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Journal Article

A Hydrogen Direct Injection Engine Concept that Exceeds U.S. DOE Light-Duty Efficiency Targets

Striving for sustainable transportation solutions, hydrogen is often identified as a promising energy carrier and internal combustion engines are seen as a cost effective consumer of hydrogen to facilitate the development of a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. Driven by efficiency and emissions targets defined by the U.S. Department of Energy, a research team at Argonne National Laboratory has worked on optimizing a spark-ignited direct injection engine for hydrogen. Using direct injection improves volumetric efficiency and provides the opportunity to properly stratify the fuel-air mixture in-cylinder. Collaborative 3D-CFD and experimental efforts have focused on optimizing the mixture stratification and have demonstrated the potential for high engine efficiency with low NOx emissions. Performance of the hydrogen engine is evaluated in this paper over a speed range from 1000 to 3000 RPM and a load range from 1.7 to 14.3 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services

Today’s electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Performance Results from FutureTruck 2001

The 2001 FutureTruck competition involved 15 universities from across North America that were invited to apply a wide range of advanced technologies to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas impact while producing near-zero regulated exhaust emissions in a 2000 Chevrolet Suburban. The modified vehicles designated as FutureTrucks demonstrated improvements in greenhouse gas emissions, tailpipe emissions, and over-the-road fuel economy compared with the stock vehicle on which they were based. The technologies represented in the vehicles included ICE-engines and fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle propulsion systems, a range of conventional and alternative fuels, advanced exhaust emissions controls, and light weighting technologies.
Technical Paper

Assessing Tank-to-Wheel Efficiencies of Advanced Technology Vehicles

This paper analyzes four recent major studies carried out by MIT, a GM-led team, Directed Technologies, Inc., and A. D. Little, Inc. to assess advanced technology vehicles. These analyses appear to differ greatly concerning their perception of the energy benefits of advanced technology vehicles, leading to great uncertainties in estimating full-fuel-cycle (or “well-to-wheel”) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials and/or fuel feedstock requirements per mile of service. Advanced vehicles include, but are not limited to, advanced gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) ICEs, and various kinds of fuel-cell based vehicles (FCVs), such as direct hydrogen FCVs and gasoline or methanol fuel-based FCVs.
Journal Article

Assessment of Multiple Injection Strategies in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

Hydrogen is widely considered a promising fuel for future transportation applications for both, internal combustion engines and fuel cells. Due to their advanced stage of development and immediate availability hydrogen combustion engines could act as a bridging technology towards a wide-spread hydrogen infrastructure. Although fuel cell vehicles are expected to surpass hydrogen combustion engine vehicles in terms of efficiency, the difference in efficiency might not be as significant as widely anticipated [1]. Hydrogen combustion engines have been shown capable of achieving efficiencies of up to 45 % [2]. One of the remaining challenges is the reduction of nitric oxide emissions while achieving peak engine efficiencies. This paper summarizes research work performed on a single-cylinder hydrogen direct injection engine at Argonne National Laboratory.
Technical Paper

Autothermal Reforming Catalyst Development for Fuel Cell Applications

Süd-Chemie Inc. is producing and supplying an autothermal reforming (ATR) catalyst that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H2 for automotive fuel cell systems. The catalyst is derived from solid oxide fuel cell technology, where a transition metal is supported on an oxide-ion-conducting substrate, such as ceria or zirconia, that is doped with an un-reducible oxide, such as gadolinium or samarium, to improve its oxide ion conductivity and to increase the number of surface oxygen ion vacancies. The catalyst has been shown to produce an H2-rich gas (reformate) from a wide variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including methane, natural gas, and commercial-grade gasolines and diesels with high selectivity. Platinum was the transition metal used in the first generation of the ANL catalyst.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part I - Methodology and Scenario Definition

The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) requires an increase in the use of advanced biofuels up to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Longer chain alcohols, in addition to cellulosic ethanol and synthetic biofuels, could be used to meet this demand while adhering to the RFS2 corn-based ethanol limitation. Higher carbon number alcohols can be utilized to improve the energy content, knock resistance, and/or petroleum displacement of gasoline-alcohol blends compared to traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part I of this paper focuses on the development of scenarios by which to compare higher alcohol fuel blends to traditional ethanol blends. It also details the implementation of fuel property prediction methods adapted from literature. Possible combinations of eight alcohols mixed with a gasoline blendstock were calculated and the properties of the theoretical fuel blends were predicted.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part II - Blend Properties and Target Value Sensitivity

