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Technical Paper

A Combined Computational-Experimental Approach for Modelling of Coupled Vibro-Acoustic Problems

2013-05-13
2013-01-1997
Over the past 30 years, the computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools have been applied extensively in the automotive industry. In order to accelerate time-to-market while coping with legal limits that have become increasingly restrictive over the last decades, CAE has become an indispensable tool covering all major fields in a modern automotive product design process. However, when tackling complex real-life engineering problems, the computational models might become rather involved and thus less efficient. Therefore, the overall trend in the automotive industry is currently heading towards combined approaches, which allow the best of the both worlds, namely the experimental measurement and numerical simulation, to be merged into one integrated scheme. In this paper, the so-called patch transfer function (PTF) approach is adopted to solve coupled vibro-acoustic problems. In the PTF scheme, the interfaces between fluid and structure are discretised in terms of patches.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation of Dampening Dynamic Profiles for the Application in Transient Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0642
As computational methodologies become more integrated into industrial vehicle pre-development processes the potential for high transient vehicle thermal simulations is evident. This can also been seen in conjunction with the strong rise in computing power, which ultimately has supported many automotive manufactures in attempting non-steady simulation conditions. The following investigation aims at exploring an efficient means of utilizing the new rise in computing resources by resolving high time-dependent boundary conditions through a series of averaging methodologies. Through understanding the sensitivities associated with dynamic component temperature changes, optimised boundary conditions can be implemented to dampen irrelevant input frequencies whilst maintaining thermally critical velocity gradients.
Technical Paper

A Stochastic Virtual Testing Approach in Vehicle Passive Safety Design: Effect of Scatter on Injury Response

2005-04-11
2005-01-1763
Virtual testing has grown to be an efficient tool in vehicle passive safety design. Most simulations currently are deterministic. Since the responses observed in real-life and standardized tests are greatly affected by scatter, a stochastic approach should be adopted in order to improve the predictability of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental data. In addition, an objective judgement of the performance of numerical models with respect to experimental data is necessary in order to improve the reliability of virtual testing. In the European VITES & ADVANCE project the software tool Adviser was developed in order to fulfil these two requirements. With Adviser, stochastic simulations can be performed and the quality of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental can be objectively rated using pre-defined and user-defined objective correlation criteria. The software Adviser was used to develop a stochastic HybridIII 50th% Madymo numerical model.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Advanced material technologies meeting the challenges of automotive engineering

2000-06-12
2000-05-0049
Advanced material technologies play a key role in automotive engineering. The main objective of the development of advanced material technologies for automotive applications is to promote the desired properties of a vehicle. It is characteristic of most materials in modern cars that they have been developed especially for automotive requirements. Requirements are not only set by the customer who expects the maximum in performance, comfort, reliability, and safety from a modern car. Existing legal regulations also have to be met, e.g., in the areas of environmental compatibility, resource preservation, and minimization of emissions. To achieve goals like weight reduction or increased engine performance permanent material developments are essential. In this paper, numerous examples chosen from body, suspension, and powertrain components show clearly how low weight technologies, better comfort, and high level of recyclability can be achieved by advanced material solutions.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Assessment of BMW Validation Models using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0297
Aerodynamic performance assessment of automotive shapes is typically performed in wind tunnels. However, with the rapid progress in computer hardware technology and the maturity and accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software packages, evaluation of the production-level automotive shapes using a digital process has become a reality. As the time to market shrinks, automakers are adopting a digital design process for vehicle development. This has elevated the accuracy requirements on the flow simulation software, so that it can be used effectively in the production environment. Evaluation of aerodynamic performance covers prediction of the aerodynamic coefficients such as drag, lift, side force and also lift balance between the front and rear axle. Drag prediction accuracy is important for meeting fuel efficiency targets, prediction of front and rear lifts as well as side force and yawing moment are crucial for high speed handling.
Journal Article

An Innovative Approach to Race Track Simulations for Vehicle Thermal Management

2013-11-20
2013-01-9121
Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle validation process, the role of computational simulation is becoming increasingly prominent in efforts to ensure thermal safety. This gain in popularity has resulted from the cost and time advantages that simulation has compared to experimental testing. Additionally many of these early concepts cannot be validated through experimental means due to the lack of hardware, and must be evaluated via numerical methods. The Race Track Simulation (RTS) can be considered as the final frontier for vehicle thermal management techniques, and to date no coherent method has been published which provides an efficient means of numerically modeling the temperature behavior of components without the dependency on statistical experimental data.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Underbody Windnoise Sources on a Production Vehicle using a Lattice Boltzmann Scheme

