Refine Your Search

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Study of LPG Lean Burn for a Small SI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2844
This paper presents a study of LPG lean burn in a motorcycle SI engine. The lean burn limits are compared by several ways. The relations of lean burn limit with the parameters, such as engine speed, compression ratio and advanced spark ignition etc. are tested. The experimental results show that larger throttle opening, lower engine speed, earlier spark ignition timing, larger electrode gap and higher compression ratio will extend the lean burn limit of LPG. The emission of a LPG engine, especially on NOx emission, can be significantly reduced by means of the lean burn technology.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of the Combustion Characteristics of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol-Diesel Blends with Different ABE Component Ratios in a Constant Volume Chamber

2014-04-01
2014-01-1452
Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE), an intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, is considered a promising alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuel which typically emit less pollutants compared to conventional diesel, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for each individual component during the fermentation. With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. In this respect, it is desirable to estimate the performance of different ABE blends to determine the best blend and optimize the production process accordingly. ABE fuels with different component ratio, (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %), were blended with diesel and tested in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

An Optical Study on the Combustion of Gasoline/PODEn Blends in a Constant Volume Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1748
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) have high cetane number, high oxygen content and high volatility, therefore can be added to gasoline to optimize the performance and soot emission of Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) combustion. High speed imaging was used to investigate the spray and combustion process of gasoline/PODEn blends (PODEn volume fraction 0%-30%) under various ambient conditions and injection strategies in a constant volume vessel. Results showed that with an increase of PODEn proportion from 10% to 30%, liquid-phase penetration of the spray increased slightly, ignition delay decreased from 3.8 ms to 2.0 ms and flame lift off length decreased 29.4%, causing a significant increase of the flame luminance. For blends with 20% PODEn, when ambient temperature decreased from 893 K to 823 K, the ignition delay increased 1.3 ms and the flame luminance got lower.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulate Emissions Fueled with LPG and Gasoline in a Small SI Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2901
This paper presents experimental studies of particulate emissions in a small SI engine fueled with LPG and gasoline fuels. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc EFI engine with gasoline fuel is used as the baseline engine. Characteristics of the particulate emissions of the two fuels are compared. Test results show that: there are great quantities of particulate emissions for both fuels, but the total numbers of particulate emissions for the two fuels are generally in the same level. The distribution of the particulate sizes is in bimodal type for the gasoline, but for the LPG its first peak is not markedly in some conditions. The particulate sizes of the second peak for the two fuels appear at about the same size. At middle loads and 3000r/min, the particulate emissions for both of the two fuels are the greatest.
Technical Paper

Characterization Spray and Combustion Processes of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) in a Constant Volume Chamber

2015-04-14
2015-01-0919
Recent research has shown that butanol, instead of ethanol, has the potential of introducing a more suitable blend in diesel engines. This is because butanol has properties similar to current transportation fuels in comparison to ethanol. However, the main downside is the high cost of the butanol production process. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is an intermediate product of the fermentation process of butanol production. By eliminating the separation and purification processes, using ABE directly in diesel blends has the potential of greatly decreasing the overall cost for fuel production. This could lead to a vast commercial use of ABE-diesel blends on the market. Much research has been done in the past five years concerning spray and combustion processes of both neat ABE and ABE-diesel mixtures. Additionally, different compositions of ABE mixtures had been characterized with a similar experimental approach.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODE)/ Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) Blends in Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0926
Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF), with a distillation range from Initial Boiling Point of gasoline to Final Boiling Point of diesel, can be easily gained directly by blending diesel with gasoline. However, the reduced auto-ignitability of WDF could lead to higher HC emissions. Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODE), with good volatility and oxygen content of up to 49%, have great potential to improve combustion and emission characteristics, especially for soot reduction. Experiments were carried out in a light-duty four-cylinder diesel engine fueled with neat diesel, gasoline/diesel blends (GD), GD/PODE blends (GDP) and the combustion and emission characteristics were carefully examined. Results showed that GDP had the lowest PM emission and diesel had the poorest one among the three fuels. Due to the addition of gasoline and the relatively poor ignitability, GD had lower combustion efficiency and higher Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) emissions than diesel.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of a Small Spark-Ignited LPG Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1738
This paper presents an experimental study of the emission characteristics of a small Spark-Ignited, LPG engine. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc SI engine for motorcycle is modified for using LPG fuel. The power output of LPG is above 95% power output of gasoline. The emission characteristics of LPG are compared with the gasoline. The test result shows that LPG for small SI engine will help to reduce the emission level of motorcycles. The HC and CO emission level can be reduced greatly, but NOx emissions are increased. The emission of motorcycle using LPG shows the potential to meet the more strict regulation.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Fuel (E100) in a Small SI Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3262
An air-cooled, four-stroke, 125 cc electronic gasoline fuel injection SI engine for motorcycles is altered to burn ethanol fuel. The effects of nozzle orifice size, fuel injection duration, spark timing and the excess air/ fuel ratio on engine power output, fuel and energy consumptions and engine exhaust emission levels are studied on an engine test bed. The results show that the maximum engine power output is increased by 5.4% and the maximum torque output is increased by 1.9% with the ethanol fuel in comparison with the baseline. At full load and 7000 r/min, HC emission is decreased by 38% and CO emission is decreased 46% on average over the whole engine speed range. However, NOx levels are increased to meet the maximum power output. The experiments of the spark timing show that the levels of HC and NOx emission are decreased markedly by the delay of spark timing.
Journal Article

