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Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Analysis of Passenger Car with Luggage Carrier (Roof Rack)

2019-01-09
2019-26-0067
Any change is vehicle exterior design, affects the aerodynamics characteristic. Generally different types of roof racks are attached on passenger vehicles to carry luggage which affects aerodynamic drag. The objective of this work is to perform aerodynamic analysis of ground vehicle with roof rack to investigate the change in drag coefficient. First, the aerodynamic analysis of a baseline passenger car model is performed with and without generic benchmarked roof rack at 100 kmph. Further analysis is carried out with different new designs of roof racks. Based on simulation result, a scaled down prototype model is fabricated and validated by using a wind tunnel test for optimum suitable case. The modelling of the vehicle is done in CATIA tool and simulation is carried out by using ANSYS Fluent.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Analysis of a Passenger Car to Reduce Drag Using Active Grill Shutter and Active Air Dam

2019-11-21
2019-28-2408
Active aerodynamics can be defined as the concept of reducing drag by making real-time changes to certain devices such that it modifies the airflow around a vehicle. Using such devices also have the added advantages of improving ergonomics and performance along with aesthetics. A significant reduction in fuel consumption can also be seen when using such devices. The objective of this work is to reduce drag acting on a passenger car using the concept of active aerodynamics with grill shutters and air dams. First, analysis has been carried out on a baseline passenger car and further simulated using active grill shutters and air dams for vehicle speed ranging from 60 kmph to 120 kmph, with each active device open from 0° to 90°. The optimized model is then validated for a scaled-down prototype in a wind tunnel at 80kmph. Vehicle has been modelled using SolidWorks and the simulation has been carried out using ANSYS Fluent.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic analysis of commercial vehicle using active vortex generators concept

2019-11-21
2019-28-2409
Any physical body being propelled through the air has drag associated with it. Drag will be created on the surface of the vehicle due to the flow separation at the rear end. In aerodynamics the flow separation can often result in increased drag particularly pressure drag, to delay the flow separation, the vortex generators are used on the roof end of the vehicle just before the point of flow separation. The objective of this project is to perform aerodynamic analysis of commercial vehicle using active vortex generators concept. First, the aerodynamic analysis of a baseline commercial vehicle model is performed and same is validated with the scaled model by using a wind tunnel test. Further analysis has been done by using active vortex generators concept with variation of angle of attacks for vehicle speed of 50, 70, 90 kmph. Also, analysis has been carried out for six different yaw angles. The simulation is carried out with the use of ANSYS Fluent.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic analysis of electric passenger car using wind turbine concept at front end

2019-11-21
2019-28-2396
Electric passenger car with floor battery usually have its front boot space empty and the space is used as additional luggage storage. This space can be utilized to capture the wind energy and generate electricity. Based on this, the objective of this work is to perform an aerodynamic analysis of an electric passenger car using wind turbine placed at the front. Initially the aerodynamic analysis of a basic electric car model is performed and further simulated using wind turbines and aerodynamic add-on-devices. The simulation is carried-out using ANSYS Fluent tool. Based on the simulation result, scaled down optimized model is fabricated and tested in wind tunnel for validation. The result shows reduction of drag coefficient by 5.9% .
Technical Paper

Design & Validation of a High Speed Car With Respect to Aerodynamics & Body Styling

2013-11-27
2013-01-2824
An open wheeled open cockpit high speed car with 800 CC MPFI engine was developed validated and run at 105 kmph. The key focus was to build a car with superior aerodynamic characteristics especially in terms of drag. This work discusses in detail about the design and simulation of car using CFD package followed by Wind Tunnel testing. The design of high speed car starts with design of seat according to the ergonomics of the driver followed by the space frame. Based on the space frame designed, the body panels are sketched and CAD model is developed. The CAD model is imported in CFD package for virtual testing and validated through wind tunnel results. For this 1:3 scale model was manufactured using Rapid Prototyping.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Radiator Fan for Automotive Application

