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Technical Paper

A HiL Test Bench for Monocular Vision Sensors and Its Applications in Camera-Only AEBs

2019-04-02
2019-01-0881
This paper presents a HiL test bench specifically designed for closed-loop testing of the monocular-vision based ADAS sensors, whereby the animated pictures of the virtual scene is calibrated and projected onto a 120-degree circular screen, such that the camera sensor installed has the same vision as the observation of the real-world scene. A high-fidelity AEBs model is established and deployed in the real-time target of the HiL system, making intervention decisions based on the instance-level detection information transmitted from the physical sensor. By referring to the 2018 edition of the C-NCAP testing protocol, the HiL tests of the rear-end collision scenarios is performed to investigate the performance and characteristics of the longitudinal-motion sensing of the sensor sample under test.
Technical Paper

An Optimization Approach to Conduction Emission Test of T-BOX

2018-08-07
2018-01-1643
T-BOX can manage the vehicle’s operation data and position data, and provide the following functions, positioning, vehicle status, motor data, BMS working status, charging status and status alarm, which may effectively promote the development of electric vehicle. Meanwhile, it may bring a series of problems, especially the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems. In this paper, for the exceed standard limits problem of a particular T-BOX sample in radiation emission (RE) and conducted emissions(CE) test process, π filter is designed and added to the positive polar and negative polar of power supply based on the analysis of hardware circuit. The conduction emission test results of T-BOX after optimized can meet the requirements of GB/T 18655-2010 Vehicles, boats and internal combustion engines-Radio disturbance characteristics-Limits and methods of measurement for the protection of on-board receiver standard.
Technical Paper

CATARC New Type Drivetrain NVH Test Facility

2019-04-02
2019-01-0788
A vehicle’s NVH performance has a significant impact on the user experience of the driver and passengers. About one-third of the vehicle complaints are related to NVH performance. As the core component of the vehicle, the drivetrain’s NVH characteristics have a significant impact on vehicle comfort. How to reliably and stably reproduce the specific condition of the whole vehicle through the test method, and obtain the highly consistent objective data for analyzing and improving the NVH characteristics of the drivetrain is of great significance in engineering. For this purpose, China Automotive Technology Research Center Co., Ltd. (CATARC) designed and built a new type drivetrain NVH test facility, which consists of five dynamometers, and can carry horizontal/vertical, front/rear drive or four-wheel drive structures including powertrain, transmission, and rear axle, or even a whole vehicle.
Technical Paper

Characteristics and Casualty Analysis of Two- Wheeler Accidents in China, Data Source: The China In-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS)

2018-04-03
2018-01-1052
The two-wheeler is a vehicle that runs on two wheels, which is classified as motorcycle, electric-bicycle, and bicycle in this research. China has the largest number of two-wheelers and relevant accidents in the world. The two-wheeler riders have a high level of vulnerability, creating a significant necessity to better understand the characteristics according to the road-user group. The objective of this paper is to study the characteristics and analyze the causes of two-wheeler accidents in China using the CIDAS (China In-Depth Accident Study) Database. 2012 cases of two-wheeler accidents with riders injured or dead were collected from the CIDAS Database from 5 cities (Changchun, Beijing, Weihai, Ningbo and Foshan) in China over a period of 5 years (2011.07-2016.06).
Technical Paper

Deterioration Characteristic of Catalyzed DPF Applied on Diesel Truck Durable Ageing

2018-09-10
2018-01-1701
In this paper, it was researched the degradation characteristics of catalytic performance of three kinds of DPFs (C1, C2 and C3, with precious metal concentrations being 15, 25 and 35 g/ft3 respectively) after diesel truck aging. It is found out that the crystallinity of three kinds of DPF samples (Used) in full vehicle aging was higher than that of fresh samples (Fresh) and aged samples (Aged) in the laboratory. Compared with Fresh samples, the concentration of Pt atom in precious metal on the surface of Aged and Used samples tends to decrease in most cases. Activities to CO and C3H8 of Aged and Used samples of three kinds of DPFs had all been degraded, and activity degradation showed a substantial correlation with concentration reduction rate of precious metal on the carrier surface. NO2 productivity of Used samples all rose. Crystallinity of DPF samples after full vehicle aging in Inlet, Middle and Outlet areas successively increased.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption Test Method Standards for Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicles in China