Development of Surrogate Model for Oxygenated Wide-Distillation Fuel with Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ether

2017-10-08
2017-01-2336
Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ether (PODEn) is a promising green additive to diesel fuel, owing to the unique chemical structure (CH3O[CH2O]nCH3, n≥2) and high cetane number. Together with the general wide-distillation fuel (WDF), which has an attractive potential to reduce the cost of production of vehicle fuel, the oxygenated WDF with PODEn can help achieve a high efficiency and low emissions of soot, NOx, HC, and CO simultaneously. In this paper, the first detailed reaction mechanism (225 species, 1082 reactions) which can describe the ignition characteristics of PODE1 and PODE3 at low temperature was developed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Gas-Phase LPG Injection System for a Small SI Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3260
This paper presents the development of an electronic control LPG gas injection system and its application in a small SI engine. The tests results show that the developed LPG gas injection system can meet the needs for the goal of high engine power output and low exhaust emissions based on the engine bench tests. With the LPG electronic gas injection system, the air-fuel ratio can be optimized based on the requirements and CO and NOx emission levels are decreased significantly compared with the LPG mechanical mixer fuel supply system, based on the same HC emission levels. With the new gas phase LPG electronic control injection system, the HC emission level is controlled below the 300 ppm under most engine conditions and under 200 ppm when the engine speed is over 3000 r/min. The NOx emission level is under 2600 ppm in the whole range of engine operation conditions and is decreased by 2000 ppm compared with the LPG mechanical mixer system.
Technical Paper

Development of the Main Controller of Compressed Natural Gas Engine Based on the 32-Digit PowerPC561

2008-06-23
2008-01-1738
To realize the precise control of injection and ignition of compressed natural gas engine, the 32-Digit PowerPC561 was selected as the single-chip microcomputer for the compressed natural gas engine. The signal processing module, controller module and power driver module of the engine control system were introduced successively. In the injection valve drive circuit, a new design method realized the ‘Peak&Hold’ drive current wave shape, which reduced the software work of injection development. In the ignition module circuit, the feedback of the time of ignition persistence and preliminary coil close period were successfully realized. The Engine Control Unit (ECU) has flexible control functions, which fulfill the requirements of engine control system.
Technical Paper

Effect of the Pre-Chamber Orifice Geometry on Ignition and Flame Propagation with a Natural Gas Spark Plug

2017-10-08
2017-01-2338
Natural gas is one of the promising alternative fuels due to the low cost, worldwide availability, high knock resistance and low carbon content. Ignition quality is a key factor influencing the combustion performance in natural gas engines. In this study, the effect of pre-chamber geometry on the ignition process and flame propagation was studied under varied initial mixture temperatures and equivalence ratios. The pre-chambers with orifices in different shapes (circular and slit) were investigated. Schlieren method was adopted to acquire the flame propagation. The results show that under the same cross-section area, the slit pre-chamber can accelerate the flame propagation in the early stages. In the most of the cases, the penetration length of the flame jet and flame area development are higher in the early stages of combustion.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol in Ester-Ethanol-Diesel Blended Fuels on Spray Behavior and PM Emission

2006-04-03
2006-01-0236
The ethanol has potential to be a renewable alternative fuel for internal combustion engines and contributes to lower global CO2 emission. In this study, vegetable methyl ester is added in the ethanol-diesel fuel to prevent separation of the ethanol from diesel, thus the ethanol blend ratio can be set up to 30% in volume. This work pays more attention on its spray, effects of the ethanol percentage on the detailed PM components. To investigate the spray behavior of ethanol, diesel and their blends, experiments in a constant volume chamber were carried out combining numerical simulation. Properties of the ethanol-diesel blended fuels were obtained through some measurements and empirical calculations. The breakup sub-model, Wave-KH model considering the blend fuel properties were adopted in an engine simulation code KIVA-3V. The simulation had a good agreement with experiments.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Heat Release and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Operated on DME

2001-09-24
2001-01-3634
In this study, an experimental investigation was conducted using a direct injection single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a test common rail fuel injection system to clarify how dimethyl ether (DME) injection characteristics affect the heat release and exhaust emissions. For that purpose the common rail fuel injection system (injection pressure: 15 MPa) and injection nozzle (0.55 × 5-holes, 0.70 × 3-holes, same total holes area) have been used for the test. First, to characterize the effect of DME physical properties on the macroscopic spray behavior: injection quantity, injection rate, penetration, cone angle, volume were measured using high-pressure injection chamber (pressure: 4MPa). In order to clarify effects of the injection process on HC, CO, and NOx emissions, as well as the rate of heat release were investigated by single-cylinder engine test. The effects of the injection rate and swirl ratio on exhaust emissions and heat release were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Improving Combustion and Emission Characteristics in Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engine by Using Pistons Enhancing Turbulence

