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Technical Paper

Determining Tolerance to Compression and Viscous Injury in Frontal and Lateral Impacts

Considerable research has shown that there are two mechanisms of blunt injury. One is by crushing the tissue at low velocities of deformation (compression mechanism, C) and the other by a rate-dependent deformation at higher speeds that exceed the energy dissipation of the tissue (viscous mechanism, VC). Analysis of injury causation in experiments must consider both mechanisms. For an impact, there is a peak compression and Viscous response; however, it is not possible a priori to determine which mechanism is associated with the injury. Thus, there has been a need to identify the effective velocity separating the two mechanisms of injury. This study provides new injury tolerances and probability functions for various body and tissue impacts based on injury data related to a compression or viscous mechanism. Six data sets were subjected to statistical analysis to predict injury based on maximum compression and Viscous response of the surrogate or tissue.