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Technical Paper

Accelerated Combined Stress Testing of Automotive Head Lamp Relays

As technology gets upgraded every day, automotive manufacturers are paying more attention towards delivering a highly reliable product which performs its intended function throughout its useful life (without any failure). To develop a reliable product, accelerated combined stress testing should be conducted in addition to the conventional design validation protocol for the product. It brings out most of the potential failure modes of the product, so that necessary actions can be taken for the reliability improvement. This paper discusses about the field failure simulation and reliability estimation of automotive headlamp relays using accelerated combined stress testing. To analyze various field failure modes, performance and tear down analysis were carried out on the field failure samples. Field data (i.e. electrical, thermal and vibration signals) were acquired to evaluate normal use conditions.
Journal Article

Accelerated Lab Test Methodology for Steering Gearbox Bracket Using Fatigue Damage and Reliability Correlation

In the modern automotive sector, durability and reliability are the most common terms. Customers are expecting a highly reliable product but at low cost. Any product that fails within its useful life leads to customer dissatisfaction and affects the reputation of the OEM. To eradicate this, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol, either in proving ground or in lab. This paper details on developing an accelerated lab test methodology for steering gearbox bracket using fatigue damage and reliability correlation by simulating field failure. Initially, potential failure causes for steering gearbox bracket were analyzed. Road load data was then acquired at proving ground and customer site to evaluate the cumulative fatigue damage on the steering gearbox bracket. To simulate the field failure, lab test facility was developed, reproducing similar boundary conditions as in vehicle.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Test Facility for Suspension Dampers of Commercial Vehicle

In the present scenario, delivering the right product at the right time is very crucial in automotive sector to grab the competitive advantage. In the development stage, validation process devours most of the product development time. This paper focuses on reducing the validation time for damper (shock absorber) variants which is a vital component in commercial vehicle suspension system. New test facility is designed for both performance test and endurance testing of six samples simultaneously. In addition, it provides force trend monitoring during the validation which increases the efficiency of test with an enhanced control system. This new facility is also designed to provide side loading capability for individual dampers in addition to the conventional axial loading. The key parameter during validation is control of damper seal temperature within the range of 70-90°C. A cooling circuit is designed to provide an efficient temperature control by re-circulating cold water.
Technical Paper

Development of a Specific Durability Test Cycle for a Commercial Vehicle Based on Real Customer Usage

Every class of commercial vehicle has an entirely different usage pattern based on customer application and needs. To perform accurate durability testing, these prototypes should run on real customer usage locations and loading conditions for the target life. However, this is time consuming and not practical, hence resulting in Proving Ground (PG) testing. It is also known that a standard PG durability cycle cannot be valid for every class of vehicle and every application. So a statistical approach was followed to develop an accelerated durability test cycle based on in-house PG test surfaces in order to match the real customer usage to the durability target life. This paper summarizes the methodology to develop Durability Validation test cycles for commercial vehicle based on the work carried out on a heavy duty tipper and an intermediate commercial vehicle.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis of a Bus by Virtual Test Model (VTM)

In this work, durability of the bus structure is evaluated with a Virtual Test Model (VTM).Full vehicle Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) model of the bus is built, with inclusion of flexibility of the bus structure to capture structural modes. Component mode synthesis method is used for creation of flexible model for use in MBD. Load extraction is done by performing MBD analysis with measured wheel inputs. Modal Superposition Method (MSM) is employed in FE along with these extracted loads for calculation of modal transient dynamic stress response of the structure. e-N based fatigue life is estimated. The estimated fatigue life from the modal superposition method show good correlation with the physical test results done in 6-poster test rig.
Technical Paper

Failure Analysis and Multi Frequency Swept Sine Testing of Automotive Engine Oil Sump

Automotive business is more focused towards delivering a highly durable and reliable product at an optimum cost. Anything falls short of customer expectation will ruin the manufacturer’s reputation. To exterminate this, all automotive components shall undergo stringent testing protocol during the design validation process. Nevertheless, there are certain factors in the field which cannot be captured during design validation. This paper aims at developing a validation methodology for engine oil sump by simulating field failure. In few of our vehicles, field failure was observed in engine oil sump near the drain plug location. Preliminary analysis was carried out to find the potential causes for failure. Based on the engine test bed results, multi frequency swept sine testing was carried out in laboratory. Field failure was simulated in the lab test and the root causes for failure were found out.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for Torsional Vibration Measurement and Processing in Powertrains

Torsional vibration is a characteristic phenomenon of automotive powertrains. It can have an adverse impact on powertrain related noise as well as the durability of transmission and drivetrain components. Hence minimizing torsional vibration levels associated with powertrains has become important. In this context, accurate measurement and representation of angular acceleration is of paramount importance. A methodology was developed for in-house vehicle level torsional vibration measurement, analysis and representation of results. The evaluation of torsional vibration has two major aspects. First, the acquisition of raw rotational data and secondly, the processing of acquired data to arrive at usable information from which inferences and interpretations can be made about the behavior of the rotating element. This paper describes the development process followed for establishing a torsional vibration evaluation methodology.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Proving Ground Durability Test Sequence Based on Relative Damage Spectrum

In competitive vehicle market, the product must be designed and validated in shorter time span without compromising the quality. The durability of the vehicle is tested either by on road trials undertaken at the actual customer supplication sites for large time period or in the accelerated rough surfaces called “Proving ground” to validate in shorter time span. Accelerated proving ground durability testing plays a vital role in enabling shorter product development cycles by simulating the road load influences alone from the actual field conditions. It is imperative to simulate the test vehicle at proving ground (PG) testing such that it replicates the same damage that occurs in the field due to road loads. PG validation requires a specific durability test sequence for every segment of commercial vehicles due to different customer usage applications and terrain conditions. This diversity in applications and terrains induce structural damage at different range of frequencies.
Technical Paper

Steering Column Slip Endurance Test & Rig Development

In the emerging commercial vehicle sector, it is very essential to give a product to customer, which is very reliable and less prone to the failures to make the product successful in the market. In order to make it possible, the product is to be validated to replicate the exact field conditions, where it is going to be operated. Lab testing plays a vital role in reproducing the field conditions in order to reduce the lead time in overall product life cycle development process. This paper deals with the design and fabrication of the steering column slip endurance test rig. This rig is capable of generating wear on the steering column splines coating which predominantly leads to failure of steering column. The data acquired from Proving Ground (PG) was analyzed and block cycles were generated with help of data analyzing tools.
Technical Paper

Target Correlation and Allocation Using Reliability Metrics to Validate Design Effectiveness of Improved Sample

All automotive components, systems and vehicles undergo stringent validation protocol standards. Nevertheless, there are certain factors which cannot be captured during validation phase and result in field failures. With multiple players prying for market share in the automotive industry, timely resolution of field failures can go a long way in retaining customer base. In such a scenario, when customer’s tolerance on field failures is very limited, failures need severe attention and must be captured as early as possible to cut down warranty expenses. This project aims at creating a methodology to simulate field failures and validate improved design. The reliability parameters such as β (Shape Factor), η (Scale factor), Reliability and life are estimated and the values are compared between field and lab conditions. Life estimated in field conditions (Failure data base) and lab are correlated using Reliability techniques and target is established for validating improved sample.