Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Novel Method for Active Vibration Control of Steering Wheel

2019-01-09
2019-26-0180
Active control mainly comprises of three parts; sensor-detects the input disturbance, actuator -provide counter measures and control logic -processing of input disturbances and converting it into logical output. Lot of methods for active vibration control are available but this paper deals with active control of steering wheel vibrations of an LCV. A steering wheel is, one such component that directly transfers vibration to the driver. Active technique described here is implemented using accelerometer sensor, IMA (Inertial Mass Actuator) and feed forward Fx-LMS (Filtered reference Least Mean Square) control algorithm. IMA is a single-degree-of-freedom oscillator. To enable a control, IMA needs to be coupled to the structure at a single point, acting as an add-on to the passive system. Fx-LMS is a type of adaptive algorithm which is computationally simple and it also includes compensation for secondary path effects by using an estimate of the secondary path.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Enclosure Optimization for a Higher Capacity Diesel Generator Set Using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) Based Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0188
Diesel powered electric generators are used in a variety of applications, such as emergency back-up power, temporary primary power at industrial facilities, etc. As regulatory and customer requirements demand quieter designs, special attention is given to the design of acoustic enclosures to balance the need of noise control with other performance criteria like ventilation and physical protection. In the present work, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approach augmented by experimental inputs is used to carry out Vibro-acoustic analysis of an enclosure for higher capacity Diesel generator set. The exterior sound radiated from an enclosed generator is predicted and further enclosure is optimized for an improved sound-suppression. The airborne sources such as engine, alternator, radiator fan and exhaust are modelled explicitly using experimental noise source characterization. Structure borne inputs are also captured in the test for improving modelling accuracy.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Analysis of a Passenger Car to Reduce Drag Using Active Grill Shutter and Active Air Dam

2019-11-21
2019-28-2408
Active aerodynamics can be defined as the concept of reducing drag by making real-time changes to certain devices such that it modifies the airflow around a vehicle. Using such devices also have the added advantages of improving ergonomics and performance along with aesthetics. A significant reduction in fuel consumption can also be seen when using such devices. The objective of this work is to reduce drag acting on a passenger car using the concept of active aerodynamics with grill shutters and air dams. First, analysis has been carried out on a baseline passenger car and further simulated using active grill shutters and air dams for vehicle speed ranging from 60 kmph to 120 kmph, with each active device open from 0° to 90°. The optimized model is then validated for a scaled-down prototype in a wind tunnel at 80kmph. Vehicle has been modelled using SolidWorks and the simulation has been carried out using ANSYS Fluent.
Technical Paper

An Upper Bound Elemental Technique for Load Prediction of Axisymmetric Hot Forged Specimens

2017-01-10
2017-26-0168
Forging is a metal forming process involving shaping of metal by the application of compressive forces using hammer or press. Forging load of equipment is an important function of forging process and the prediction of the same is essential for selection of appropriate equipment. In this study a hot forging material i.e. 42CrMo4 steel is selected which is used in automotive components like axle, crank shaft. Hot forging experiments at 750°C are carried out on cylindrical specimens of aspect ratio 0.75 and 1.5 with true height strain (ln (ho/hf)) of 0.6. Forging load for the experiments is calculated using slab and upper bound deformation models as well as Metal forming simulation using commercially available FEA software. The upper bound models with 30% deviation from the simulation results are found to be more accurate compared to the slab models.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Non-linear Stiffness Characteristics for Lumped Uniaxial Springs from Hyperelastic Material Constitutive Models

2014-04-28
2014-28-0038
Hyperelastic material simulations are commonly performed in commercial FE codes due to availability of sophisticated algorithms facilitating virtual characterization of such materials in FEA easily. However, the solution time required is longer in FEA. Especially when excitation frequencies do not interfere with structural modes, flexible multibody simulation offers a lucrative and computationally inexpensive alternative. However, it is difficult to directly characterize hyperelastic materials in commercial MBS simulation codes, so the reduced solution time comes at the cost of decreased simulation accuracy, especially if the designer is provided with crude stress - strain test data. Hence, the need is to overcome the drawbacks in FEA and multibody codes, as well as to leverage best of both these codes simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Design & Validation of a High Speed Car With Respect to Aerodynamics & Body Styling

