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Journal Article

Accelerated Lab Test Methodology for Steering Gearbox Bracket Using Fatigue Damage and Reliability Correlation

In the modern automotive sector, durability and reliability are the most common terms. Customers are expecting a highly reliable product but at low cost. Any product that fails within its useful life leads to customer dissatisfaction and affects the reputation of the OEM. To eradicate this, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol, either in proving ground or in lab. This paper details on developing an accelerated lab test methodology for steering gearbox bracket using fatigue damage and reliability correlation by simulating field failure. Initially, potential failure causes for steering gearbox bracket were analyzed. Road load data was then acquired at proving ground and customer site to evaluate the cumulative fatigue damage on the steering gearbox bracket. To simulate the field failure, lab test facility was developed, reproducing similar boundary conditions as in vehicle.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Ride in a Heavy Commercial Truck Using Numerical Simulation Methods and Correlation with Test

Demand for a refined Heavy Commercial Vehicle (HCV) is increasing due to rapid Indian economic growth, while the operating conditions and road infrastructures are still in a transition state of development. The same vehicle model will be operated in a range of operating road conditions like mining sites, construction sites, and highways with varying payloads and speeds by customers that are spread across the country. This variety of road inputs, payloads and speeds has made ride tuning as one of the major challenging process in the development process. This paper describes the attempt to assess ride comfort of HCV with fully suspended cab using numerical based simulation tools and its correlation with physical test results. The best suspension combination was finalized based on vertical and pitch acceleration at Center of Gravity (CG) of the cab. The trend of vertical acceleration obtained from the virtual model was correlated with the same obtained from physical test.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Different Nanolubricants for Automotive Applications

The intervention of Nanotechnology in the field of lubricants have found path to several new lubricants for high temperature applications. Nanolubricants are the nanoparticles suspended in base lubricants, are being developed to increase the performance of machine components at high temperatures, which reduces friction and wear in sliding contact encountered in many heat engines and industrial applications. An attempt has been made to study the effect of the Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), Calcia stabilized Zirconia(CSZ), and Aluminium Oxide nanoparticles in the lube oil base stock. The nanoparticles were synthesized using Ball mill and the nanoparticles were found to be in the range of 50 to 90 nm.
Technical Paper

Cost effective and Sustainable Alternate Material for Air Brake Tubings (ABT) in Commercial Vehicles

The automotive industry is constantly looking for new alternate material and cost is one of the major driving factors for selecting the right material. ABT is a safety critical part and care has to be taken while selecting the appropriate material. Polyamide (PA12) [1] is the commonly available material which is currently used for ABT applications. Availability and material cost is always a major concern for commercial vehicle industries. This paper presents the development of ABT with an alternative material which has superior heat resistance. Thermoplastic Elastomer Ether Ester Block Copolymer (TEEE) [3] materials were tried in place Polyamide 12 for many good reasons. The newly employed material has better elastic memory and improved resistance to battery acid, paints and solvents. It doesn't require plasticizer for extrusion process because of which it has got excellent long term flexibility and superior kink resistance over a period of time.
Journal Article

Design and Analysis of Lifting Pusher Drop Axle for Heavy Commercial Vehicle

Lifting axles are auxiliary axles that provide increased load carrying capacity in heavy commercial vehicles. Lift axle gives better fuel efficiency as well as it reduces the operational costs by means of increasing the loading carrying capacity. These axles are raised when the vehicle is in unloaded condition, thus increasing the traction on remaining wheels and reducing the tire wear which in turn lower down the maintenance cost of the vehicle. Lifting height and force requires to lift the whole mechanism and are two main considerable factors to design the lifting axle mechanism. Although in India currently, the use of lift mechanism of single tire with continuous axle is more common. But in the case of pusher axle, continuous axle is unable to lift more after certain height because of the draft angle of the propeller shaft, and single tire axle which has less load carrying capacity up to 6T (Tons).
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Bimetal Brake Drum to Improve Heat Dissipation and Weight Reduction

Automotive component light weighing is one of the major goals for original equipment manufacturers (OEM's) globally. Significant advances are being made in developing light-weight high performance components. In order to achieve weight savings in vehicles, the OEM's and component suppliers are increasingly using ultra-high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium, plastics and composites. One way is to develop a light weight high performance component through multi material concept. In this present study, a bimetal brake drum of inner ring cast iron and outer shell of aluminum has been made in two different design configurations. In two different designs, 40 and 26% weight saving has been achieved as compared to conventional gray cast iron brake drum. The component level performance has been evaluated by dynamometer test. The heat dissipation and wear behavior has been analyzed. In both designs, the wear performance of the bimetal brake drum was similar to the gray cast iron material.
Technical Paper

