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Technical Paper

Achieving Stable Engine Operation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using 87 AKI Gasoline Down to Idle

For several years there has been a great deal of effort made in researching ways to run a compression ignition engine with simultaneously high efficiency and low emissions. Recently much of this focus has been dedicated to using gasoline-like fuels that are more volatile and less reactive than conventional diesel fuel to allow the combustion to be more premixed. One of the key challenges to using fuels with such properties in a compression ignition engine is stable engine operation at low loads. This paper provides an analysis of how stable gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine operation was achieved down to idle speed and load on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine using only 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline. The variables explored to extend stable engine operation to idle included: uncooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection timing, injection pressure, and injector nozzle geometry.
Journal Article

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Diesel Spray Impingement on a Flat Plate

Combustion systems with advanced injection strategies have been extensively studied, but there still exists a significant fundamental knowledge gap on fuel spray interactions with the piston surface and chamber walls. This paper is meant to provide detailed data on spray-wall impingement physics and support the spray-wall model development. The experimental work of spray-wall impingement with non-vaporizing spray characterization, was carried out in a high pressure-temperature constant-volume combustion vessel. The simultaneous Mie scattering of liquid spray and schlieren of liquid and vapor spray were carried out. Diesel fuel was injected at a pressure of 1500 bar into ambient gas at a density of 22.8 kg/m3 with isothermal conditions (fuel, ambient, and plate temperatures of 423 K). A Lagrangian-Eulerian modeling approach was employed to characterize the spray-gas and spray-wall interactions in the CONVERGETM framework by means of a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particulate Morphology, Nanostructures, and Sizes in Low-Temperature Combustion with Biofuels

Detailed characteristics of morphology, nanostructures, and sizes were analyzed for particulate matter (PM) emissions from low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes of a single-cylinder, light-duty diesel engine. The LTC engines have been widely studied in an effort to achieve high combustion efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Recent reports indicate that the number of nucleation mode particles increased in a broad engine operating range, which implies a negative impact on future PM emissions regulations in terms of the nanoparticle number. However, the size measurement of solid carbon particles by commercial instruments is indeed controversial due to the contribution of volatile organics to small nanoparticles. In this work, an LTC engine was operated with various biofuel blends, such as blends (B20) of soy bean oil (soy methyl ester, SME20) and palm oil (palm methyl ester, PME20), as well as an ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Performance of GTL/ULSD Blends in Older and Newer Diesel Passenger Cars

Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) is a liquid diesel fuel produced from natural gas, which may have certain attributes different from conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD). In this investigation, GTL, ULSD, and their blends of 20% and 50% GTL in ULSD were tested in an older Mercedes C Class (MY1999, Euro 2) and a newer Opel Astra (MY2006, Euro 4) diesel vehicle to evaluate the performance in terms of fuel consumption and emissions. Each vehicle was pre-conditioned on-road with one tank full of test fuel before actual testing in a chassis dynamometer facility. Both vehicles were calibrated for European emission standards and operation, and they were not re-calibrated for the fuel tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In the two-vehicle EPA FTP-75, US06, and Highway drive-cycle tests, the emissions of carbon dioxide on a per-mile basis (g/mi) from all GTL-containing fuels were significantly lower than those from the ULSD.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Performance of SunDiesel™ and Conventional Diesel in a Light-Duty Vehicle and Heavy-Duty Engine

SunDiesel fuel is a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) fuel that may have certain attributes different from conventional diesel. In this investigation, 100% SunDiesel was tested both in a Mercedes A-Class (MY1999) diesel vehicle and a single-cylinder heavy-duty compression-ignition direct-injection engine. The SunDiesel's emissions and fuel consumption were significantly better than conventional diesel fuel, especially in nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction. In the vehicle U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75), and New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) tests, the carbon dioxide emissions on a mile basis (g/mile) from SunDiesel fuel were almost 10% lower than the conventional diesel fuel. Similarly, in the single-cylinder engine steady-state tests, the reductions in brake specific NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM) are equally significant. Combustion analysis, though not conclusive, indicates that there are differences deserving further research.
Technical Paper

Comparison of In-Nozzle Flow Characteristics of Naphtha and N-Dodecane Fuels

It is well known that in-nozzle flow behavior can significantly influence the near-nozzle spray formation and mixing that in turn affect engine performance and emissions. This in-nozzle flow behavior can, in turn, be significantly influenced by fuel properties. The goal of this study is to characterize the behavior of two different fuels, namely, a straight-run naphtha that has an anti-knock index of 58 (denoted as “Full-Range Naphtha”) and n-dodecane, in a simulated multi-hole common-rail diesel fuel injector. Simulations were carried out using a fully compressible multi-phase flow representation based on the mixture model assumption with the Volume of Fluid method. Our previous studies have shown that the characteristics of internal and near-nozzle flow are strongly related to needle motion in both the along- and off-axis directions.
Journal Article