Higher carbon number alcohols offer an opportunity to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and improve the energy content, petroleum displacement, and/or knock resistance of gasoline-alcohol blends from traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part II of this paper builds upon the alcohol selection, fuel implementation scenarios, criteria target values, and property prediction methodologies detailed in Part I. For each scenario, optimization schemes include maximizing energy content, knock resistance, or petroleum displacement. Optimum blend composition is very sensitive to energy content, knock resistance, vapor pressure, and oxygen content criteria target values. Iso-propanol is favored in both scenarios' suitable blends because of its high RON value.
Technical Paper

CFD and X-Ray Analysis of Gaseous Direct Injection from an Outward Opening Injector

Using natural gas in an internal combustion engine (ICE) is emerging as a promising way to improve thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. In the development of such engine platforms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a fundamental role in the optimization of geometries and operating parameters. One of the most relevant issues in the simulation of direct injection (DI) gaseous processes is the accurate prediction of the gas jet evolution. The simulation of the injection process for a gaseous fuel does not require complex modeling, nevertheless properly describing high-pressure gas jets remains a challenging task. At the exit of the nozzle, the injected gas is under-expanded, the flow becomes supersonic and shocks occur due to compressibility effects. These phenomena lead to challenging computational requirements resulting from high grid resolution and low computational time-steps.
Technical Paper

Clean and Cost-effective Dry Boundary Lubricants for Aluminum Forming

Preliminary research in our laboratory has demonstrated that boric acid is an effective lubricant with an unusual capacity to reduce the sliding friction (providing friction coefficients as low as 0.02) and wear of metallic and ceramic materials. More recent studies have revealed that water or methanol solutions of boric acid can be used to prepare strongly bonded layers of boric acid on aluminum surfaces. It appears that boric acid molecules have a strong tendency to bond chemically to the naturally oxidized surfaces of aluminum and its alloys and to make these surfaces very slippery. Recent metal-formability tests indicated that the boric acid films applied to aluminum surfaces worked quite well, improving draw scale performance by 58 to 75%.
Technical Paper

Combustion Behavior of Gasoline and Gasoline/Ethanol Blends in a Modern Direct-Injection 4-Cylinder Engine

Early in 2007 President Bush announced in his State of the Union Address a plan to off-set 20% of gasoline with alternative fuels in the next ten years. Ethanol, due to its excellent fuel properties for example, high octane number, renewable character, etc., appears to be a favorable alternative fuel from an engine perspective. Replacing gasoline with ethanol without any additional measures results in unacceptable disadvantages mainly in terms of vehicle range. This paper summarizes combustion studies performed with gasoline as well as blends of gasoline and ethanol. These tests were performed on a modern, 4-cylinder spark ignition engine with direct fuel injection and exhaust gas recirculation. To evaluate the influence of blending on the combustion behavior the engine was operated on the base gasoline calibration. Cylinder pressure data taken during the testing allowed for detailed analysis of rates of heat release and combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of PRF and TSF Ethanol Blends with RON 98 in an Instrumented CFR Engine

The CFR F1 engine is the standard testing apparatus used for rating the research octane number (RON) of gasoline fuels. Unlike the motor octane number (MON) method, where the intake port temperature after the carburetor is controlled by an electric heater, the mixture temperature can vary during the RON test due to the heat of vaporization (HoV) of the fuel. Ethanol is receiving increasing attention as a high octane and high HoV fuel component. This work presents an analysis of the combustion characteristics during the RON rating of ethanol fuel blends according to the standard ASTM D2699 method, highlighting the effects of ethanol concentration and base fuel composition. All fuels were blended to a constant RON of 98. Ethanol levels varied from 0 to 50 vol% and the base fuels were surrogate blends composed of primary reference fuels (PRF), toluene standardization fuels (TSF), and a four component gasoline surrogate.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Performance of GTL/ULSD Blends in Older and Newer Diesel Passenger Cars

Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) is a liquid diesel fuel produced from natural gas, which may have certain attributes different from conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD). In this investigation, GTL, ULSD, and their blends of 20% and 50% GTL in ULSD were tested in an older Mercedes C Class (MY1999, Euro 2) and a newer Opel Astra (MY2006, Euro 4) diesel vehicle to evaluate the performance in terms of fuel consumption and emissions. Each vehicle was pre-conditioned on-road with one tank full of test fuel before actual testing in a chassis dynamometer facility. Both vehicles were calibrated for European emission standards and operation, and they were not re-calibrated for the fuel tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In the two-vehicle EPA FTP-75, US06, and Highway drive-cycle tests, the emissions of carbon dioxide on a per-mile basis (g/mi) from all GTL-containing fuels were significantly lower than those from the ULSD.
Technical Paper

