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Technical Paper

A CFD/SEA Approach for Prediction of Vehicle Interior Noise due to Wind Noise

2009-05-19
2009-01-2203
For most car manufacturers, aerodynamic noise is becoming the dominant high frequency noise source (> 500 Hz) at highway speeds. Design optimization and early detection of issues related to aeroacoustics remain mainly an experimental art implying high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the development of a reliable numerical prediction capability. The goal of this paper is to present a computational approach developed to predict the greenhouse windnoise contribution to the interior noise heard by the vehicle passengers. This method is based on coupling an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver for the windnoise excitation to a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) solver for the structural acoustic behavior.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Based Approach for the Validation of Integrated Safety Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-0201
With the huge improvements made during the last years in the area of integrated safety systems, they are one of the main contributors to the massively rising complexity within automotive systems. However, this enormous complexity stimulates the demand for methodologies supporting the efficient development of such systems, both in terms of cost and development time. Within this work, we propose a co-simulation-based approach for the validation of integrated safety systems. Based on data measurements gained from a test bed, models for the sensors and the distributed safety system are established. They are integrated into a co-simulation environment containing models of the ambience, driving dynamics, and the crash-behavior of the vehicle. Hence, the complete heterogeneous system including all relevant effects and dependencies is modeled within the co-simulation.
Technical Paper

A Combined Computational-Experimental Approach for Modelling of Coupled Vibro-Acoustic Problems

2013-05-13
2013-01-1997
Over the past 30 years, the computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools have been applied extensively in the automotive industry. In order to accelerate time-to-market while coping with legal limits that have become increasingly restrictive over the last decades, CAE has become an indispensable tool covering all major fields in a modern automotive product design process. However, when tackling complex real-life engineering problems, the computational models might become rather involved and thus less efficient. Therefore, the overall trend in the automotive industry is currently heading towards combined approaches, which allow the best of the both worlds, namely the experimental measurement and numerical simulation, to be merged into one integrated scheme. In this paper, the so-called patch transfer function (PTF) approach is adopted to solve coupled vibro-acoustic problems. In the PTF scheme, the interfaces between fluid and structure are discretised in terms of patches.
Technical Paper

A Fluid-Structure Interaction Scheme for Prediction of Flow-Induced Low Frequency Booming Noise

2018-06-13
2018-01-1521
The analysis of the acoustic behavior of flow fields has gained importance in recent years, especially in the automotive industry. The comfort of the driver is heavily influenced by the noise levels and characteristics, especially during long distance drives. Simulation tools can help to analyze the acoustic properties of a car at an early stage of the development process. This work focuses on the low-frequency sound effects, which can be a significant noise component under certain operating conditions. As a first step in the fluid-structure interaction workflow, the flow around a series-production vehicle is simulated, including passenger cabin and underhood flow. The complexity of this model poses extensive demands on the simulation software, concerning meshing, turbulence modeling and level of parallelism. We conducted a transient simulation of the compressible fluid flow, using a hybrid RANS/LES approach.
Technical Paper

A Modern Development Process to Bring Silence Into Interior Components

2007-04-16
2007-01-1219
Comfort and well-being have always been connected with a flawless interior acoustic, free of any background noise or BSR, (buzz, squeak and rattle). BSR noises dominate the interior acoustic and represent one of the main sources for discomfort often causing considerable warranty costs. Traditionally BSR issues have been identified and rectified through extensive hardware testing, which by its nature intensifies toward the end of the car development process. In the following paper the integration of a virtual BSR validation technique in a modern development process by the use of appropriate CAE methods is presented. The goal is to shift, in compliance with the front loading concept, the development activities into the early phase. The approach is illustrated through the example of an instrument panel, from the early concept draft for single components to an assessment of the complete assembly.
Journal Article

A New Approach to Analyzing Cooling and Interference Drag

2010-04-12
2010-01-0286
This paper presents a new approach to analyzing and developing low-drag cooling systems. A relation is derived which describes cooling drag by a number of contributions. Interference drag clearly can be identified as one of them. Cooling system parameters can be assigned to different terms of the relation, so that differences due to parameter variations of the individual drag contributions can be estimated. In order to predict the interference-drag dependency on the outlet location and the local outlet mass flow, an extensive study on a standard BMW sedan has been carried out, both experimentally and by CFD. The results show the importance of providing consistent outflow conditions which take into account the outlet location and flow direction, in order to minimize cooling drag.
Technical Paper

