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Technical Paper

A Selected Operational History of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) for International Space Station (ISS)

2004-07-19
2004-01-2470
The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) has been developed jointly by Boeing Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama and Honeywell Engines & Systems, Torrance, California to meet the internal thermal control needs for the International Space Station (ISS). The ITCS provides heat removal for the critical life support systems and thermal conditioning for numerous experiment racks. The ITCS will be fitted on a number of modules on the ISS. The first US Element containing the ITCS, Node 1, was launched in December 1998. Since Node 1 does not contain a pump to circulate the fluid it was not filled with ITCS fluid until after the US Laboratory Module was installed. The second US Element module, US Laboratory Module, which contains the pumps and all the major ITCS control hardware, was launched in February 2001. The third US Element containing the ITCS, the US Airlock, was launched in July 2001.
Journal Article

Augmented Reality and Other Visualization Technologies for Manufacturing in Boeing

2011-10-18
2011-01-2656
The Efficient Assembly, Integration & Test (EAIT) team at Boeing Research & Technology, Boeing's central technology organization, is working on multiple implementations of Augmented Reality to aid assembly at the satellite production facility in El Segundo, CA. This presentation will discuss our work to bring an Augmented Reality tool to the shop floor, integrating product design and manufacturing techniques into a synergistic backbone and how this approach can support the delivery of engineering design intent on the shop floor. The team is developing a system to bring designer's 3D CAD models to the technicians on the shop floor, and spatially register them to live camera views of production hardware. We will discuss our work in evaluating multiple motion captures systems, how we integrated a Vicon system with Augmented Reality software, and our development of a user interface allowing technicians to manipulate the graphical display.
Journal Article

Body Join Drilling for One-Up-Assembly

2013-09-17
2013-01-2296
Over 1,200 large diameter holes must be drilled into the side-of-body join on a Boeing commercial aircraft's fuselage. The material stack-ups are multiple layers of primarily titanium and CFRP. Due to assembly constraints, the holes must be drilled for one-up-assembly (no disassembly for deburr). In order to improve productivity, reduce manual drilling processes and improve first-time hole quality, Boeing set out to automate the drilling process in their Side-of-Body join cell. Implementing an automated solution into existing assembly lines was complicated by the location of the target area, which is over 15 feet (4 meters) above the factory floor. The Side-of-Body Drilling machines (Figure 1) are capable of locating, drilling, measuring and fastening holes with less than 14 seconds devoted to non-drilling operations. Drilling capabilities provided for holes up to ¾″ in diameter through stacks over 4.5″ thick in a titanium/CFRP environment.
Technical Paper

Clothing Systems for Long Duration Space Missions

2004-07-19
2004-01-2580
Clothing accounts for a surprisingly large quantity of resupply and waste on the International Space Station (ISS), of the order of 14% of the equivalent system mass (ESM). Efforts are underway in the ISS program to reduce this, but much greater changes are likely to be possible and justifiable for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Two approaches are being assessed for long duration missions: to reduce the mass of the wardrobe through use of lighter fabrics, and to clean clothing on board for reuse. Through good design including use of modern fabrics, a lighter weight wardrobe is expected to be feasible. Collateral benefits should include greater user comfort and reduced lint generation. A wide variety of approaches to cleaning is possible. The initial evaluation was made based on a terrestrial water-based washer and dryer system, as this represents the greatest experience base.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Testing of Brazed Space Station IATCS Materials

2004-07-19
2004-01-2471
Increased nickel concentrations in the IATCS coolant prompted a study of the corrosion rates of nickel-brazed heat exchangers in the system. The testing has shown that corrosion is occurring in a silicon-rich intermetallic phase in the braze filler of coldplates and heat exchangers as the result of a decrease in the coolant pH brought about by cabin carbon dioxide permeation through polymeric flexhoses. Similar corrosion is occurring in the EMU de-ionized water loop. Certain heat exchangers and coldplates have more silicon-rich phase because of their manufacturing method, and those units produce more nickel corrosion product. Silver biocide additions did not induce pitting corrosion at silver precipitate sites.
Technical Paper

Drilling Mixed Stack Materials for the BOEING 787

2010-09-28
2010-01-1867
The new combinations such as composites and titanium that are being used on today's new airplanes are proving to be very challenging when drilling holes during manufacturing and assembly operations. Gone are the days of hand drilling with high speed steel drills through soft aluminum structure, after which aluminum rivets would be swaged into those holes with very generous tolerances. The drilling processes today need to use cutter materials hard enough and tough enough to cut through hard metals such as titanium, yet be sharp enough to resistant abrasion and maintain size when drilling through composites. There is a constant search for better cutters and drills that can drill a greater number of holes. The cost of materials used in today's aircraft is much higher. The cutting tools are more expensive and the hole tolerances are much tighter.
Technical Paper

ESM History, Capability, and Methods

2003-07-07
2003-01-2630
Equivalent system mass (ESM) was defined in 1997 as an integral part of the Advanced Life Support project metric. It is particularly suited to comparing technologies that differ in mass, volume, power, cooling, and crew time during the early phases of a program. In principle, ESM can also be used to compare technologies that differ in other parameters. In practice, the necessary data is generally not available, and this limits this application. ESM has proven to be a useful tool. Like any tool, its strengths and weaknesses must be understood. This paper documents the history, capability and methods used in connection with ESM.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the EMR for Swaging Collars on Advanced Composite Laminates