Design and Weight Optimization of an Automobile Link - A Case Study

A case study was conducted on the design, optimization and material replacement for an automobile suspension link. The link is part of a four bar mechanism. The mechanism was developed in Adams/Car® and multibody simulation was carried out on it. The joint forces arrived from the simulation were exported for finite element analysis of the components in OptiStruct®. Finally, topology and shape optimization was conducted to reduce the weight of the original component. A feasibility study was also carried out to replace the fabricated steel link with a heat treated cast iron link. Heat treated cast iron being lighter than steel, ensures reduction in weight without compromising on strength. The experiment resulted in a feasible optimized shape which was 32% lighter than the current shape of the link being used in the vehicle, while keeping the stresses and displacements within limits.
Technical Paper

Determination of Climatic Boundary Conditions for Vehicular Real Driving Emission Tests

Vehicular Emission testing is gaining importance over the past years in the wake of requirements for real driving emissions with implementation of RDE packages across Europe / USA and various developing countries. Extending the same concept for other countries poses slight challenges in terms of geographical and climatic conditions prevailing in the country, where the climatic conditions are differing from Europe / USA. It is a challenge to accept the same boundary conditions as in Europe, at the same time the challenge is to find a threshold number in a more scientific manner. This study concentrates on determination and recommendation of thresholds for ambient temperature and altitude. The basis for temperature threshold would be to determine the percentage of time the temperature exceeded beyond the threshold over year in the country. The basis for Altitude is considered based on the percentage of total length of roads beyond the threshold altitude limit.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis of a Bus by Virtual Test Model (VTM)

In this work, durability of the bus structure is evaluated with a Virtual Test Model (VTM).Full vehicle Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) model of the bus is built, with inclusion of flexibility of the bus structure to capture structural modes. Component mode synthesis method is used for creation of flexible model for use in MBD. Load extraction is done by performing MBD analysis with measured wheel inputs. Modal Superposition Method (MSM) is employed in FE along with these extracted loads for calculation of modal transient dynamic stress response of the structure. e-N based fatigue life is estimated. The estimated fatigue life from the modal superposition method show good correlation with the physical test results done in 6-poster test rig.
Technical Paper

Durability Enhancement of Spring Seat in Bogie Suspension

Spring seat plays major role in bogie suspension; which is guiding and controlling the leaf spring for better suspension and also to withstand the compressive load from leafs. Currently used spring seats are failing frequently in medium and heavy duty vehicles, which lead to customer concerns by higher idle time and part replacement cost. Thickness of the spring seat can't be increased by large extent due to packaging constraints in the vehicle. Stress levels identified by FEA method are found higher than the current material capacity. With these constraints, the spring seat has been re-designed with improved strength and ductility of material by modern technology - Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI). The parts have been developed and assembled in various tipper applications and performance was studied. The developed spring seat shows five times superior durability compare to existing design.
Technical Paper

Effect of Slip in Performance of Rolling Element Bearings

Performance analysis of rolling element bearings is a complex phenomenon, which has been studied by researchers from many points of view. A variety of parameters such as operating torque, PV value, and slip rate plays role in performance of rolling element bearings. In conventional bearing design and analysis an assumption of “pure rolling” is made. This assumption is not rigorous especially in lightweight and high-speed bearings. This paper reviews the effect of slip in performance of rolling element bearings such as frictional loss, torque, heat generation, wear and rolling contact fatigue. The research work already done on the performance of bearings under slip and partial slip conditions has been studied and reviewed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Bus Ventilation Methods Using CFD

Non air-conditioned buses constitute a major portion of public transportation facilities in many countries across the world. Inadequate cabin air circulation is a major cause of passenger discomfort in these buses. The aim of this study is to model the air flow pattern inside the passenger compartment of a bus and to establish the effect of solutions such as roof vents in improving the air circulation. RANS based CFD simulations with Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model have been carried out using a commercial CFD solver. The CFD methodology has been verified by comparing results with experimentally validated LES simulation results available in literature. The vehicle model used in this study was the shell structure of a bus with an overall length of 7 m and a wheel base of 3.9 m. Simulations were carried out for a four vent configuration which showed an increase of 131% in the average in-cabin air velocity over the baseline model without any roof-vents.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise Refinement in an ICV Bus through Driveline Torsional Vibration Analysis

With a push for urbanization across cities, there is an increased demand for mobility in public transportation especially buses which are provided through state transport undertakings. Hence, the expectations of this class of vehicles will be high in terms of quality and comfort to the passengers. The noise inside the passenger area of the bus becomes an important parameter, which sets apart a bus manufacturer from its competitors. The driveline of the bus is the system responsible for the transfer of power from engine to the wheels. The noise and vibration problems associated with it are detected only in the late stages of the design chain, when all its elements are tested together over a wide range of conditions. Since, calibration of engine and the selection of transmission is freezed in early stages, satisfying power and torque requirements, the only viable option left to address the problem is by optimizing the clutch parameters.
Technical Paper