2012-04-16
2012-01-0555
A methodology for design and development of radiator cooling fan is developed with an objective to improve underhood thermal management. For this purpose an Axial Fan Design Software has been developed which is based on Arbitrary Vortex Flow theory. The software is useful for obtaining initial blade design for the given basic functional requirements in terms of Airflow, Pressure Rise and Speed which defines the operating point of the fan. CFD analysis of the initial fan design is then carried out to predict the fan performance curve. Computation model resembles a fan set up in a wind tunnel. Further, Parametric Optimization is carried out using CFD to meet the functional requirements. A Rapid Prototype sample of the optimized fan design is manufactured and tested in a fan test rig made as per AMCA 210-99 standard to evaluate the fan performance curve and the power consumption.
Technical Paper

Development of Indigenous Automated System to Evaluate Clutch Performance Under Real World Conditions

2017-01-10
2017-26-0320
Automotive clutches form the most important component in the drive line which acts both as torque transmitter and as a fuse. Testing clutches, in the vehicle assembly, poses certain limitations. In this context the automotive clutch, as a component, needs to be evaluated to determine various performance parameters like wear, load loss, slipping torque, slipping time etc. to meet desired design, performance and durability requirements. It is very important to simulate engine and vehicle conditions in terms of operating environment, speed and load accurately while evaluating above parameters. This creates lot of challenges to design and develop a test rig capable of evaluating complete clutch performance. Very limited options are available for such test rigs worldwide. In India, no manufacturer provides such indigenous test rigs. Developing an indigenous, cost effective clutch test rig was the need of the hour.
Journal Article

Development of Multi Cylinder Turbocharged Natural Gas Engine for Heavy Duty Application

2017-01-10
2017-26-0065
CNG has recently seen increased penetration within the automotive industry. Due to recent sanctions on diesel fuelled vehicles, manufactures have again shifted their attention to natural gas as a suitable alternative. Turbocharging of SI engines has seen widespread application due to its benefit in terms of engine downsizing and increasing engine performance [1]. This paper discusses the methodology involved in development of a multi cylinder turbocharged natural gas engine from an existing diesel engine. Various parameters such as valve timing, intake volume, runner length, etc. were studied using 1D simulation tool GT power and based on their results an optimized configuration was selected and a proto engine was built. Electronic throttle body was used to give better transient performance and emission control. Turbocharger selection and its location plays a critical role.
Technical Paper

Development of Road to Lab Steering Test Rig (ROLAST)

2017-01-10
2017-26-0315
The Steering system is one of the most safety critical systems in an automobile. With time the durability, reliability and the fine-tuning of the parameters involved in this subsystem have increased along with the competitiveness of the market. In a competitive market, accelerated testing is the key to shorter development cycles. It is observed that the majority of component manufacturers have a preference on vehicle level testing to achieve their development goals. The vehicle level trials are time consuming and lack the control and repeat-ability of a laboratory environment. This paper describes the development of a steering test rig designed to simulate the disturbances experienced on road within a controlled laboratory environment. The five axis steering rig would allow simulation of individual road wheel displacement along with steering wheel angle input and lateral steering rack displacements. The rig also is designed to be adaptable to a range of vehicle categories.
Technical Paper

Experimentation for Evaluation of Real Driving Emission Test Routes in India for LDVs

2019-01-09
2019-26-0150
With introduction of Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) norms from 1st April 2020, automotive industry will observe one of most stringent Indian emission regulation implementation in line with International standards. The Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) regulation also mandates for Real Driving Emission (RDE) measurement from 1st April 2020 for data collection and subsequently establishment of RDE compliance Factor (CF) by 1st April 2023. Indian RDE test procedure will be largely based on European RDE with minor changes in terms of climatic conditions, traffic pattern, speed limit, topography, and vehicle population. For performing a successful RDE trial one of the most critical part is selection of a route on which all RDE boundary conditions can be met. This technical paper summarizes the outcome of RDE experiments carried out on Light Duty Vehicles (LDV) in the city of Pune, Mumbai, and Bangalore. The collected data was post processed using CO2 based Moving Average Window (MAW) method.
Journal Article