Computational and Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Area in Near-Field Diesel Spray Simulation

The dense spray region in the near-field of diesel fuel injection remains an enigma. This region is difficult to interrogate with light in the visible range and difficult to model due to the rapid interaction between liquid and gas. In particular, modeling strategies that rely on Lagrangian particle tracking of droplets have struggled in this area. To better represent the strong interaction between phases, Eulerian modeling has proven particularly useful. Models built on the concept of surface area density are advantageous where primary and secondary atomization have not yet produced droplets, but rather form more complicated liquid structures. Surface area density, a more general concept than Lagrangian droplets, naturally represents liquid structures, no matter how complex. These surface area density models, however, have not been directly experimentally validated in the past due to the inability of optical methods to elucidate such a quantity.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygen-Enriched Air and Emulsified Fuels

Analytical studies of oxygen-enriched diesel engine combustion have indicated the various benefits as well as the need for using cheaper fuels with water addition. To verify analytical results, a series of single-cylinder diesel engine tests were conducted to investigate the concepts of oxygen enriched air (OEA) for combustion with water emulsified fuels. Cylinder pressure traces were obtained for inlet oxygen levels of 21% to 35% and fuel emulsions with water contents of 0% to 20%. Data for emulsified fuels included no. 2 and no. 4 diesel fuels. The excess oxygen for the tests was supplied from compressed bottled oxygen connected to the intake manifold. The cylinder pressure data was collected with an AVL pressure transducer and a personal computer-based data logging system. The crank angle was measured with an optical encoder. In each data run, 30 consecutive cycles were recorded and later averaged for analysis.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light Duty Vehicles

The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented.
Technical Paper

Drive Cycle Analysis of Butanol/Diesel Blends in a Light-Duty Vehicle

The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests. The results showed that for the urban drive cycle, both total hydrocarbon (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions increased as larger quantities of butanol were added to the diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Nozzle Finish on Performance and Emissions in a HSDI, Light-duty, Diesel Engine

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of injector nozzle hole size, shape, and finish on performance and emissions in a light-duty diesel engine. Two sets of six-hole valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzles were tested with nearly identical volumetric flow rates but varying geometry and finish. The 17% hydro-erosion (HE) nozzles had a 22% larger discharge coefficient (CD), compared to the 7% HE nozzles. In order to maintain similar volumetric flow rates, the orifice diameter of the 17% HE nozzles were reduced by almost 10%.The nozzles were tested in a 1.7L, four-cylinder, common rail diesel engine, operating on conventional D2 diesel fuel. The 17% HE, conical-shaped nozzles reduced fuel specific particulate matter (PM) and increased fuel specific oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, over the 7% HE, straight-shaped nozzle.
Journal Article

Effect of Off-Axis Needle Motion on Internal Nozzle and Near Exit Flow in a Multi-Hole Diesel Injector

The internal structure of Diesel fuel injectors is known to have a significant impact on the nozzle flow and the resulting spray emerging from each hole. In this paper the three-dimensional transient flow structures inside a Diesel injector is studied under nominal (in-axis) and realistic (including off-axis lateral motion) operating conditions of the needle. Numerical simulations are performed in the commercial CFD code CONVERGE, using a two-phase flow representation based on a mixture model with Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. Moving boundaries are easily handled in the code, which uses a cut-cell Cartesian method for grid generation at run time. First, a grid sensitivity study has been performed and mesh requirements are discussed. Then the results of moving needle calculations are discussed. Realistic radial perturbations (wobbles) of the needle motion have been applied to analyze their impact on the nozzle flow characteristics.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Additives on Diesel Particulate and NOx Emissions

Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions from a 1.9-liter Volkswagen diesel engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel with 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel with 15% ethanol. Engine-out emissions were measured on an engine dynamometer for five different speeds and five different torques using the standard engine-control unit. Results show that particulate emissions can be significantly reduced over approximately two-thirds of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Nitrogen oxide emissions can also be significantly reduced over a smaller portion of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Moreover, there is an overlap between the regions where particulate emissions can be reduced by up to 75% and nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by up to 84% compared with neat diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust System Components on Particulate Morphology in a Light-duty Diesel Engine

The detailed morphological properties of diesel particulate matter were analyzed along the exhaust system at various engine operating conditions (in a range of 1000 - 2500 rpm and 10 - 75 % loads of maximum torques). A 1.7-L turbocharged light-duty diesel engine was powered with California low-sulfur diesel fuel injected by a common-rail injection system, of which particulate emissions were controlled by an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and two oxidation catalysts. A unique thermophoretic sampling system first developed for internal combustion engine research, a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a customized image processing/data acquisition system were key instruments that were used for the collection of particulate matter, subsequent imaging of particle morphology, and detailed analysis of particle dimensions and fractal geometry, respectively.
Journal Article

