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Technical Paper

A Comparison of Private Garage and Centralized I&M Programs

A fundamental decision to be made in developing a motor vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I&M) program is whether a “centralized” or “private garage” program will be used. Under the centralized approach, the state or a state contractor operates a network of single purpose “Inspection Centers” to inspect motor vehicles before the completion of the annual registration renewal process. After any repairs necessary to correct vehicles with excessive emissions are made at a facility of the owner's choosing, the vehicle must pass a reinspection at the Inspection Center. Under the private garage (decentralized) approach, both inspections and repairs are conducted by private repair facilities licensed by the state. A comparison of a centralized I&M program and a private garage I&M program currently operating in California indicates that the centralized program is providing over ten times greater emissions reductions.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Relative Benefits of On-Board Diagnostics and Inspection and Maintenance in California

California is considering adopting an enhanced Inspection and Maintenance (I&M) program (commonly referred to as Smog Check II) beginning with the 1996 calendar year. This program will utilize a targeting scheme to identify vehicles likely to be high emitters and send these vehicles to centralized testing facilities. The remaining fleet of vehicles will be sent to decentralized testing facilities. At these facilities, vehicles will be subjected to steady state loaded mode dynamometer based tests. Simultaneously, all 1996 and later model year passenger cars, light- and medium-duty trucks sold in California will be equipped with an On-Board Diagnostic (OBDII) system. This system is designed to monitor critical emission related components and activate a Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) when a failure or a drift in calibration is likely to cause emissions to exceed 1.5 times the vehicle certification standards.
Journal Article

Achieving an 80% GHG Reduction by 2050 in California's Passenger Vehicle Fleet: Implications for the ZEV Regulation

In recognizing the potential for large, damaging impacts from climate change, California enacted Executive Order S-03-05, requiring a reduction in statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Given that the transportation light-duty vehicle (LDV) segment accounts for 28% of the state's GHG emissions today, it will be difficult to meet the 2050 goal unless a portfolio of near-zero carbon transportation solutions is pursued. Because it takes decades for a new propulsion system to capture a large fraction of the passenger vehicle market due to vehicle fleet turn-over rates, it is important to accelerate the introduction of these alternatives to ensure markets enter into early commercial volumes (10,000s) between 2015 and 2020. This report summarizes the results and conclusions of a modeling exercise that simulated GHG emissions from the LDV sector to 2050 in California.
Technical Paper

Ambient Emission Measurements from Parked Regenerations of 2007 and 2010 Diesel Particulate Filters

A novel ambient dilution tunnel has been designed, tested and employed to measure the emissions from active parked regenerations of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) for 2007 and 2010 certified heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDTs). The 2007 certified engine had greater regulated emissions than the 2010 certified engine. For a fully loaded 2007 DPF there was an initial period of very large mass emissions, which was then followed by very large number of small particle emissions. The Particle Size Distribution, PSD, was distributed over a large range from 10 nm to 10 μm. The parked regenerations of the 2010 DPF had a much lower initial emission pattern, but the second phase of large numbers of small particles was very similar to the 2007 DPF. The emission results during regeneration have been compared to total emissions from recent engine dynamometer testing of 2007 and 2010 DPFs, and they are much larger.
Technical Paper

CARB Evaporative Emissions Test Program

In 1997 and 1998, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) conducted an extensive evaporative emissions test program to assess the feasibility of reducing evaporative emissions standards from the current 2 gram per test total hydrocarbon (THC) standard. Seven vehicles were tested and five modified in order to determine what emissions levels would be feasible. Emissions reductions of approximately 40% resulted from these modifications. The ARB also conducted studies of non-fuel background emissions and of emissions test variability.
Technical Paper

California's Heavy-Duty Vehicle Smoke and Tampering Inspection Program

Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles are a major contributor to California's air quality problems. Emissions from these vehicles account for approximately 30% of the nitrogen oxide and 75% of the particulate matter emissions from the entire on-road vehicle fleet. Additionally, excessive exhaust smoke from in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles is a target of numerous public complaints. In response to these concerns, California has adopted an in-use Heavy-Duty Vehicle Smoke and Tampering Inspection Program (HDVIP) designed to significantly reduce emissions from these vehicles. Pending promulgation of HDVIP regulations, vehicles falling prescribed test procedures and emission standards will be issued citations. These citations mandate expedient repair of the vehicle and carry civil penalties ranging from $300 to $1800. Failure to clear citations can result in the vehicle being removed from service.
Technical Paper

California's Revised Heavy-Duty Vehicle Smoke and Tampering Inspection Program

Heavy-duty vehicles account for approximately 30 percent of the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 65 percent of the particulate matter (PM) emissions from the entire California on-road fleet, despite the fact that these vehicles comprise only 2 percent of the same. To meet legislative mandates to reduce excess smoke emissions from in-use heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles, the Air Resources Board (ARB or Board) adopted, in December 1997, amendments to the regulations governing the operation and enforcement of the Heavy-Duty Vehicle Inspection Program (HDVIP or the “roadside” program) and the Periodic Smoke Inspection Program (PSIP or the “fleet” program). The initial roadside program was adopted in November 1990 in response to Senate Bill (SB) 1997 (stat. 1988, ch. 1544, Presley), and enforced from 1991 to 1993. It was suspended in October 1993, when the Board redirected staff to investigate reformulated fuels issues.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Gaseous Emissions from Blended Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles during High-Power Cold-Starts

