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Technical Paper

Analyzing the Uncertainty in the Fuel Economy Prediction for the EPA MOVES Binning Methodology

Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Multi-scale mOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) is used to estimate inventories and projections through 2050 at the county or national level for energy consumption, nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) from highway vehicles. To simulate a large number of vehicles and fleets on numerous driving cycles, EPA developed a binning technique characterizing the energy rate for varying Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) under predefined vehicle speed ranges. The methodology is based upon the assumption that the vehicle behaves the same way for a predefined vehicle speed and power demand. While this has been validated for conventional vehicles, it has not been for advanced vehicle powertrains, including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) where the engine can be ON or OFF depending upon the battery State-of-Charge (SOC).
Technical Paper

Comparing Apples to Apples: Well-to-Wheel Analysis of Current ICE and Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies

Because of their high efficiency and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development. When considering the introduction of advanced vehicles, a complete well-to-wheel evaluation must be performed to determine the potential impact of a technology on carbon dioxide and Green House Gases (GHGs) emissions. Several modeling tools developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were used to evaluate the impact of advanced powertrain configurations. The Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) transient vehicle simulation software was used with a variety of fuel cell system models derived from the General Computational Toolkit (GCtool) for pump-to-wheel (PTW) analysis, and GREET (Green house gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation) was used for well-to-pump (WTP) analysis. This paper compares advanced propulsion technologies on a well-to-wheel energy basis by using current technology for conventional, hybrid and fuel cell technologies.
Technical Paper

Energy Storage Requirements for Fuel Cell Vehicles

Because of their high efficiency and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development. As the entire powertrain system needs to be optimized, the requirements of each component to achieve FreedomCAR goals need to be determined. With the collaboration of FreedomCAR fuel cell, energy storage, and vehicle Technical Teams, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) used several modeling tools to define the energy storage requirements for fuel cell vehicles. For example, the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), which is a transient vehicle simulation software, was used with a transient fuel cell model derived from the General Computational Toolkit (GCtool). This paper describes the impact of degree of hybridization, control strategy, and energy storage technology on energy storage requirements for a fuel cell SUV vehicle platform.
Technical Paper

Integrating Data, Performing Quality Assurance, and Validating the Vehicle Model for the 2004 Prius Using PSAT

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), working with the FreedomCAR Partnership, maintains the hybrid vehicle simulation software, Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The importance of component models and the complexity involved in setting up optimized control laws require validation of the models and control strategies. Using its Advanced Powertrain Research Facilities (APRF), ANL thoroughly tested the 2004 Toyota Prius to validate the PSAT drivetrain. In this paper, we will first describe the methodology used to quality check test data. Then, we will explain the validation process leading to the simulated vehicle control strategy tuning, which is based on the analysis of the differences between test and simulation. Finally, we will demonstrate the validation of PSAT Prius component models and control strategy, using APRF vehicle test data.