2011-09-13
2011-01-2292
To restrain the environmental and energy problems caused by oil consumption and improve fuel economy of heavy-duty commercial vehicles, China started developing relevant standards from 2008. This paper introduces the background and development of China's national standard “Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial vehicles”, and mainly describes the test method schemes, driving cycle and weighting factors for calculating average fuel consumption of various vehicle categories. The standard applies to heavy-duty vehicles with the maximum design gross mass greater than 3500 kg, including semi-trailer tractors, common trucks, dump trucks, city buses and common buses. The standard adopts the C-WTVC driving cycle which is adjusted on the basis of the World Transient Vehicle Cycle[1, 2] and specifies weighting factors of urban, rural and motorway segments for different vehicle categories.
Technical Paper

Development of an Advanced Motor Control System for Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0597
Electric vehicles are considered as one of the most popular way to decrease the consumption of petroleum resources and reduce environmental pollutions. Motor control system is one of the most important part of electric vehicles. It includes power supply module, IGBT driver, digital signal processing (DSP) controller, protection adjustment module, and resolver to digital convertor. To implement the control strategies on motor control system, a lot of practical aspects need to be taken into accounts. It includes setup of the initial excitation current, consistency of current between motor and program code, over-modulation, field weakening control, current protection, and so on. In this paper, an induction motor control system for electric vehicles is developed based on DSP. The control strategy is based on the field-oriented control (FOC) and space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM).
Technical Paper

Dynamic Correction Strategy for SOC Based on Discrete Sliding Mode Observer

2019-04-02
2019-01-1312
Battery state estimation is one of the most important decision parameters for lithium battery energy management. It plays an important role in improving battery energy utilization, ensuring battery safety and enhancing system reliability. This paper is proposed to provide a dynamic correction of SOC in the full working condition, including static condition and dynamic condition. Based on the Coulomb-counting method, the current SOC value of the battery is calculated. Under the static conditions, the open circuit voltage of the battery is used to directly collect the initial SOC. Under the dynamic working conditions, the open circuit voltage of the battery is estimated by the sliding mode observer. Based on the deviation between the calculated and estimated values of the open circuit voltage, the current coefficient of the Coulomb-counting method is dynamically corrected by PI strategy.
Technical Paper

Effects of Motor and Transmission on Noise Level of Electric Bus Powertrain Using Lead Packaging Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-1281
Because of the advantages of excellent power, fuel economy and zero-emission characteristics, electric buses have been used widely as cities’ short-range commuter vehicles. However, the high-frequency noise becomes more prominent for the powertrain system of the electric bus due to the lack of noise masking effect for the traditional internal combustion engine. To improve the noise characteristic of electric bus powertrain, the identification of the main noise source of the powertrain is well needed. In this paper, the effects of the motor and transmission on the noise level of the electric bus powertrain have been studied using lead packaging method. The variations of acoustical power level of the powertrain according to different rotation speed and torque under the conditions of only motor covered and only transmission covered have been discussed.
Technical Paper

Multi-Parameter Logic Threshold Driving Control Strategy of Distribution Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on xPC Test Platform

