are being adopted in the advanced downsized DISI ICE powertrain in the automotive industry worldwide because of their robustness and cost-performance. Although their injector design and spray resembles those of DI diesel injectors, there are many basic but distinct differences due to different injection pressure and fuel properties, the sac design, lower L/D aspect ratios in the nozzle hole, closer spray-to-spray angle and hense interactions. This paper used Phase-Contrast X ray techniques to visualize the spray near a 3-hole DI gasoline research model injector exit and compared to the visible light visualization and the internal flow predictions using with multi-dimensional multi-phase CFD simulations. The results show that strong interactions of the vortex strings, cavitation, and turbulence in and near the nozzles make the multi-phase turbulent flow very complicated and dominate the near nozzle breakup mechanisms quite unlike those of diesel injections.
Journal Article

Comparison of Near-Field Structure and Growth of a Diesel Spray Using Light-Based Optical Microscopy and X-Ray Radiography

2014-04-01
2014-01-1412
A full understanding and characterization of the near-field of diesel sprays is daunting because the dense spray region inhibits most diagnostics. While x-ray diagnostics permit quantification of fuel mass along a line of sight, most laboratories necessarily use simple lighting to characterize the spray spreading angle, using it as an input for CFD modeling, for example. Questions arise as to what is meant by the “boundary” of the spray since liquid fuel concentration is not easily quantified in optical imaging. In this study we seek to establish a relationship between spray boundary obtained via optical diffused backlighting and the fuel concentration derived from tomographic reconstruction of x-ray radiography. Measurements are repeated in different facilities at the same specified operating conditions on the “Spray A” fuel injector of the Engine Combustion Network, which has a nozzle diameter of 90 μm.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Shadowgraph Imaging, Laser-Doppler Anemometry and X-Ray Imaging for the Analysis of Near Nozzle Velocities of GDI Fuel Injectors

2017-10-08
2017-01-2302
The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure gradients and turbulences of the internal flow and in-nozzle cavitation. Therefore, statistical parameters for spray characterization through experiments must be considered. The characterization of spray velocity fields in the near-nozzle region is of particular importance as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during fuel atomization and mixture formation. This knowledge is needed in order to optimize injector nozzles for future requirements. In this study, the results of three experimental approaches for determination of spray velocity in the near-nozzle region are presented. Two different injector nozzle types were measured through high-speed shadowgraph imaging, Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and X-ray imaging.
Technical Paper

Computing Statistical Averages from Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Flames

2016-04-05
2016-01-0585
The primary strength of large eddy simulation (LES) is in directly resolving the instantaneous large-scale flow features which can then be used to study critical flame properties such as ignition, extinction, flame propagation and lift-off. However, validation of the LES results with experimental or direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets requires the determination of statistically-averaged quantities. This is typically done by performing multiple realizations of LES and performing a statistical averaging among this sample. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using a well-mixed turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions. The computational cost of each calculation was in the order of 3 weeks on 200 processors with a peak cell count of about 22 million at 1 ms.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Split-Injection Needle Lift and Spray Structure

2011-04-12
2011-01-0383
While the use of injection strategies utilizing multiple injection events for each engine cycle has become common, there are relatively few studies of the spray structure of split injection events. Optical spray measurements are particularly difficult for split injection events with a short dwell time between injections, since droplets from the first injection will obscure the end of the first and the start of the second injection. The current study uses x-ray radiography to examine the near-nozzle spray structure of split injection events with a short dwell time between the injection events. In addition, x-ray phase-enhanced imaging is used to measure the injector needle lift vs. time for split injections with various dwell timings. Near the minimum dwell time needed to create two separate injection events, the spray behavior is quite sensitive to the dwell time.
Technical Paper

Determining Off-cycle Fuel Economy Benefits of 2-Layer HVAC Technology

2018-04-03
2018-01-1368
This work presents a methodology to determine the off-cycle fuel economy benefit of a 2-Layer HVAC system which reduces ventilation and heat rejection losses of the heater core versus a vehicle using a standard system. Experimental dynamometer tests using EPA drive cycles over a broad range of ambient temperatures were conducted on a highly instrumented 2016 Lexus RX350 (3.5L, 8 speed automatic). These tests were conducted to measure differences in engine efficiency caused by changes in engine warmup due to the 2-Layer HVAC technology in use versus the technology being disabled (disabled equals fresh air-considered as the standard technology baseline). These experimental datasets were used to develop simplified response surface and lumped capacitance vehicle thermal models predictive of vehicle efficiency as a function of thermal state.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Geometry on the Common-Rail Diesel Spray

2002-05-06
2002-01-1625
Diesel injections with various nozzle geometries were tested to investigate the spray characteristics by optical imaging techniques. Sac-nozzle and VCO nozzle with single guided needle coupled with rotary-type mechanical pump were compared in terms of macroscopic spray development and microscopic behavior. These nozzles incorporated with common-rail system were tested to see the effect of high pressure injection. Detailed investigation into spray characteristics from the holes of VCO nozzles, mostly with double guided needle, was performed. A variety of injection hole geometries were tested and compared to give tips on better injector design. Different hole sizes and taper ratio, represented as K factor, were studied through comprehensive spray imaging techniques. Global characteristics of a diesel spray, such as spray penetration, spray angle and its pattern, were observed from macroscopic images.
X