A New Optimization Approach in the Field of Structural-Acoustics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0729
It is shown in how far modal correction techniques can contribute to reduce the CPU effort in the scope of numerical structural-acoustic investigations. Due to this technique a quasi-online interactive acoustic optimization of a basic system configuration can be achieved. In this context special focus is pointed on structural optimization aspects. Finally, the limits of validity as to the accuracy of the results obtained by the modal correction approach in the case of larger modifications are determined.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation of Dampening Dynamic Profiles for the Application in Transient Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0642
As computational methodologies become more integrated into industrial vehicle pre-development processes the potential for high transient vehicle thermal simulations is evident. This can also been seen in conjunction with the strong rise in computing power, which ultimately has supported many automotive manufactures in attempting non-steady simulation conditions. The following investigation aims at exploring an efficient means of utilizing the new rise in computing resources by resolving high time-dependent boundary conditions through a series of averaging methodologies. Through understanding the sensitivities associated with dynamic component temperature changes, optimised boundary conditions can be implemented to dampen irrelevant input frequencies whilst maintaining thermally critical velocity gradients.
Technical Paper

A Stochastic Virtual Testing Approach in Vehicle Passive Safety Design: Effect of Scatter on Injury Response

2005-04-11
2005-01-1763
Virtual testing has grown to be an efficient tool in vehicle passive safety design. Most simulations currently are deterministic. Since the responses observed in real-life and standardized tests are greatly affected by scatter, a stochastic approach should be adopted in order to improve the predictability of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental data. In addition, an objective judgement of the performance of numerical models with respect to experimental data is necessary in order to improve the reliability of virtual testing. In the European VITES & ADVANCE project the software tool Adviser was developed in order to fulfil these two requirements. With Adviser, stochastic simulations can be performed and the quality of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental can be objectively rated using pre-defined and user-defined objective correlation criteria. The software Adviser was used to develop a stochastic HybridIII 50th% Madymo numerical model.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Analysis of CO2-Reduction by an Optimized Heat Supply during Vehicle Warm-up

2006-04-03
2006-01-1450
A transient 1D-network simulation model of the relevant power train components and fluid circuits of a state-of-the art passenger car has been developed, including engine, gearbox, coolant, motor oil and gearbox oil circuit. A system analysis was conducted to identify the subsystems of the vehicle where thermal intervention was expected to have major influence on fuel consumption during warm-up. Variable heat flows have been applied to those subsystems in the simulation model and their influence on the NEDC fuel consumption has been evaluated. The results show the potential fuel reduction effects of heat management measures on the respective system components with a special emphasis on the component interaction. A sensitivity study of variable heat distribution among the subsystems of the vehicle shows the optimization potentials of heat management measures. The results from the numerical simulation have been validated in an experimental setup.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy Mechanical Properties: From Fatigue to Crack Propagation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0729
In addition to the creep properties, the fatigue properties are essential for the design of a power-train component in Mg which is operated at elevated temperatures. In case of the new BMW I6 composite Mg/Al crankcase using the AJ alloy system, material testing focused on both subjects. The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high-pressure die cast components. Tensile, high cycle fatigue properties, low cycle fatigue and crack propagation properties were established and analyzed within the technical context for power-train applications reflected in the temperature and load levels. The aspects of mean stress influence, notch sensitivity and crack propagation are evaluated to estimate the performances of the AJ62A alloy system.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy System Used for New Engine Block

2004-03-08
2004-01-0659
AJ alloy is used with a new Aluminum-Magnesium Composite Design, which is an innovative approach to lightweight crankcase technology. The component is manufactured using high pressure die cast process. A wide range of chemical compositions was used to develop a good understanding of the behavior of this alloy system (castability, thermophysical, mechanical, microstructure). The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high pressure die cast components. Tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and high cycle fatigue properties were established and analyzed using multivariate analysis and statistical approach. This methodology was used to select the optimal chemical composition to match the requirements. The sensitivity of the alloy to heat exposure was investigated for both mechanical properties and microstructure.
Technical Paper

AUTOSAR on the Road

2008-10-20
2008-21-0019
The AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR) Development Partnership has published early 2008 the specifications Release 3.0 [1], with a prime focus on the overall architecture, basic software, run time environment, communication stacks and methodology. Heavy developments have taken place in the OEM and supplier community to deliver AUTOSAR loaded cars on the streets starting 2008 [2]. The 2008 achievements have been: Improving the specifications in order to secure the exploitation for body, chassis and powertrain applications Adding major features: safety related functionalities, OBD II and Telematics application interfaces.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Active Steering - The BMW Approach Towards Modern Steering Technology