2019-04-02
2019-01-1211
A control strategy for searching the optimal working interval based on multi-parameter logic threshold is proposed for the power system of distributed hybrid electric vehicles. The battery state of charge working area and boundary velocity threshold are combined with the optimal engine working curve. Offline simulation of 0-32 km/h acceleration performance is conducted. To further verify the validity of generating C code, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test platform based on MATLAB/RTW/xPC target is built. Real-time simulation and real-time performance comparison test are performed. Test results show that the designed multi-parameter logic threshold control strategy achieves reasonable allocation of energy and improves the dynamic performance of vehicles. The xPC HIL simulation test system is feasible and provides a fast test verification method for vehicle control strategy development.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis and Optimization Design of a Centrifugal Compressor’s Volute for PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0376
Centrifugal compressors used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems are different from turbochargers in internal combustion engines, because they are required to work at high speed, low mass flow rate, narrow range which nears surge boundaries. In order to meet these requirements, a centrifugal compressor’s volute is designed, analyzed and optimized on its cross-section area, shape of volute tongue and tapered angle of exit. The numerical results show that surge boundary of the compressor is influenced by spiral area significantly and that volute tongue has a major impact on aerodynamic performances at high mass flow rates.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Underbody Diffusers with Different Angles and Channels

2019-04-02
2019-01-0668
The underbody diffusers are used widely in race cars to improve the flow field structure at the bottom of the car and provide enough downforce. In recent years, passenger cars have begun to use bottom diffuser to improve aerodynamic characteristics, so as to reduce drag and increase downforce. In this paper, the aerodynamic characteristics of the bus with different underbody diffuser angles and channel numbers are studied by numerical simulation analysis. Firstly, the aerodynamics of the bus under different diffuser inlet and outlet angles are studied, and then an optimal inlet and outlet angle is determined based on the simulation results. Then, using this angle as a constant, the 2, 3, and 4 channel numbers were chosen as the diffuser channel variables to study the influence of the multiple-channel diffusers on the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Research on Dynamic Load of Belgian Event Based on Virtual Proving Ground

2019-04-02
2019-01-0170
The fatigue load spectrum of the physical proving ground is the necessary input for fatigue life analysis of vehicle parts and components. It is usually obtained by Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) and loads decomposition using multi-body dynamics tools. Virtual Proving Ground (VPG) methodology is gradually replacing this technical strategy. The belgian road is the typical event in durability test, in this paper, the flexible body and FTire model are applied to the vehicle multi-body dynamics model in order to improve the simulation accuracy. The result shows that all the wheel center force, shock absorber displacement and axial force acquired by VPG simulation have excellent correlation with real vehicle measured data. It is also proved that the virtual proving ground technology is a reliable and effective method to obtain the fatigue load spectrum in the early stage of development.
Technical Paper

Research on Intelligent Vehicle Index and Evaluation Method

2018-08-07
2018-01-1634
As automobiles are gradually transforming from independent mechanical units to network nodes with intelligent and networked functions, the functions and performance evaluation of intelligent vehicles is facing the new challenges. At present, China has initially classified the level of intelligent vehicles on the basis of SAE, but has not yet formed a scientific, rigorous and comprehensive evaluation system. Therefore, this paper proposes the detailed intelligent evaluation ideas of intelligent vehicles in different levels from 0 to 5 and sets up a "Trinity" evaluation system covering professional evaluation, practical evaluation and market evaluation. Then, with the development progress of intelligent vehicles, we will set up the hierarchical structure of evaluation indicators basing on automated intelligence and connected intelligence.
Technical Paper

Research on the Classification and Identification for Personalized Driving Styles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1096
Most of the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) applications are aiming at improving both driving safety and comfort. Understanding human drivers' driving styles that make the systems more human-like or personalized for ADAS is the key to improve the system performance, in particular, the acceptance and adaption of ADAS to human drivers. The research presented in this paper focuses on the classification and identification for personalized driving styles. To motivate and reflect the information of different driving styles at the most extent, two sets, which consist of six kinds of stimuli with stochastic disturbance for the leading vehicles are created on a real-time Driver-In-the-Loop Intelligent Simulation Platform (DILISP) with PanoSim-RT®, dSPACE® and DEWETRON® and field test with both RT3000 family and RT-Range respectively.
Technical Paper

Research on the Development of China Intelligent Connected Vehicle Test and Demonstration Zone

