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Technical Paper

A PEV Emulation Approach to Development and Validation of Grid Friendly Optimized Automated Load Control Vehicle Charging Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0409
There are many challenges in implementing grid aware plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging systems with local load control. New opportunities for innovative load control were created as a result of changes to the 2014 National Electric Code (NEC) about automatic load control definitions for EV charging infrastructure. Stakeholders in optimized dispatch of EV charging assets include the end users (EV drivers), site owner/operators, facility managers and utilities. NEC definition changes allow for ‘over subscription’ of more potential EV charging station load than can be continuously supported if the total load at any time is within the supply system safety limit. Local load control can be implemented via compact submeter(s) with locally hosted control algorithms using direct communication to the managed electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE).
Technical Paper

An Examination of Spray Stochastics in Single-Hole Diesel Injectors

2015-09-01
2015-01-1834
Recent advances in x-ray spray diagnostics at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source have made absorption measurements of individual spray events possible. A focused x-ray beam (5×6 μm) enables collection of data along a single line of sight in the flow field and these measurements have allowed the calculation of quantitative, shot-to-shot statistics for the projected mass of fuel sprays. Raster scanning though the spray generates a two-dimensional field of data, which is a path integrated representation of a three-dimensional flow. In a previous work, we investigated the shot-to-shot variation over 32 events by visualizing the ensemble standard deviations throughout a two dimensional mapping of the spray. In the current work, provide further analysis of the time to steady-state and steady-state spatial location of the fluctuating field via the transverse integrated fluctuations (TIF).
Journal Article

Buckling Analysis of Uncertain Structures Using Imprecise Probability

2015-04-14
2015-01-0485
In order to ensure the safety of a structure, adequate strength for structural elements must be provided. Moreover, catastrophic deformations such as buckling must be prevented. Using the linear finite element method, deterministic buckling analysis is completed in two main steps. First, a static analysis is performed using an arbitrary ordinate applied loading pattern. Using the obtained element axial forces, the geometric stiffness of the structure is assembled. Second, an eigenvalue problem is performed between structure's elastic and geometric stiffness matrices, yielding the structure's critical buckling loads. However, these deterministic approaches do not consider uncertainty the structure's material and geometric properties. In this work, a new method for finite element based buckling analysis of a structure with uncertainty is developed. An imprecise probability formulation is used to quantify the uncertainty present in the mechanical characteristics of the structure.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Shadowgraph Imaging, Laser-Doppler Anemometry and X-Ray Imaging for the Analysis of Near Nozzle Velocities of GDI Fuel Injectors

2017-10-08
2017-01-2302
The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure gradients and turbulences of the internal flow and in-nozzle cavitation. Therefore, statistical parameters for spray characterization through experiments must be considered. The characterization of spray velocity fields in the near-nozzle region is of particular importance as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during fuel atomization and mixture formation. This knowledge is needed in order to optimize injector nozzles for future requirements. In this study, the results of three experimental approaches for determination of spray velocity in the near-nozzle region are presented. Two different injector nozzle types were measured through high-speed shadowgraph imaging, Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and X-ray imaging.
Technical Paper

Computing Statistical Averages from Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Flames

2016-04-05
2016-01-0585
The primary strength of large eddy simulation (LES) is in directly resolving the instantaneous large-scale flow features which can then be used to study critical flame properties such as ignition, extinction, flame propagation and lift-off. However, validation of the LES results with experimental or direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets requires the determination of statistically-averaged quantities. This is typically done by performing multiple realizations of LES and performing a statistical averaging among this sample. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using a well-mixed turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions. The computational cost of each calculation was in the order of 3 weeks on 200 processors with a peak cell count of about 22 million at 1 ms.
Technical Paper

Determining Off-cycle Fuel Economy Benefits of 2-Layer HVAC Technology

2018-04-03
2018-01-1368
This work presents a methodology to determine the off-cycle fuel economy benefit of a 2-Layer HVAC system which reduces ventilation and heat rejection losses of the heater core versus a vehicle using a standard system. Experimental dynamometer tests using EPA drive cycles over a broad range of ambient temperatures were conducted on a highly instrumented 2016 Lexus RX350 (3.5L, 8 speed automatic). These tests were conducted to measure differences in engine efficiency caused by changes in engine warmup due to the 2-Layer HVAC technology in use versus the technology being disabled (disabled equals fresh air-considered as the standard technology baseline). These experimental datasets were used to develop simplified response surface and lumped capacitance vehicle thermal models predictive of vehicle efficiency as a function of thermal state.
Technical Paper

Durability Study of a High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel - Additional Cycle Runtime and Teardown Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0263
This study is a continuation of previous work assessing the robustness of a Cummins XPI common rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. All the hardware from the original study was retained except for the high pressure pump head and check valves which were replaced due to cavitation damage. An additional 400 hour NATO cycle was run on the refurbished fuel system to achieve a total exposure time of 800 hours and detect any other significant failure modes. As in the initial investigation, fuel system parameters including pressures, temperatures and flow rates were logged on a test bench to monitor performance over time. Fuel and lubricant samples were taken every 50 hours to assess fuel consistency, metallic wear, and interaction between fuel and oil. High fidelity driving torque and flow measurements were made to compare overall system performance when operating with both diesel and light distillate fuel.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Failure Modes Induced by Plastic Strain Localization in Dual Phase Steels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1114
Microstructure level inhomogeneities between the harder martensite phase and the softer ferrite phase render the dual phase (DP) steels more complicated failure mechanisms and associated failure modes compared to the conventionally used low alloy homogenous steels. This paper examines the failure mode DP780 steel under different loading conditions using finite element analyses on the microstructure levels. Micro-mechanics analyses based on the actual microstructures of DP steel are performed. The two-dimensional microstructure of DP steel was recorded by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plastic work hardening properties of the ferrite phase was determined by the synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction technique. The work hardening properties of the martensite phase were calibrated and determined based on the uniaxial tensile test results. Under different loading conditions, different failure modes are predicted in the form of plastic strain localization.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Fuel Effects on Cylinder Conditions Leading to End-Gas Autoignition in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0630
Currently there is a significant research effort being made in gasoline spark/ignition (SI) engines to understand and reduce cycle-to-cycle variations. One of the phenomena that presents this cycle-to-cycle variation is combustion knock, which also happens to have a very stochastic behavior in modern SI engines. Conversely, the CFR octane rating engine presents much more repeatable combustion knock activity. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of fuel composition on the cycle to cycle variation of the pressure and timing of end gas autoignition. The variation of cylinder conditions at the timing of end-gas autoignition (knock point) for a wide selection of cycle ensembles have been analyzed for several constant RON 98 fuels on the CFR engine, as well as in a modern single-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) SI engine operated at RON-like intake conditions.
Technical Paper

Validation Process of a HEV System Analysis Model: PSAT

2001-03-05
2001-01-0953
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine two sources of energy and offer a wide variety of component and drivetrain configurations. However, optimizing the blending of these two energy sources is complex. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) working with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), maintains hybrid vehicle simulation software, the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). PSAT allows users to choose the best configuration and to optimize the control strategy in simulations. The importance of component models and the complexity involved in setting up optimized control laws require validation of the models and control strategies developed in PSAT. In this paper, we first describe our capability to validate each component model with an actual component test, using test stand facilities. Once each component model has been validated, ANL can perform tests on a whole HEV by using a chassis dynamometer.
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