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Journal Article

Characterization of Force Deflection Properties for Vehicular Bumper-to-Bumper Interactions

This is the complete manuscript and replacement for SAE paper 2014-01-0482, which has been retracted due to incomplete content. This paper reports on 76 quasi-static tests conducted to investigate the behavior of road vehicle bumper systems. The tests are a quasi-static replication of real world low speed collisions. The tests represented front to rear impacts between various vehicles. Force and deflection were captured in order to quantify the stiffness characteristics of the bumper-to-bumper system. A specialized test apparatus was constructed to position and load bumper systems into each other. The purpose was to replicate or exceed damage that occurred in actual collisions. The fixture is capable of positioning the bumpers in various orientations and generates forces up to 50 kips. Various bumper-to-bumper alignments were tested including full overlap, lateral offset, and override/underride configurations.
Journal Article

Comparison of Quasistatic Bumper Testing and Dynamic Full Vehicle Testing for Reconstructing Low Speed Collisions

It has been proposed that low speed collisions in which the damage is isolated to the bumper systems can be reconstructed using data from customized quasistatic testing of the bumper systems of the involved vehicles. In this study, 10 quasistatic bumper tests were conducted on 7 vehicle pairs involved in front-to-rear collisions. The data from the quasistatic bumper tests were used to predict peak bumper force, vehicle accelerations, velocity changes, dynamic combined crush, restitution, and crash pulse time for a given impact velocity. These predictions were compared to the results measured by vehicle accelerometers in 12 dynamic crash tests at impact velocities of 2 - 10 mph. The average differences between the predictions using the quasistatic bumper data and the dynamic crash test accelerometer data were within 5% for bumper force, peak acceleration, and velocity change, indicating that the quasistatic bumper testing method had no systematic bias compared to dynamic crash testing.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Thoracic and Lumbar Accelerations of Volunteers in Vertical and Horizontal Loading Scenarios

There are exposures of the body to accelerations in the lumbar and thoracic regions on a regular basis with everyday activities and exercises. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of the thoracic and lumbar regions in human volunteers subjected to vigorous activities. A total of 181 tests include twenty volunteers subjected to four test scenarios: “plopping” down in a seat, a vertical jump, a vertical drop while in a supine position, and a vertical drop while seated upright in a swing. Each of the latter three activities included three severity levels with drop heights ranging from 25 mm to 900 mm. Volunteers selected represent the anthropometry of the general population including males and females at a wide range of weights (54 to 99 kg), heights (150 to 191 cm), and ages (26 to 58 years old). Instrumentation for each volunteer included tri-axial accelerometers attached to custom-fit mounts that were secured around the lumbar and upper thoracic regions.
Technical Paper

Expanded Characterization of Force-Deflection Properties of Vehicle-to-Vehicle Systems

This paper reports on seventy additional tests conducted using a mechanical device described by Bonugli et al. [4]. The method utilized quasi-static loading of bumper systems and other vehicle components to measure their force-deflection properties. Corridors on the force-deflection plots, for various vehicle combinations, were determined in order to define the system stiffness of the combined vehicle components. Loading path and peak force measurements can then be used to evaluate the impact severity for low speed collisions in terms of delta-v and acceleration. The additional tests refine the stiffness corridors, previously published, which cover a wide range of vehicle types and impact configurations. The compression phase of a low speed collision can be modeled as a spring that is defined by the force-deflection corridors. This is followed by a linear rebound phase based on published restitution values [1,5].
Technical Paper

Measurement of Tolerable and Non-Injurious Levels of Back-to-Front Whole Body Accelerations

There is a paucity of recent data quantifying the injury risk of forces and accelerations that act on the whole body in a back-to-front direction. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of back-to-front accelerations that volunteers felt were tolerable and non-injurious. Instrumented volunteers were dropped supine onto a mattress, and their accelerations during the impact with the mattress were measured. Accelerometers were located on the head, upper thoracic and lower lumbar regions. Drop heights started at 0.6 m (2 ft) and progressed upward as high as 1.8 m (6 ft) based on the test subjects' consent. The test panel was comprised of male and female subjects whose ages ranged from 25 to 63 years of age and whose masses ranged from 62 to 130 kg (136 to 286 lb). Peak head, upper thoracic and lower lumbar accelerations of 25.9 g, 29.4 g and 39.6 g were measured.
Journal Article

Passenger Car Response to Interaction with Tractor-Trailer Steer Tire Lugs

Performing a reconstruction of sideswipe interactions is difficult due to the lack of permanent crush sustained by the vehicles involved. Previous studies have provided insight into the forces involved in creating various types of damage for vehicle-to-vehicle interactions during a sideswipe interaction. However, these data may not be applicable to the interaction that occurs when a tractor-trailer steer tire is involved. As demonstrated in previous studies, steer tire interaction produces a unique pattern of markings on the struck vehicle by the protruding lugs (wheel stud) of the steer tire. These studies have demonstrated that the pattern of cycloidal marks created by the wheel lugs can be used to calculate the relative speeds of the vehicles. While this is helpful in understanding the relative motion of the vehicles, it does not provide information regarding the forces applied at the point of contact.
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Head-to-Head Restraint Distance on Occupant Kinematics during Low-Speed Rear-End Crashes

The longitudinal motion of the head, thorax and lumbar spine of two test subjects was measured in low-speed rear-end collisions in order to understand the effect of the head-to-head restraint distance (backset) on the occupant kinematics. The two test subjects were exposed to three rear-end impacts at two crash severities, nominal changes in velocity (ΔV) of 1.11 (low ΔV) and 2.22 m/s (high ΔV). The backset was hypothesized to be an independent variable that would affect the head and neck motion and was set at 0, 5 or 10 cm. The x and z-axis accelerations of the impacted vehicle and the anatomical x and z-axis accelerations of each test subjects’ upper thorax and L5-S1 region were measured and then transformed to an earth-based coordinate system. Head accelerations were measured at the mouth and these accelerations were transformed to an earth-based coordinate system at the head center of gravity (CG).
Technical Paper

The Large Radius Track Centrifuge Concept as an Acceleration Research and Simulation Device

Anticipated high agility aircraft will require pilot training and acceleration research to investigate the human capacity to function in the projected environment. Existing man-rated centrifuges and fixed-base simulators are capable of imposing only a portion of the entire envelope of accelerations, and often produce significant artifactual accelerations and illusions. Simulations and engineering analysis of a large radius track centrifuge indicate such a device could impose an acceleration environment suitable for training and research. The technology required for the concept is estimated to be feasible in the near future.