Eulerian CFD Modeling of Coupled Nozzle Flow and Spray with Validation Against X-Ray Radiography Data

This paper implements a coupled approach to integrate the internal nozzle flow and the ensuing fuel spray using a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method in the CONVERGE CFD software. A VOF method was used to model the internal nozzle two-phase flow with a cavitation description closed by the homogeneous relaxation model of Bilicki and Kestin [1]. An Eulerian single velocity field approach by Vallet et al. [2] was implemented for near-nozzle spray modeling. This Eulerian approach considers the liquid and gas phases as a complex mixture with a highly variable density to describe near nozzle dense sprays. The mean density is obtained from the Favreaveraged liquid mass fraction. The liquid mass fraction is transported with a model for the turbulent liquid diffusion flux into the gas.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Shot-to-Shot In-Nozzle Flow Variations in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Using Real Nozzle Geometry

Cyclic variability in internal combustion engines (ICEs) arises from multiple concurrent sources, many of which remain to be fully understood and controlled. This variability can, in turn, affect the behavior of the engine resulting in undesirable deviations from the expected operating conditions and performance. Shot-to-shot variation during the fuel injection process is strongly suspected of being a source of cyclic variability. This study focuses on the shot-to-shot variability of injector needle motion and its influence on the internal nozzle flow behavior using diesel fuel. High-speed x-ray imaging techniques have been used to extract high-resolution injector geometry images of the sac, orifices, and needle tip that allowed the true dynamics of the needle motion to emerge. These measurements showed high repeatability in the needle lift profile across multiple injection events, while the needle radial displacement was characterized by a much higher degree of randomness.
Technical Paper

Evolution in Size and Morphology of Diesel Particulates Along the Exhaust System

The physical and morphological properties of the particulate matter emitted from a 1.7-liter light-duty diesel engine were characterized by observing its evolution in size and fractal geometry along the exhaust system. A common-rail direct-injection diesel engine, the exhaust system of which was equipped with a turbocharger, EGR, and two oxidation catalysts, was powered with a California low-sulfur diesel fuel at various engine-operating conditions. A unique thermophoretic sampling system, a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), and customized image processing/data acquisition systems were key instruments that were used for the collection of particulate matter, subsequent imaging of particle morphology, and detailed analysis of particle dimensions and fractal geometry, respectively. The measurements were carried out at four different positions along the exhaust pipe.
Journal Article

Fabrication and Characterization of Micro-Orifices for Diesel Fuel Injectors

Stringent emission standards are driving the development of diesel-fuel injection concepts to mitigate in-cylinder formation of particulates. While research has demonstrated significant reduction in particulate formation using micro-orifice technology, implementation requires development of industrial processes to fabricate micro-orifices with diameters as low as 50 μm and with large length-to-diameter ratios. This paper reviews the different processes being pursued to fabricate micro-orifices and the advanced techniques applied to characterize the performance of micro-orifices. The latter include the use of phase-contrast x-ray imaging of electroless nickel-plated micro-orifices and laser imaging of fuel sprays at elevated pressures. The experimental results demonstrate an industrially viable process to create small uniform orifices that improve spray formation for fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Impacts on Diesel Particulate Morphology, Nanostructures, and NOx Emissions

Detailed diesel particulates morphology, nanostructures, fractal geometry, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were analyzed for five different test fuels in a 1.7-L, common-rail direct-injection diesel engine. The accurately formulated fuels permit the effects of sulfur, paraffins, aromatics, and naphthene concentrations to be determined. A novel thermophoretic sampling technique was used to collect particulates immediately after the exhaust valves. The morphology and nanostructures of particulate samples were examined, imaged with a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and quantitatively analyzed with customized digital image processing/data acquisition systems. The results show that the particle sizes and the total mass of particulate matter (PM) emissions correlate most strongly with the fuels' aromatics and sulfur content.
Technical Paper

Impact of Effective Compression Ratio on Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine Using Variable Valve Actuation

Dual-fuel combustion using port-injected gasoline with a direct diesel injection has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated thermal efficiency. A key requirement for extending high-load operation is moderating the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. Reducing compression ratio, in conjunction with a higher expansion ratio using alternative valve timings, decreases compressed charge reactivity while maintain a high expansion ratio for maximum work extraction. Experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate dual-fuel combustion with port gasoline injection to supplement the direct diesel injection. The engine employs intake variable valve actuation (VVA) for early (EIVC) or late (LIVC) intake valve closing to yield reduced effective compression ratio.