2019-10-22
2019-01-2612
As an integrated product of the development of automobile, electronics, communication, internet and transportation, intelligent connected vehicle industrial development is gradually moving from technology research and development to the stage of mass production. In the commercialization process of industry, test evaluation and demonstration operation are the key links, which has been highly valued by the national ministry, local government and enterprise. In this context, this paper firstly summarizes the development status of China intelligent connected vehicle test and demonstration zone, and clarifies the institutions, operating entities and functional positioning of different test demonstration zone. Secondly, it analyzes the professional technical schemes such as the overall functional planning, the design of the automatic driving and network application scenarios, which may provide reference for the improvement and planning design of the test demonstration zone.
Technical Paper

The Development of an Advanced Vehicle Control Platform for Pure Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0229
Pure electric vehicles are recognized as one of the most important new energy vehicle types to meet the increasingly stringent standards in energy saving and environment protection. To meet the control demands, China Automotive Technology & Research Center(CATARC) plan to develop an advanced Vehicle Control Platform(VCP) for pure electric vehicles. The developed VCP is well structured on both hardware and software and can be adapted to different pure electric vehicles easily. This paper describes the design of the hardware, the software architecture, the base software and the control strategy applied in the VCP in detail. A matching method is proposed to configure the VCP to a real VCU for the specific application by modifying the hardware channel definition and the control parameters. The paper shows successful application of the VCP on several types of pure electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Synthetic 3DOF Wheel Force for Passenger Vehicle Based on Predicted Frequency Response Function Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0123
To determine the vehicle chassis requirements, wheel force transducer (WFT) have been the best option when it is being used in targeting customer correlation or determining the effective use of the proving ground. However, using wheel force transducer in customer correlation fleet test is often unfeasible due to the huge cost and low practicability. As a result, engineers have to choose other transducer measures. This paper describes an effective approach of wheel force prediction by using the frequency response function (FRF) model of vehicle dynamic system. A vehicle system linear modelling technique is used. For the system identification of FRF, the acceleration and wheel force time history data, as system input and output, are collected from an instrumented passenger car as it traverses in different real-world proving ground surfaces. The obtained FRF represents the complex suspension mechanical model. Once the FRF is calculated, the predicted force signal can be implemented.
Technical Paper

Thermal Uniformity of Pouch-Type Lithium Ion Batteries with NCM Cathode Materials under Different Operating Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1000
With the advantages of flexible size and high energy density etc., pouch-type lithium ion battery cells with large capacity have been found more and more applications in electric vehicles. For these large-scale battery cells, thermal uniformity is vital for their safety and cycle life. To be specific, temperature gradients are expected to cause different degradation rates of active materials in different areas, which is possible to cause early failure or even fire and explosion of the battery cell. Thus, it is necessary to illustrate the batterie’s thermal uniformity in detail under different operating conditions. This work investigated the thermal uniformity of two 36 Ah pouch-type NCM/C battery cells with different sizes using both the thermal imaging method and thermoelectric effect method with K-type thermocouples. Experimental results show that there is an obvious temperature gradient on the surface of the pouch-type battery cell.
Technical Paper

Voltage and Voltage Consistency Attenuation Law of the Fuel Cell Stack Based on the Durability Cycle Condition

2019-04-02
2019-01-0386
Based on the durability cycle test of fuel cell stack and the characteristics of cyclic working conditions, this paper defines the characteristic current point and studies the attenuation rule of the fuel cell stack voltage over time under the characteristic current point. The results show that the voltage of the fuel cell stack appears to be linear downward under the characteristic current point. and the voltage attenuation rate of the fuel cell stack increases quadratically with the increase of the current density in addition to the open-circuit voltage point. Then the coefficient of variation is introduced in statistics as the index to characterize the voltage consistency attenuation of the fuel cell stack, and its variation rule is explored. The results show that the voltage consistency of vehicle fuel cell stack decreases seriously with the increase of running time under the condition of durable cycling.
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