2007-05-15
2007-01-2400
A computational analysis of underbody windnoise sources on a production automobile at 180 km/h free stream air speed and 0° yaw is presented. Two different underbody geometry configurations were considered for this study. The numerical results have been obtained using the commercial software PowerFLOW. The simulation kernel of this software is based on the numerical scheme known as the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM), combined with a two-equation RNG turbulence model. This scheme accurately captures time-dependent aerodynamic behavior of turbulent flows over complex detailed geometries, including the pressure fluctuations causing wind noise. Comparison of pressure fluctuations levels mapped on a fluid plane below the underbody shows very good correlation between experiment and simulation. Detailed flow analysis was done for both configurations to obtain insight into the transient nature of the flow field in the underbody region.
Technical Paper

BMW's Energy Strategy - Promoting the Technical and Political Implementation

2000-03-06
2000-01-1324
BMW can look back on 20 years of research activities on hydrogen propulsion systems. Hydrogen fuel is the only means of offering pure driving pleasure on the basis of a sustainable energy loop. As the hydrogen era is still quite a while away the BMW Energy Strategy „Via Natural Gas to Hydrogen” has been developed. The first step was to build series-production compressed natural gas (CNG) cars back in 1995. By switching to liquefied natural gas (LNG) not only is the cruising range tripled but technologically the final stepping-stone is reached in preparing the way for liquefied hydrogen. BMW's automotive and drive technology for hydrogen is now available and ready to move out of the laboratory on to the road. At Munich Airport a BMW „Clean Energy” car is already providing shuttle services. Its fuel is supplied by the world's first public filling station for liquefied hydrogen.
Technical Paper

BMW's Magnesium-Aluminium Composite Crankcase, State-of-the-Art Light Metal Casting and Manufacturing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0069
This paper presents new aspects of the casting and manufacturing of BMWs inline six-cylinder engine. This new spark-ignition engine is the realization of the BMW concept of efficient dynamics at high technological level. For the first time in the history of modern engine design, a water-cooled crankcase is manufactured by magnesium casting for mass production. This extraordinary combination of magnesium and aluminium is a milestone in engine construction and took place at the light-metal foundry at BMW's Landshut plant. This paper gives a close summary about process development, the constructive structure, and the manufacturing and testing processes.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1185
The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Technical Paper

Contemporary Crash Analysis as a Building Block in Holistic Multidisciplinary Structural Analysis

2008-04-14
2008-01-1127
The trend in the previous years showed that an ideal product is not obtained as a sum of development results of several separated disciplines but rather as a result of a holistic multidisciplinary CAE approach. In the course of the whole component development process it is necessary to consider all functions of an individual component equivalent to their importance in the system as a whole, in order to achieve both a technical and a financial optimum. The predictability and the accuracy of an individual computational method have to be regarded against the background of the entire simulation process. A continuative CAE-standard and a harmonious interaction between the different computational disciplines promise more success than focusing specifically on individual topics and thereby neglecting the “bigger picture”. This awareness provided the basis for a decision to change the entire crash simulation software to ABAQUS.
Technical Paper

Designing Sound for Quiet Cars

2016-06-15
2016-01-1839
The quiet nature of hybrid and electric vehicles has triggered developments in research, vehicle manufacturing and legal requirements. Currently, three countries require fitting an Approaching Vehicle Alerting System (AVAS) to every new car capable of driving without a combustion engine. Various other geographical areas and groups are in the process of specifying new legal requirements. In this paper, the design challenges in the on-going process of designing the sound for quiet cars are discussed. A proposal is issued on how to achieve the optimum combination of safety, environmental noise, subjective sound character and technical realisation in an iterative sound design process. The proposed sound consists of two layers: the first layer contains tonal components with their pitch rising along with vehicle speed in order to ensure recognisability and an indication of speed.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Navigation Systems with Quality Controlled Traffic Data