Comparison of RCCI Operation with and without EGR over the Full Operating Map of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Dual-fuel combustion using port-injection of low reactivity fuel combined with direct injection of a higher reactivity fuel, otherwise known as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), has been shown as a method to achieve high efficiency combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions. A key requirement for extending to high-load operation is reduce the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. One way to accomplish this is to use a very low reactivity fuel such as natural gas. In this work, experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate using RCCI combustion with port injection of natural gas and direct injection of diesel fuel. Natural gas/diesel RCCI engine operation is compared over the EPA Heavy-Duty 13 mode supplemental emissions test with and without EGR.
Technical Paper

Critical Factors in the Development of Well-To-Wheel Analyses of Alternative Fuel and Advanced Powertrain Heavy-Duty Vehicles

A heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation of light-duty vehicles. The addition of the HDV module to the GREET model allows for well-to-wheel (WTW) analyses of heavy-duty advanced technology and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which has been lacking in the literature. WTW analyses of HDVs becomes increasingly important to understand the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of newly enacted and future HDV regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Journal Article

Design of an On-Road PHEV Fuel Economy Testing Methodology with Built-In Utility Factor Distance Weighting

As vehicle technology progresses to new levels of sophistication, so too, vehicle test methods must evolve. This is true for analytical testing in a laboratory and for on-road vehicle testing. Every year since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and original equipment manufacturer (OEM) sponsors have organized a series of competitions featuring advanced hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology to develop and promote DOE goals in fuel savings and alternative fuel usage. The competition has evolved over many years and has included many alternative fuels feeding the prime mover (including hydrogen fuel cells). EcoCAR turned its focus to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and it was quickly realized that to keep using on-road testing methods to evaluate fuel and electricity consumption, a new method needed to be developed that would properly weight depleting operation with the sustaining operation, using the established Utility Factor (UF) method.
Technical Paper

Detailed Morphological Properties of Nanoparticles from Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Combustion of Ethanol Blends

Detailed properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine were analyzed in terms of size, morphology, and nanostructures, as gasoline and its ethanol blend E20 were used as a fuel. PM emissions were sampled from a 0.55L single-cylinder GDI engine by means of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for size measurements and a self-designed thermophoretic sampling device for the subsequent analyses of size, morphology and nanostructures using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle sizes were evaluated with variations of air-fuel equivalence ratio and fuel injection timing. The most important result from the SMPS measurements was that the number of nucleation-mode nanoparticles (particularly those smaller than 10 - 15 nm) increased significantly as the fuel injection timing was advanced to the end-of-injection angle of 310° bTDC.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) GT-Power Model of the CFR F1/F2 Engine for Estimating Cylinder Conditions

The CFR engine is the widely accepted platform to test standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motored Octane Number (MON) for determining anti-knock characteristics of motor fuels. With increasing interest in engine downsizing, up-torquing, and alternative fuels for modern spark ignition (SI) engines, there is a need to better understand the conditions that fuels are subjected to in the CFR engine during octane rating. To take into account fuel properties, such as fuel heat of vaporization, laminar flame speed and auto-ignition chemistry; and understand their impacts on combustion knock, it is essential to estimate accurate cylinder conditions. In this study, the CFR F1/F2 engine was modeled using GT-Power with the Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) and the model was validated for different fuels and engine conditions.
Journal Article

Development of Dual-Fuel Low Temperature Combustion Strategy in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Conventional and Alternative Fuels

Low temperature combustion through in-cylinder blending of fuels with different reactivity offers the potential to improve engine efficiency while yielding low engine-out NOx and soot emissions. A Navistar MaxxForce 13 heavy-duty compression ignition engine was modified to run with two separate fuel systems, aiming to utilize fuel reactivity to demonstrate a technical path towards high engine efficiency. The dual-fuel engine has a geometric compression ratio of 14 and uses sequential, multi-port-injection of a low reactivity fuel in combination with in-cylinder direct injection of diesel. Through control of in-cylinder charge reactivity and reactivity stratification, the engine combustion process can be tailored towards high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Engine testing was conducted at 1200 rpm over a load sweep.
Technical Paper

Development of an Integrated Design Tool for Real-Time Analyses of Performance and Emissions in Engines Powered by Alternative Fuels

Development of computationally fast, numerically robust, and physically accurate models to compute engine-out emissions can play an important role in the design, development, and optimization of automotive engines powered by alternative fuels (such as natural gas and H2) and fuel blends (such as ethanol-blended fuels and biodiesel-blended fuels). Detailed multidimensional models that couple fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics place stringent demands on the computational resources and time, precluding their use in design and parametric studies. This work describes the development of an integrated design tool that couples a fast, robust, physics-based, two-zone quasi-dimensional engine model with modified reaction-rate-controlled models to compute engine-out NO and CO for a wide variety of fuel-additive blends.