2018-09-10
2018-01-1685
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), because of its low cost, high H/C ratio, and high octane number, has great potential in automotive industry, especially for heavy-duty commercial vehicles. However, relative slow flame speed of natural gas leads to long combustion duration and low thermal efficiency and tends to cause knock combustion at high load, which will aggravate engine thermal load and reliability. Enhancing turbulence intensity in combustion chamber is an effective way to accelerate flame propagation speed and improve combustion performance. In this study, the flow simulations of several piston bowls with different inner-convex forms were carried out using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) software CONVERGE. The numerical results showed the piston bowls with inner-convex could disturb the charge swirl motion and enhance turbulence of different intensity. A hexagram geometry bowl was proved to have the best function in strengthening turbulence intensity.
Technical Paper

Matching Optimum for Low HC and CO Emissions at Warm-up Phase in an LPG EFI Small SI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3897
Based on a 125cm3 single cylinder SI engine, the designated idle speed was controlled by adjusting of cycle ignition advance angle. By analyzing the effects of different idle speed and throttle open position on three way catalyst (TWC) light-off time and conversion efficiency of HC and CO emissions, combined with the corresponding total HC and CO emissions level, the optimum idle speed and throttle open position at engine's warm-up phase were found by the matching optimum. The present method for engine control strategy is helpful to optimize the warm-up phase emission levels in SI engine with LPG fuel.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of DMF and Gasoline Spray and Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1592
2, 5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) has been receiving increasing interest as a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels, owing to the recent development of new production technology. However, the influence of DMF properties on the in-cylinder fuel spray and its evaporation, subsequent combustion processes as well as emission formation in current gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is still not well understood, due to the lack of comprehensive understanding of its physical and chemical characteristics. To better understand the spray characteristics of DMF and its application to the IC engine, the fuel sprays of DMF and gasoline were investigated by experimental and computational methods. The shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used for measuring spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of both fuels.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) by Diesel with a Multi-Component Chemical Kinetic Mechanism

2016-04-05
2016-01-0784
Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) combustion is believed to be a promising approach to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion. HCII can be realized by using port-injection of the high-volatile fuel (gasoline) to prepare in-cylinder homogeneous charge and direct injection of the high-ignitable fuel (diesel) near the top dead center to control the start of combustion. In the current study, a numerical study was carried out to understand the mixing and auto-ignition process in HCII combustion. A multicomponent chemical kinetic mechanism for gasoline and diesel, consisting of n-heptane, iso-octane, ethanol, toluene, diisobutylene and n-decane, has been developed for predicting their ignition and oxidation. The final mechanism consists of 104 species and 398 reactions. This mechanism was validated with the experimental data of ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds for each component and real transportation fuels.
Technical Paper

PLII-LEM and OH* Chemiluminescence Study on Soot Formation in Spray Combustion of PODEn-Diesel Blend Fuels in a Constant Volume Vessel

2017-10-08
2017-01-2329
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) are promising alternative fuel candidates for diesel engines because they present advantages in soot reduction. This study uses a PODEn mixture (contains PODE3-6) from mass production to provide oxygen component in blend fuels. The spray combustion of PODEn-diesel bend fuels in a constant volume vessel was studied using high speed imaging, PLII-LEM and OH* chemiluminescence. Fuels of several blend ratios are compared with pure diesel. Flame luminance data show a near linear decrease tendency with the blend ratio increasing. The OH* images reveal that the ignition positions of all the cases have small differences, which indicates that using a low PODEn blend ratio of no more than 30% does not need significant adjustment in engine combustion control strategies. It is found that 30% PODEn blended with diesel (P30) can effectively reduce the total soot by approximately 68% in comparison with pure diesel.
Technical Paper

Study of Near Nozzle Spray Characteristics of Ethanol under Different Saturation Ratios

2016-10-17
2016-01-2189
Atomization of fuel sprays is a key factor in controlling the combustion quality in the direct-injection engines. In this present work, the effect of saturation ratio (Rs) on the near nozzle spray patterns of ethanol was investigated using an ultra-high speed imaging technique. The Rs range covered both flash-boiling and non-flash boiling regions. Ethanol was injected from a single-hole injector into an optically accessible constant volume chamber at a fixed injection pressure of 40 MPa with different fuel temperatures and back pressures. High-speed imaging was performed using an ultrahigh speed camera (1 million fps) coupled with a long-distance microscope. Under non-flash boiling conditions, the effect of Rs on fuel development was small but observable. Clear fuel collision can be observed at Rs=1.5 and 1.0. Under the flash boiling conditions, near-nozzle spray patterns were significant different from the non-flash boiling ones.
X