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Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Based Approach for the Validation of Integrated Safety Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-0201
With the huge improvements made during the last years in the area of integrated safety systems, they are one of the main contributors to the massively rising complexity within automotive systems. However, this enormous complexity stimulates the demand for methodologies supporting the efficient development of such systems, both in terms of cost and development time. Within this work, we propose a co-simulation-based approach for the validation of integrated safety systems. Based on data measurements gained from a test bed, models for the sensors and the distributed safety system are established. They are integrated into a co-simulation environment containing models of the ambience, driving dynamics, and the crash-behavior of the vehicle. Hence, the complete heterogeneous system including all relevant effects and dependencies is modeled within the co-simulation.
Technical Paper

A Modern Development Process to Bring Silence Into Interior Components

2007-04-16
2007-01-1219
Comfort and well-being have always been connected with a flawless interior acoustic, free of any background noise or BSR, (buzz, squeak and rattle). BSR noises dominate the interior acoustic and represent one of the main sources for discomfort often causing considerable warranty costs. Traditionally BSR issues have been identified and rectified through extensive hardware testing, which by its nature intensifies toward the end of the car development process. In the following paper the integration of a virtual BSR validation technique in a modern development process by the use of appropriate CAE methods is presented. The goal is to shift, in compliance with the front loading concept, the development activities into the early phase. The approach is illustrated through the example of an instrument panel, from the early concept draft for single components to an assessment of the complete assembly.
Technical Paper

A Stochastic Virtual Testing Approach in Vehicle Passive Safety Design: Effect of Scatter on Injury Response

2005-04-11
2005-01-1763
Virtual testing has grown to be an efficient tool in vehicle passive safety design. Most simulations currently are deterministic. Since the responses observed in real-life and standardized tests are greatly affected by scatter, a stochastic approach should be adopted in order to improve the predictability of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental data. In addition, an objective judgement of the performance of numerical models with respect to experimental data is necessary in order to improve the reliability of virtual testing. In the European VITES & ADVANCE project the software tool Adviser was developed in order to fulfil these two requirements. With Adviser, stochastic simulations can be performed and the quality of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental can be objectively rated using pre-defined and user-defined objective correlation criteria. The software Adviser was used to develop a stochastic HybridIII 50th% Madymo numerical model.
Technical Paper

AUTOSAR on the Road

2008-10-20
2008-21-0019
The AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR) Development Partnership has published early 2008 the specifications Release 3.0 [1], with a prime focus on the overall architecture, basic software, run time environment, communication stacks and methodology. Heavy developments have taken place in the OEM and supplier community to deliver AUTOSAR loaded cars on the streets starting 2008 [2]. The 2008 achievements have been: Improving the specifications in order to secure the exploitation for body, chassis and powertrain applications Adding major features: safety related functionalities, OBD II and Telematics application interfaces.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Advanced Driver Assistance: Chances and Limitations on the Way to Improved Active Safety

2007-04-16
2007-01-1738
Advanced Driver Assistance systems support the driver in his driving tasks. They can be designed to enhance the driver's performance and/or to take over unpleasant tasks from the driver. An important optimization goal is to maintain the driver's activation at a moderate level, avoiding both stress and boredom. Functions requiring a situational interpretation based on the vehicle environment are associated with lower performance reliability than typical stability control systems. Thus, driver assistance systems are designed assuming that drivers will monitor the assistance function while maintaining full control over the vehicle, including the opportunity to override as required. Advanced driver assistance systems have a substantial potential to increase active safety performance of the vehicle, i.e., to mitigate or avoid traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Process for Virtual Evaluation of the Dimensional Resistance of Interior Parts

2006-04-03
2006-01-1475
The importance of the automotive interior as a characteristic feature in the competition for the goodwill of the customer has increased significantly in recent years. Whilst there are established, more or less efficient CAE processes for the solution of problems in the areas of occupant safety and service strength, until now the implementation of CAE in themes such as dimensional stability, warpage and corrugation1 of plastic parts has been little investigated. The developmental support in this field is predominantly carried out by means of hardware tests. Real plastic components alter their form as a result of internal forces often during the first weeks following production. The process, known as “creep”, can continue over an extended period of time and is exacerbated by high ambient temperatures and additional external loads stemming from installation and post assembly position.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Underbody Windnoise Sources on a Production Vehicle using a Lattice Boltzmann Scheme