2008-04-14
2008-01-0200
As the popularity of vehicle navigation systems rises, incorporating Real Time Traffic Information (RTTI) has been shown to enhance the systems' value by helping drivers avoid traffic delays. As an innovative premium automaker, BMW has developed a testing process to acquire and analyze RTTI data in order to ensure delivery of a high quality service and to enhance the customer experience compared to audible broadcast services. With a methodology to obtain valid and repeatable RTTI data quality measurements, BMW and its service partner, Clear Channel's Total Traffic Network (TTN), can improve its offered service over time, implement corrective measures when appropriate, and confidently ensure the service meets its premium objectives. BMW has partnered with TTN and SoftSolutions GmbH to implement a traffic data quality process and software tools.
Technical Paper

Ergonomic Layout Process for a Driver Working Place in Cars

2006-07-04
2006-01-2313
During early phases of interior car layout a lot of different aspects have to be considered like crashworthiness, regulations, philosophy of the company etc.. Ergonomic aspects do not always play the most important role in these cases. Since aspects of comfort in cars are getting more and more important in nowadays these aspects should be taken into account very early in the interior car layout process. This paper shows a way to design the interior layout of a car from scratch for a good postural comfort for all anthropometries with the aid of a digital human model (RAMSIS). The novelty of this approach is to use the digital human model to design the interior and not to verify or correct an existing one.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Recyclability of Vehicles During the Product Development Phases

2000-04-26
2000-01-1469
In a voluntary agreement, the German automobile industry has undertaken to recover 95 percent by weight of End–of–Life Vehicles in the year 2015. In addition, the European draft directive on „End–of–Life Vehicles” recycling calls for evidence that at least than 85 percent by weight of the materials are suitable for material recycling. It is therefore essential while new vehicles are being developed to be in a position to assess their suitability for dismantling and recycling. An automobile consists of a large number of individual components, each of which must be examined separately before a well–founded statement regarding the overall recycling level can be made. For this purpose the BMW Group has developed its own dismantling software which permits virtual dismantling analysis even during a vehicle's development phase and thus enables suitability for recycling to be determined at the earliest possible time.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Underbody Pressure Distribution of a Series Vehicle on the Road and in the Wind Tunnel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0802
Underbody aerodynamics has become increasingly important over the last three decades because of its vital contribution to improving a vehicle's overall performance. This was the motivation for the research conducted by BMW Aerodynamics, concerning the determination of the overall pressure distribution on the underbody of a series-production vehicle. Static pressure measurements have been taken under various test conditions. Real on-road tests were carried out as well as wind tunnel experiments under application of different road simulation techniques. The analyzed vehicle configurations include wheel rim-tire and body modifications. The results presented include surface pressure data, drag and lift coefficients, ride heights, pitch and roll angles. The acquired data is used to examine the underbody flow topology and determine how the diverse attempts to represent the real on-road conditions affect its pressure distribution.
Technical Paper

From Theory to Three-Dimensional Finite Element Models: An Innovative Method for Validation

2018-06-13
2018-01-1536
As a key part of numerical analysis, the modeling process has a tremendous influence on the quality of the results. While there is general awareness concerning uncertainties that arise during modeling, their quantity and sensitivity rarely are known. Hence, modeling quickly can become inaccurate and inefficient. The scope of the present paper is to innovate predictive modeling processes concerning the dynamics of real complex structures by means of linear modal analysis with the finite element method (FEM). The aim is to offer a transparent design catalog relating specific uncertainties to each model component in order to achieve error prevention for engineers dealing with comparable systems. A complex system is simplified and investigated for different levels of detail. Only after the model uncertainties for one level of detail are obtained, the next level of complexity is approached.
Journal Article

Issues Exporting a Multibody Dynamics System Model into a Finite Element Analysis Model

2010-04-12
2010-01-0947
Nowadays there is an increasing need to streamline CAE processes. One such process consists of translating a Multibody Dynamics System (MBS) model into an equivalent Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model. Typically, users start with the creation of a MBS model which is set at a desired operating point by means of running simulations in the MBS domain (e.g. dynamics, statics.) The MBS model is then further translated into an equivalent FEA model which is used to perform simulations in the FEA domain (e.g. passive safety/crash, noise vibration harshness/NVH.) Currently, the translation of the MBS model into a FEA model is done either manually or by means of using a user-written script. This paper shows that a user-written script that translates a MBS model into a FEA model can not provide a high fidelity translation. In general, it is found that eigenvalues computed by the FEA code would not match eigenvalues computed by the MBS code.
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