2013-11-27
2013-01-2824
An open wheeled open cockpit high speed car with 800 CC MPFI engine was developed validated and run at 105 kmph. The key focus was to build a car with superior aerodynamic characteristics especially in terms of drag. This work discusses in detail about the design and simulation of car using CFD package followed by Wind Tunnel testing. The design of high speed car starts with design of seat according to the ergonomics of the driver followed by the space frame. Based on the space frame designed, the body panels are sketched and CAD model is developed. The CAD model is imported in CFD package for virtual testing and validated through wind tunnel results. For this 1:3 scale model was manufactured using Rapid Prototyping.
Technical Paper

Design / Analysis and Development of Cylinder Head for High Performance 3 Cylinder CRDi Euro-V Diesel Engine for a High Combustion Pressure of 200 Bar

2010-10-05
2010-01-1975
This work is a part of program on “Development of High Performance DI, 3 Cylinder CRDI Diesel Engine to meet Euro-IV/V Emission Norms focused on automotive passenger car application purpose. This is a 3 Cylinder, TCIC engine designed for combustion pressure of 160 bar max for first stage which is being upgraded to 200 bar max in the second stage. Cylinder Head design is a part of complicated configuration whose construction and principal dimensions are dependent on the size of inlet and exhaust valves, fuel injectors positioning and mounting, port layout and swirl and shape of combustion chambers. The cylinder head of a direct-injection diesel engine has to perform many functions. It has to bring charge air to the cylinder and exhaust gas from the cylinder, with minimum pumping loss and required swirl and other properties of charge motion.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of 3- Cylinder: 75 kW/liter, High Power Density Diesel Engine for Passenger Car Application to Meet Euro IV/V Emission Norms

2011-01-19
2011-26-0033
To meet the latest trends in internal combustion engines pertaining efficiency, emissions and durability, downsizing of the engine has become the key focus area. This paper describes about a robust, reliable and an integrated approach used in design and development of state of art high power density/ high speed engine developed from the concept, which can be adopted for passenger car and LCV application. A three-cylinder, 1.5 liter displacement diesel engine, fully balanced is being designed with an objective to produce 115kW @ 4200 rpm, delivering a specific power output over 75 kW/liter, which is at par with a contemporary class of specification in it. In the first stage, a derated version of 75 kW (50 kW/liter) with Euro-IV and Euro-V specifications is targeted aiming at smaller car and light motor vehicle segment and a prime-mover for hybrid application.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Control Strategy for Adaptive Front-Lighting System Suitable for Indian Road and Traffic Conditions

2017-01-10
2017-26-0007
In year 2015, 17 people were killed every hour by road accidents in India [1]. The occurrence of road accidents is observed to be higher during night, when visibility is at its lowest. The two factors which affect visibility are insufficient illumination and glare caused by the oncoming traffic. The Adaptive Front Lighting System [AFS] is an active safety feature which addresses these problems by employing specific lighting modes for Town, Country, Expressway conditions and automatic switching between Driving Beam and Passing Beam whenever required. Matrix of LEDs or a Projector with an actuator or a combination of both is employed in achieving different Lighting modes. The projector based AFS module is preferred for implementing the AFS control logic for passing beam owing to its economic cost.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of High Performance Diesel Engine Block for High Power Density Engines with an Integrated Approach

2010-10-05
2010-01-1973
This work is a part of program on “Development of High Power Density DI, Diesel Engine to Meet US EPA - Tier III Emission norms for off highway and Genset application purpose. This is a 4 Cylinder, TCIC engine delivering 165 Hp @ 2500 rpm. BMEP at max torque comes to be 18 bar giving max cylinder firing pressure of 160 bar. Engine block is a most vital component which has to serve various functions all together. Also design of block for such a high BMEP levels, demands to give a different design strategy required for development of High Performance Engines. In order to reduce overall production cost, several constraints are imposed on design of new block. Design of block is carried out within several design, assembly and manufacturing constraints such as maintain a specific cylinder centre distance, integral oil cooler in the engine block, re-location of camshaft and FIE positions, incorporation of various accessories viz. steering pump, Air Compressor etc.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Radiator Fan for Automotive Application