2007-05-15
2007-01-2400
A computational analysis of underbody windnoise sources on a production automobile at 180 km/h free stream air speed and 0° yaw is presented. Two different underbody geometry configurations were considered for this study. The numerical results have been obtained using the commercial software PowerFLOW. The simulation kernel of this software is based on the numerical scheme known as the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM), combined with a two-equation RNG turbulence model. This scheme accurately captures time-dependent aerodynamic behavior of turbulent flows over complex detailed geometries, including the pressure fluctuations causing wind noise. Comparison of pressure fluctuations levels mapped on a fluid plane below the underbody shows very good correlation between experiment and simulation. Detailed flow analysis was done for both configurations to obtain insight into the transient nature of the flow field in the underbody region.
Technical Paper

Automotive Software Development: A Model Based Approach

2002-03-04
2002-01-0875
This article focuses on model based development of electronic control units (ECUs) in the automotive domain. The use of model-based approaches solves requirements for the fast-growing integration of formerly isolated logical functions in complex distributed networks of heavily interacting ECUs. One fundamental property of such an approach is the existence of an adequate modeling notation tailored to the specific needs of the application domain together with a precise definition of its syntax and its semantics. However, although these constituents are necessary, they are not sufficient for guaranteeing an efficient development process of ECU networks. In addition, methodical support which guides the application of the modeling notation must be an integral part of a model-based approach.
Video

BMW i3 - A Battery Electric Vehicle...Right from the Beginning

2012-03-29
What are the requirements of customers in an urban environment? What will sustainable mobility look like in the future? This presentation gives an overview of the integrated approach used by BMW to develop the BMW i3 - a purpose-built battery electric vehicle. Very low driving resistances for such a vehicle concept enable the delivery of both impressive range and driving excitement. A small optional auxiliary power unit offers range security for unexpected situations and opens up BEVs to customers who are willing to buy a BEV but are still hesitant due to range anxiety. Additional electric vehicles sold to the formerly range anxious will create additional electric miles. Presenter Franz Storkenmaier, BMW Group
Technical Paper

BMW's Approach of Vehicle Functions and Systems Orientation for Developing Innovative Powertrains

2004-10-18
2004-21-0065
The dramatic increase in data and information exchange has lead to increased communication network complexity within the subsystems of the powertrain itself as well as in all other subsystems of the vehicle. It is essential to manage this complexity during the development process. Applying new processes and methods such as vehicle functions and systems orientation in a top-down structural approach creates a powerful support in development of innovative powertrains. Several technical integration examples of powertrain functions are illustrated for the purpose of demonstrating customer-related advantages. Vehicle functions and systems orientation also has significant impact on organisational structures and cooperation methods to achieve maximum synergies as well as efficient vehicle communication architectures.
Technical Paper

Contemporary Crash Analysis as a Building Block in Holistic Multidisciplinary Structural Analysis

2008-04-14
2008-01-1127
The trend in the previous years showed that an ideal product is not obtained as a sum of development results of several separated disciplines but rather as a result of a holistic multidisciplinary CAE approach. In the course of the whole component development process it is necessary to consider all functions of an individual component equivalent to their importance in the system as a whole, in order to achieve both a technical and a financial optimum. The predictability and the accuracy of an individual computational method have to be regarded against the background of the entire simulation process. A continuative CAE-standard and a harmonious interaction between the different computational disciplines promise more success than focusing specifically on individual topics and thereby neglecting the “bigger picture”. This awareness provided the basis for a decision to change the entire crash simulation software to ABAQUS.
Technical Paper

Cycle Life Investigations on Different Li-Ion Cell Chemistries for PHEV Applications Based on Real Life Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0656
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are becoming increasingly important as an intermediate step on the roadmap to Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV). Li-Ion is the most important battery technology for future hybrid and electrical vehicles. Cycle life of batteries for automotive applications is a major concern of design and development on vehicles with electrified powertrain. Cell manufacturers present various cell chemistries based on Li-Ion technology. For choosing cells with the best cycle life performance appropriate test methods and criteria must be obtained. Cells must be stressed with accelerated aging methods, which correlate with real life conditions. There is always a conflict between high accelerating factors for fast results on the one hand and best accordance with reality on the other hand. Investigations are done on three different Li-Ion cell types which are applicable in the use of PHEVs.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Navigation Systems with Quality Controlled Traffic Data