Multi-Axis Simulation Test for Two-Wheeler Carrier Structure of a Commercial Vehicle Using Accelerated Road Load Data

In the present scenario, delivering right product at the right time is very crucial in automotive sector. Today, most of the OEMs have started to produce FBS (Fully Build Solution) such as oil tankers, mining tippers and two-wheeler carriers based on the market requirements. During product development phase, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol either in on-road or laboratory which consumes most of the product development time. This project is focused on developing validation methodology for two-wheeler carrier structure (deck) of a commercial vehicle. For this, road load data were acquired in the typical routes of customers at different loading conditions. Roads were classified as either good or bad based on the axle acceleration. To shorten the test duration, actual road load data was compressed using strain based damage editing techniques. The spectrum and transmissibility of acceleration signals at the decks were analyzed to select a deck for validation.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Cradle Verification and Validation for Bus Application Export Market

To capture market share in different regions of the world, the product must fit different road profiles and operating conditions. Designing a product which suits two different markets requires many factors to be considered like the topography, driving pattern and road load profiles. This project deals with once such situations and required a stringent validation protocol which shall encompass all possible driving scenarios. The fully built vehicle is to be exported to a different market and required powertrain change and subsequently required a new cradle design. Customer usage and road profile study was carried out in the new market to estimate the percent operation in each zone i.e. good road and bad road. CAE analysis carried out to capture stress hotspots and possible failure locations. Vehicle is taken to road to measure frame acceleration at different speeds i.e. 40 kmph to 100 kmph.
Technical Paper

Steering Column Slip Endurance Test & Rig Development

In the emerging commercial vehicle sector, it is very essential to give a product to customer, which is very reliable and less prone to the failures to make the product successful in the market. In order to make it possible, the product is to be validated to replicate the exact field conditions, where it is going to be operated. Lab testing plays a vital role in reproducing the field conditions in order to reduce the lead time in overall product life cycle development process. This paper deals with the design and fabrication of the steering column slip endurance test rig. This rig is capable of generating wear on the steering column splines coating which predominantly leads to failure of steering column. The data acquired from Proving Ground (PG) was analyzed and block cycles were generated with help of data analyzing tools.
Technical Paper

Structural Fatigue Strength Evaluation of Commercial Vehicle Structures by Calculating Damage Due to Road Load Inputs

Evaluation of vehicle structural durability is one of the key requirements in design and development of today's automobiles. Computer simulations are used to estimate vehicle durability to save the cost and time required for building and testing the prototype vehicles. The objective of this work was to find the service life of automotive structures like passenger commercial vehicle (bus) and truck's cabin by calculating cumulative fatigue life for operation under actual road conditions. Stresses in the bus and cabin are derived by means of performing finite element analysis using inertia relief method. Multi body dynamics simulation software ADAMS was used to obtain the load history at the bus and cabin mount locations - using measured load data as input. Strain based fatigue life analysis was carried out in MSC-Fatigue using static stresses from Nastran and extracted force histories from ADAMS. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the physical test results.
Technical Paper

Study and Comparison of Road Profile for Representative Patch Extraction and Duty Cycle Generation in Durability Analysis

Automotive vehicles are subjected to a variety of loads caused by road undulations. The load history data measured from the roads are one of the vital input parameters for physical test as well as virtual durability simulation of vehicles. In general, the automotive vehicles are instrumented and subjected to a variety of driving conditions in diverse roads to obtain representative road load time histories. Acquired road load time history signals from various roads are exhaustive and repetitive in terms of both time length and data size. This results in more computation and virtual simulation processing. Hence it is imperative to reduce the input time signals without compromising on the representation of the actual operating conditions. Signal reduction of measured road load histories for virtual simulation assumes greater significance for durability prediction.
Technical Paper

Study on Correlation of Commercial Vehicle Axle Response with Road Profile for ISO Road Class Categorization and Durability Analysis

Durability analysis is essential for vehicle validation and is carried out with the inputs of different road conditions. The selection of roads for durability analysis is critical and should represent the actual working conditions for the selected vehicle. Generally, the road conditions are subject to change with respect to time. To overcome the above, road profile data is an essential parameter which helps to represent and categorize roads in terms of ISO (International Organization for Standardization) road class. The ISO road classes objectively classify the roads with respect to roughness. This classification holds good by categorizing the signals to the respective road classes rather than different test roads. The road profiles are measured using inertial profiler methodology along with vehicle acceleration and displacement responses, also analyzed and categorized with respect to ISO road class.