Front Under Run Protection Device Strength Test Certification Through FE Simulations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0529
Passive safety regulations specify minimum safety performance requirements of vehicle in terms of protecting its occupants and other road users in accident scenarios. Currently for majority cases, the compliance of vehicle design to passive safety regulations is assessed through physical testing. With increased number of products and more comprehensive passive safety requirements, the complexity of certification is getting challenged due to high cost involved in prototype parts and the market pressures for early product introduction through reduced product development timelines. One of the ways for addressing this challenge is to promote CAE based certification of vehicle designs for regulatory compliance. Since accuracy of CAE predictions have improved over a period of time, such an approach is accepted for few regulations like ECE-R 66/01, AIS069 etc which involves only loadings of the structures.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Prediction of Sound Absorption of Sound Package Materials in Large and Small Reverberation Chambers

2017-01-10
2017-26-0195
The paper discusses the methodology for measuring the sound absorption of sound package materials in a different sizes of reverberation chambers. The large reverberation chamber is based on test methods and requirements as per ASTM C423 and ISO 354 standards. Both the test standards are similar and recommend a reverberation chamber volume of at least 125 m3 and 200 m3 respectively for sound absorption measurements from 100 Hz to 5000 Hz. The test sample size requirements are from 5.5 to 6.7 m2 as per ASTM C423 and 10 to 12 m2 as per ISO 354. In the automotive sector passenger car, heavy truck, and commercial vehicle, the parts that are used are much smaller in size than the size prescribed in both the standards. The requirement is to study the critical parameters such as the chamber volume, sample size, reverberation time and cut-off frequency etc. which are affecting the sound absorption property of acoustic material.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Prediction of Windscreen Wiping Area through Simulation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0257
Front windscreen wiping test is legal requirement for all motor vehicles as per standards like IS15802:2008 [1], IS15804:2008 [2] in India. This test requires windscreen mock-up/actual vehicle to be tested along with all wiping mechanisms such that minimum percentage areas to be wiped should meet the requirements specified in the IS standard. From manufacturer’s perspective this involves investment of lot of time and cost to arrive at the final design solution in order to meet the wiping requirements. The work scope in this paper is limited to bus category of vehicles. The methodology presented in this paper would enable quick design solutions for bus body builders or manufacturers to meet the wiping requirements specified in IS standard. The methodology presented in this paper was developed to carry out windscreen wiping test through commercially available simulation software.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Design and Development of Test Track for ADAS Functions Validation and Verification with Respect to Indian Scenario

2019-01-09
2019-26-0100
Autonomous vehicles perform various functions with their own control strategies. Functions like Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Lane Keeping system (LKS) and Forward Collision Warning System (FCWS) requires special test tracks for their verification and validation. These test track requirements change with region to region according to available infrastructure. This paper deals with the design and development of test tracks for different ADAS functions verification and validation of Indian specific scenarios and its simulation in IPG CarMaker. The test track conceptualization has been done through the understanding and study of different international standards and geometry of test tracks for Indian conditions have been developed. IPG CarMaker software tool is used for creation of test track, and same track is used for simulation of above ADAS functions in IPG CarMaker.
Technical Paper

Study of In-Cylinder Tumble Effect on Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SI-DI) Engine Performance Using Gasoline, CNG & E85 Fuels and Simulation Technique

2017-01-10
2017-26-0076
Vehicles with direct injection engines employ various methods for mixing fuel and air in an engine cylinder. Efficient mixing increases combustion burn rate, improving combustion stability and knock suppression. Spark ignition engines may use tumble flow motion to generate turbulence, which includes rotational motion generally perpendicular to the cylinder axis to improve air and fuel mixing. Depending on operating conditions, more or less tumble may be advantageous. In this paper the tumble motion of the charge air is studied and simulated only in the suction stroke. A direct injected turbocharged combustion system employing central-mounted multihole injector. This paper presents the comparative study of effect of intake port design with various levels of tumble motion for fuels used in SIDI engines on the engine performance characteristics.
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