2008-04-14
2008-01-0200
As the popularity of vehicle navigation systems rises, incorporating Real Time Traffic Information (RTTI) has been shown to enhance the systems' value by helping drivers avoid traffic delays. As an innovative premium automaker, BMW has developed a testing process to acquire and analyze RTTI data in order to ensure delivery of a high quality service and to enhance the customer experience compared to audible broadcast services. With a methodology to obtain valid and repeatable RTTI data quality measurements, BMW and its service partner, Clear Channel's Total Traffic Network (TTN), can improve its offered service over time, implement corrective measures when appropriate, and confidently ensure the service meets its premium objectives. BMW has partnered with TTN and SoftSolutions GmbH to implement a traffic data quality process and software tools.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Recyclability of Vehicles During the Product Development Phases

2000-04-26
2000-01-1469
In a voluntary agreement, the German automobile industry has undertaken to recover 95 percent by weight of End–of–Life Vehicles in the year 2015. In addition, the European draft directive on „End–of–Life Vehicles” recycling calls for evidence that at least than 85 percent by weight of the materials are suitable for material recycling. It is therefore essential while new vehicles are being developed to be in a position to assess their suitability for dismantling and recycling. An automobile consists of a large number of individual components, each of which must be examined separately before a well–founded statement regarding the overall recycling level can be made. For this purpose the BMW Group has developed its own dismantling software which permits virtual dismantling analysis even during a vehicle's development phase and thus enables suitability for recycling to be determined at the earliest possible time.
Technical Paper

FlexRay - Exploitation of a Standard and Future Prospects

2006-10-16
2006-21-0039
The BMW Group is the first car manufacturer introducing FlexRay in series projects. Start of production is September 2006, where a pilot application is implemented in the chassis domain of the new BMW X5. In 2008 FlexRay will form a substantial part of the overall electronics architecture in form of a FlexRay network connecting multiple ECUs implementing chassis, powertrain, and driver assistance applications.
Technical Paper

GPS Augmented Vehicle Dynamics Control

2006-04-03
2006-01-1275
Measurements from a Global Navigation System in conjunction with an Inertial Measurement Unit were recently introduced in different aerial and ground vehicles as an input to control vehicle dynamics. In automobiles this approach could help to further improve braking and / or stability control systems as information like velocity over ground and side slip angle becomes available. This paper presents the technical background, validation through test results and the evaluation of potential benefits of such an “INS/GPS” setup. As a result of the extended measuring capabilities a reduction in braking distance and a more effective stability control becomes possible. The results show an excellent performance that should be exploited in future automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Integrated Chassis Management: Introduction into BMW's Approach to ICM

2006-04-03
2006-01-1219
This paper is supposed to address the BMW approach to the challenge of integrating chassis control systems and it highlights the major issues that have to be addressed. It points out possible solutions for scalable functional and hardware configurations for variable chassis control system combinations. A short outlook is given at possible functional benefits of an integrated structure. Finally, aspects such as components costs (e. g. for sensors and ECUs) as well as reactions on system failures and degradability have to be looked at.
Technical Paper

Integrating CE-based Applications into the Automotive HMI

2007-04-16
2007-01-0446
Being able to integrate consumer electronics (CE) devices into the automobile is an increasingly important goal. In this paper, we focus on the HMI (human machine interaction) aspects of consumer electronics in the car. We describe the requirements concerning HMI integration of consumer electronics and offer several possible solutions. One of the requirements is minimal driver distraction. A desired property in this context concerns the mental model that the user builds of the service that is to be operated: ideally, this model (i.e., appearance and interaction logic) need not change when integrating the service into the automobile, even though the operating elements differ considerably (e.g., touch screen vs. iDrive commander). A further requirement is posed by the dynamic nature of CE services: often, they are not known at design/deploy time of the HMI software of the automobile.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Automotive System Services - An Emerging Design Pattern for an Advanced E/E-Architecture

2006-04-03
2006-01-1286
The paper will introduce the concept of intelligent automotive system services as an essential pattern for forthcoming Electric/Electronic (E/E) architectures. System services are infrastructure-related, having vehicle-wide functionalities with one central part (master) and optionally several peripheral parts (clients) as counterparts in every ECU. System services support the reliable operation, efficient administration and maintenance of car functions over the entire life cycle. System services constitute vehicle-wide, distributed functionalities. Therefore, a consistent, interoperable and scalable implementation and integration strategy is outlined. In addition, synergies to the standard core as well as to the AUTOSAR concept will be described.
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