2012-04-16
2012-01-0555
A methodology for design and development of radiator cooling fan is developed with an objective to improve underhood thermal management. For this purpose an Axial Fan Design Software has been developed which is based on Arbitrary Vortex Flow theory. The software is useful for obtaining initial blade design for the given basic functional requirements in terms of Airflow, Pressure Rise and Speed which defines the operating point of the fan. CFD analysis of the initial fan design is then carried out to predict the fan performance curve. Computation model resembles a fan set up in a wind tunnel. Further, Parametric Optimization is carried out using CFD to meet the functional requirements. A Rapid Prototype sample of the optimized fan design is manufactured and tested in a fan test rig made as per AMCA 210-99 standard to evaluate the fan performance curve and the power consumption.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of Crash-Box of Passenger Vehicle to Enhance Energy Absorption

2019-03-25
2019-01-1435
Frontal crash is the most common type of accidents in passenger vehicles which results in severe injuries or fatalities. During frontal crash, some frontal vehicle body has plastic deformation and absorbs impact energy. Hence vehicle crashworthiness is important consideration for safety aspect. The crash box is one of the most important parts in vehicle frontal structure assembly which absorb crash energy during impact. In case of frontal crash accident, crash box is expected to be collapsed by absorbing crash energy prior to the other parts so that the damage to the main cabin frame and occupant injury can be minimized. The main objective of this work is to design and optimize the crash box of passenger vehicle to enhance energy absorption. The modeling of the crash box is done in CATIA V5 and simulations are carried out by using ANSYS. The results show significant improvement in the energy absorption with new design of the crash box and it is validated experimentally on UTM.
Technical Paper

Development of In-house Competency to Build Compact Gerotor Oil Pump for High Speed Diesel Engine Application

2013-11-27
2013-01-2738
Gerotor pump is a positive displacement pump unit which is widely used for lubrication in on-road and off-road engine applications. This paper is focused on Gerotor pump design competency established at ARAI comprising of design of inner and outer rotors, suction & delivery ports, optimizing inlet and outlet diameters & its position, development of methodology to calculate oil flow rate, volumetric efficiency, mechanical efficiency & slippage. The finalization of design is followed by CFD of Gerotor pump to optimize the pressure and flow pulsation. A trochoidal profile is used to design the inner and outer rotors and its conjugate profile are realized by a set of equations using a method based on the theory of gearing. Suction and delivery port is analytically designed based on the same design parameters of the trochoidal profile.
Journal Article

Development of Multi Cylinder Turbocharged Natural Gas Engine for Heavy Duty Application

2017-01-10
2017-26-0065
CNG has recently seen increased penetration within the automotive industry. Due to recent sanctions on diesel fuelled vehicles, manufactures have again shifted their attention to natural gas as a suitable alternative. Turbocharging of SI engines has seen widespread application due to its benefit in terms of engine downsizing and increasing engine performance [1]. This paper discusses the methodology involved in development of a multi cylinder turbocharged natural gas engine from an existing diesel engine. Various parameters such as valve timing, intake volume, runner length, etc. were studied using 1D simulation tool GT power and based on their results an optimized configuration was selected and a proto engine was built. Electronic throttle body was used to give better transient performance and emission control. Turbocharger selection and its location plays a critical role.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation of 6 Speed Gearbox of Tipper Application to Improve Gear Contact Life

2017-01-10
2017-26-0060
The function of the automotive transmission is to reliably transmit torque and motion between engine and wheels at acceptable levels of noise, vibration and desired life. Gear drive components most commonly subject to distress are the gears, shafts, bearings and seals. The variables in the entire power-system, such as vibration, misalignment, type of lubricant used, material properties, operating temperature and abuse are considered as the main root causes for the gear failures. The bending and contact strength of the gear tooth are considered to be one of the main contributors for the failure of the gear in a gear set. Thus, Heartzian stress analysis has become popular as an area of research on gears to minimize or to reduce the failures of gears. In this research work, one of the major field issues related to 1st gear and reverse gear pitting at very low life for 6 speed manual transmission for mining/ quarry application is studied.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ambient Temperature and Inflation Pressure on Tire Temperature