2004-03-08
2004-01-1105
For the first time, the BMW Active Steering system allows driver-independent steering intervention at the front axle with the mechanical link between the steering wheel and the front axle still in place. The system is primarily comprised of a rack-and-pinion steering system, a double planetary gear and an electric actuator motor. This new level of freedom enables continuous and situation-dependent variation of the steering ratio and therefore adaptation of the transmission behaviour between the steering wheel and the vehicle's reaction to the relevant driving situation. Comfort, steering effort, handling and directional stability have been extensively optimised as a result of this. In addition, driver-independent steering intervention also guarantees vehicle stabilisation in critical driving situations. As a world exclusive, the new Active Steering system will be available for the first time as an option in the new BMW 5 Series.
Technical Paper

Advanced Driver Assistance: Chances and Limitations on the Way to Improved Active Safety

2007-04-16
2007-01-1738
Advanced Driver Assistance systems support the driver in his driving tasks. They can be designed to enhance the driver's performance and/or to take over unpleasant tasks from the driver. An important optimization goal is to maintain the driver's activation at a moderate level, avoiding both stress and boredom. Functions requiring a situational interpretation based on the vehicle environment are associated with lower performance reliability than typical stability control systems. Thus, driver assistance systems are designed assuming that drivers will monitor the assistance function while maintaining full control over the vehicle, including the opportunity to override as required. Advanced driver assistance systems have a substantial potential to increase active safety performance of the vehicle, i.e., to mitigate or avoid traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

Advanced material technologies meeting the challenges of automotive engineering

2000-06-12
2000-05-0049
Advanced material technologies play a key role in automotive engineering. The main objective of the development of advanced material technologies for automotive applications is to promote the desired properties of a vehicle. It is characteristic of most materials in modern cars that they have been developed especially for automotive requirements. Requirements are not only set by the customer who expects the maximum in performance, comfort, reliability, and safety from a modern car. Existing legal regulations also have to be met, e.g., in the areas of environmental compatibility, resource preservation, and minimization of emissions. To achieve goals like weight reduction or increased engine performance permanent material developments are essential. In this paper, numerous examples chosen from body, suspension, and powertrain components show clearly how low weight technologies, better comfort, and high level of recyclability can be achieved by advanced material solutions.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Forces of Exposed and Enclosed Rotating Wheels as an Example of the Synergy in the Development of Racing and Passenger Cars

2006-04-03
2006-01-0805
The aim of this report is to present the results obtained from the wind tunnel tests performed in the BMW wind tunnel regarding the pressure distribution on a rotating wheel. The acquired data is used to examine its flow topology for the “open” and “enclosed” cases and determine the wheel drag, lift and side forces by integrating the pressure distribution on its surface. The investigation concerned such measurements on a half scale model wheel. Its pressure distribution was identified with and without the presence of a racecar body. The wheel was also mounted on a half scale passenger car body and pressure measurements were taken with and without a wheel spoiler. After the pressure distributions were known for all configurations, the aerodynamic forces generated were determined. The influence of boundary layer thickness on them was also investigated. A better understanding of the forces the model wheel is subjected to is gained.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Assessment of BMW Validation Models using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0297
Aerodynamic performance assessment of automotive shapes is typically performed in wind tunnels. However, with the rapid progress in computer hardware technology and the maturity and accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software packages, evaluation of the production-level automotive shapes using a digital process has become a reality. As the time to market shrinks, automakers are adopting a digital design process for vehicle development. This has elevated the accuracy requirements on the flow simulation software, so that it can be used effectively in the production environment. Evaluation of aerodynamic performance covers prediction of the aerodynamic coefficients such as drag, lift, side force and also lift balance between the front and rear axle. Drag prediction accuracy is important for meeting fuel efficiency targets, prediction of front and rear lifts as well as side force and yawing moment are crucial for high speed handling.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Process for Virtual Evaluation of the Dimensional Resistance of Interior Parts

2006-04-03
2006-01-1475
The importance of the automotive interior as a characteristic feature in the competition for the goodwill of the customer has increased significantly in recent years. Whilst there are established, more or less efficient CAE processes for the solution of problems in the areas of occupant safety and service strength, until now the implementation of CAE in themes such as dimensional stability, warpage and corrugation1 of plastic parts has been little investigated. The developmental support in this field is predominantly carried out by means of hardware tests. Real plastic components alter their form as a result of internal forces often during the first weeks following production. The process, known as “creep”, can continue over an extended period of time and is exacerbated by high ambient temperatures and additional external loads stemming from installation and post assembly position.
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