A Cloud-Based Simulation and Testing Framework for Large-Scale EV Charging Energy Management and Charging Control
The emerging need of building an efficient Electric Vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure requires the investigation of all aspects of Vehicle-Grid Integration (VGI), including the impact of EV charging on the grid, optimal EV charging control at scale, and communication interoperability. This paper presents a cloud-based simulation and testing platform for the development and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) testing of VGI technologies. Although the HIL testing of a single charging station has been widely performed, the HIL testing of spatially distributed EV charging stations and communication interoperability is limited. To fill this gap, the presented platform is developed that consists of multiple subsystems: a real-time power system simulator (OPAL-RT), ISO 15118 EV Charge Scheduler System (EVCSS), and a Smart Energy Plaza (SEP) with various types of charging stations, solar panels, and energy storage systems.