2019-01-09
2019-26-0360
Tire failure is identified as a major cause of accidents on highways around the world in the recent past. A tire burst leads to loss of control of the vehicle which ends up in a catastrophe. There are various factors which are accounted for a tire burst. Heat buildup, aging of tire and cracks on tires are the major ones which are identified. A superior ability of the tire to dissipate the heat generated during operation is a major factor which prevents a tire failure. Other factors such as ambient temperature, inflation pressure etc. contributes to heat buildup which may ultimately result in tire failure. A combination of these factors might manifest as a tire failure at high speeds, the latter being an immediate cause of heat buildup. A dormant crack in the tire might develop if the temperature and pressure conditions are favorable, thus giving away at the weakest point. With regard to the temperature conditions, road conditions, inflation pressure checks etc.
Technical Paper

Experimentation for Evaluation of Real Driving Emission Test Routes in India for LDVs

2019-01-09
2019-26-0150
With introduction of Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) norms from 1st April 2020, automotive industry will observe one of most stringent Indian emission regulation implementation in line with International standards. The Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) regulation also mandates for Real Driving Emission (RDE) measurement from 1st April 2020 for data collection and subsequently establishment of RDE compliance Factor (CF) by 1st April 2023. Indian RDE test procedure will be largely based on European RDE with minor changes in terms of climatic conditions, traffic pattern, speed limit, topography, and vehicle population. For performing a successful RDE trial one of the most critical part is selection of a route on which all RDE boundary conditions can be met. This technical paper summarizes the outcome of RDE experiments carried out on Light Duty Vehicles (LDV) in the city of Pune, Mumbai, and Bangalore. The collected data was post processed using CO2 based Moving Average Window (MAW) method.
Journal Article

Front Under Run Protection Device Strength Test Certification Through FE Simulations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0529
Passive safety regulations specify minimum safety performance requirements of vehicle in terms of protecting its occupants and other road users in accident scenarios. Currently for majority cases, the compliance of vehicle design to passive safety regulations is assessed through physical testing. With increased number of products and more comprehensive passive safety requirements, the complexity of certification is getting challenged due to high cost involved in prototype parts and the market pressures for early product introduction through reduced product development timelines. One of the ways for addressing this challenge is to promote CAE based certification of vehicle designs for regulatory compliance. Since accuracy of CAE predictions have improved over a period of time, such an approach is accepted for few regulations like ECE-R 66/01, AIS069 etc which involves only loadings of the structures.
Technical Paper

Full Matrix OBD Verification and Validation of EMS using Hardware in Loop Simulation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0284
On-board diagnostics (OBD) is a term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. It is a system originally designed to reduce emissions by monitoring the performance of major emission related components. There are two kinds of on-board diagnostic systems: OBD-I and OBD-II. In India OBD I was implemented from April 2010 for BS IV vehicles. OBD II was implemented from April 2013 for BS IV vehicles. Apart from the comprehensive component monitors, OBD II system also has noncontinuous monitors like Catalyst monitoring, Lambda monitoring, and other after treatment system monitors. For OBD II verification and Validation, it is required to test all the sensors and actuators that are present in the engine, for all possible failures. From an emissions point of view there are lists of critical failures that are caused due to malfunction of sensors and actuators. Carrying out the full matrix failure testing on the running engine could be tedious, unsafe and time consuming.
Journal Article

Generation of 3D-Digital Indian Public Road Profile Database and Its Application for Vehicle Development through Road-Vehicle Interaction Study

2017-01-10
2017-26-0275
Design of vehicle for targeted customer usage is one of the key steps during vehicle development process. Due to globalization, most of vehicles, aggregates, components are being designed for global market considering worldwide load spectrum. Generally for doing this the vehicle response is being measured for different markets but this process is very time consuming. Also for getting these vehicle dependent parameters, exercises need to be repeated on each type/class of vehicle. So there is a need to have a robust procedure, tools which will helps OEM’s to predict the loads, vehicle response for different market segments at an early stage of vehicle development program using the inputs which are vehicle independent. The solution for this could be to use vehicle independent input such as digitized road profiles (2D or 3D) of target customer markets in combination with proper MBD simulation tools.
X