2005-10-03
2005-01-3299
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner will be the most fuel-efficient airliner in the world when it enters service in 2008. To help achieve this, Boeing will utilize state-of-the-art carbon fiber for primary structures. Advanced manufacturing techniques and processes will be used in the assembly of large composite structures. Electroimpact has proposed a system utilizing the low recoil Low Voltage Electromagnetic Riveter (LVER) to drill and install bolts. A test program was initiated between Boeing Materials Process and Engineering (MP&E) and Electroimpact to validate the LVER process for swaging titanium collars on titanium pins in composite material. This paper details the results of these tests.
Technical Paper

International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Controls & Life Support System (ECLSS) Manual Oxygen Management

2005-07-11
2005-01-2895
One of the most critical functions of ECLSS is to maintain the atmospheric oxygen concentration within habitable limits. On the ISS, this function is provided by the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). During ISS (International Space Station) crew increments 7 thru 9, the MCA was at risk of imminent failure as evident by sustained high ion-pump current levels. In the absence of continuous constituent measurement by the MCA, manual methods of estimating partial pressure of oxygen (ppO2) and concentration levels need to be developed and validated to: (1) ensure environmental control and life support, (2) prohibit ISS system and hardware damage, and (3) enable planned ISS activities that effect constituent balance.
Journal Article

Optimization of Spatially Varying Fiber Paths for a Symmetric Laminate with a Circular Cutout under Remote Uniaxial Tension

2015-09-15
2015-01-2609
Minimizing the stress concentrations around cutouts in a plate is often a design problem, especially in the Aerospace industry. A problem of optimizing spatially varying fiber paths in a symmetric, linear orthotropic composite laminate with a cutout, so as to achieve minimum stress concentration under remote unidirectional tensile loading is of interest in this study. A finite element (FE) model is developed to this extent, which constraints the fiber angles while optimizing the fiber paths, proving essential in manufacturing processes. The idea to be presented could be used to derive fiber paths that would drastically reduce the Stress Concentration Factor (SCF) in a symmetric laminate by using spatially varying fibers in place of unidirectional fibers. The model is proposed for a four layer symmetric laminate, and can be easily reproduced for any number of layers.
Technical Paper

Special Requirements for Crew Interface Labels on the International Space Station

2000-07-10
2000-01-2437
The International Space Station (ISS) will be the largest structure ever built in space. Differences between ISS and previous NASA vehicles led to developing new labeling methods, conventions and material. The challenge was to provide clear and meaningful identification, location, operations and safety information for the crews who will assemble, maintain and live onboard ISS.
Technical Paper

Systems Analysis of Life Support for Long-Duration Missions

2000-07-10
2000-01-2394
Work defining advanced life support (ALS) technologies and evaluating their applicability to various long-duration missions has continued. Time-dependent and time-invariant costs have been estimated for a variety of life support technology options, including International Space Station (ISS) environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) technologies and improved options under development by the ALS Project. These advanced options include physicochemical (PC) and bioregenerative (BIO) technologies, and may in the future include in-situ-resource utilization (ISRU) in an attempt to reduce both logistics costs and dependence on supply from Earth. PC and bioregenerative technologies both provide possibilities for reducing mission equivalent system mass (ESM). PC technologies are most advantageous for missions of up to several years in length, while bioregenerative options are most appropriate for longer missions. ISRU can be synergistic with both PC and bioregenerative options.
Journal Article

Technical Improvements to the ASAT2 Boeing 777 Spar Assembly Cell

2011-10-18
2011-01-2707
Electroimpact and Boeing are improving the efficiency and reliability of the Boeing 777 spar assembly process. In 1992, the Boeing 777 spar shop installed Giddings and Lewis spar machines with Electroimpact Inc. EMR(1) (Electromagnetic Riveting) technology. In 2011, Electroimpact Inc. began replacing the original spar machines with next generation assembly machines. The new carriages incorporate a number of technical improvements and advancements over the current system. These technical advancements have facilitated a 50% increase in average cycle rate, as well as improvements to overall process efficiency, reliability and maintainability. Boeing and Electroimpact have focused on several key technology areas as opportunities for significant technical improvements.
Journal Article

Thermal Simulation and Testing of Expanded Metal Foils Used for Lightning Protection of Composite Aircraft Structures

2013-09-17
2013-01-2132
Since the 1960's, lightning protection of aircraft has been an important design aspect, a concern for the flying public, aircraft manufacturers and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). With the implementation of major aircraft structures fabricated from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials, lightning protection has become a more complicated issue to solve. One widely used material for lightning strike protection of CFRP structures within the aerospace industry is expanded metal foil (EMF). EMF is currently used in both military and commercial passenger aircraft. An issue that has historically been an area of concern with EMF is micro cracking of paint on the composite structure which can result in corrosion of the metal foil and subsequent loss of conductivity. This paper addresses the issues of stress and displacement in the composite structure layup which contribute to paint cracking caused by aircraft thermal cycling.
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