There is a distinct difference between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the market today. One key distinction that can be made is to classify a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) according to its operational behavior in charge depleting (CD) mode. Some PHEVs are capable of using the electric-only propulsion system to achieve all-electric operation for all driving conditions in CD mode, including full power performance. In contrast, some PHEVs, henceforth termed “blended PHEVs”, cannot satisfy the power requirements of all driving conditions with the electric-only propulsion system and occasionally utilize blended CD operation whereby it is necessary to blend the use of the internal combustion (IC) engine with the use of the electric motor(s) to help power the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from a Vehicle Fueled with Methanol-Containing Additives for Flame Luminosity

Two additive blends proposed for improving the flame luminosity in neat methanol fuel were investigated to determine the effect of these additives on the exhaust emissions in a dual-fueled Volkswagen Jetta. The two blends contained 4 percent toluene plus 2 percent indan in methanol and 5 percent cyclopentene plus 5 percent indan in methanol. Each blend was tested for regulated and unregulated emissions as well as a speciation of the exhaust hydrocarbons resulting from use of each fuel. The vehicle exhaust emissions from these two fuel blends were compared to the Coordinating Research Council Auto-Oil national average gasoline (RF-A), M100, and M85 blended from RF-A. Carter Maximum Incremental Reactivity Factors were applied to the speciated hydrocarbon emission results to determine the potential ozone formation for each fuel. Toxic emissions as defined in the 1990 Clean Air Act were also compared for each fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Exhaust Emissions from California Phase 1 (without oxygenates) and Phase 2 (with oxygenates) Fuel:A Case Study of 11 Passenger Vehicles

While most studies addressing the fuel effects are based on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), there are limited studies investigating the fuel effects outside FTP test conditions. In this study, we investigated the differences in exhaust emissions from California Phase 1 to Phase 2 reformulated gasoline over a wide range of speed and ambient temperatures. Eleven catalyst equipped passenger vehicles were tested. The vehicles were comprised of three fuel delivery system configurations, namely, three from carburetor (CARBU), three from throttle body injection (TBI), and five from multi-port fuel injection (MPFI) group. Each vehicle was given 60 tests with the combination of two reformulated fuels: Phase 1 (without oxygenates) and Phase 2 (with oxygenates), three temperatures (50, 75, and 100 °F), and ten speed cycles (average speed ranges from 4 mph to 65 mph).
Technical Paper

Detection of Gasoline Vehicles with Gross PM Emissions

Light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV) are estimated to contribute 40% of the total on-road mobile source tailpipe emissions of particulate matter (PM) in California. While considerable efforts have been made to reduce toxic diesel PM emissions going into the future, less emphasis has been placed on PM from LDGVs. The goals of this work were to characterize a small fleet of visibly smoking and high PM emitting LDGVs, to explore the potential PM-reduction benefits of Smog Check and of repairs, and to examine remote sensing devices (RSD) as a potential method for identifying high PM emitters in the in-use fleet. For this study, we recruited a fleet of eight vehicles covering a spectrum of PM emission levels. PM and criteria pollutant emissions were quantified on a dynamometer and CVS dilution tunnel system over the Unified Cycle using standard methods and real time PM instruments.
Technical Paper

Determination of Suspended Exhaust PM Mass for Light-Duty Vehicles

This study provides one of the first evaluations of the integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method in comparison with the current gravimetric method for measuring particulate matter (PM) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The IPSD method combines particle size distributions with size dependent particle effective density to determine mass concentrations of suspended particles. The method allows for simultaneous determination of particle mass, particle surface area, and particle number concentrations. It will provide a greater understanding of PM mass emissions at low levels, and therefore has the potential to complement the current gravimetric method at low PM emission levels. Six vehicles, including three gasoline direct injected (GDI) vehicles, two port fuel injected (PFI) vehicles, and one diesel vehicle, were tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a light-duty chassis dynamometer.
Journal Article

Determination of the PEMS Measurement Allowance for PM Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program

This paper summarizes the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing (HDUIT) measurement allowance program for Particulate Matter Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PM-PEMS). The measurement allowance program was designed to determine the incremental error between PM measurements using the laboratory constant volume sampler (CVS) filter method and in-use testing with a PEMS. Two independent PM-PEMS that included the Sensors Portable Particulate Measuring Device (PPMD) and the Horiba Transient Particulate Matter (TRPM) were used in this program. An additional instrument that included the AVL Micro Soot Sensor (MSS) was used in conjunction with the Sensors PPMD to be considered a PM-PEMS. A series of steady state and transient tests were performed in a 40 CFR Part 1065 compliant engine dynamometer test cell using a 2007 on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine to quantify the accuracy and precision of the PEMS in comparison with the CVS filter-based method.
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

Development of Low-Emissions Small Off-Road Engines

The purpose of this project was to modify existing small off-road engines to meet ARB's originally proposed 1999 emissions standards. A particular point was to show that compliance could be attained without the need to redesign the base engines. Four high-sales volume, ARB-certified 1997 model engines were selected from the following categories: 1) handheld two-stroke engine, 2) handheld four-stroke engine, 3) non-handheld side-valve engine, and 4) a non-handheld overhead-valve engine. Engines were selected, procured, and baseline emission tested using applicable ARB test procedures. Appropriate emission control strategies were then selected and applied to the four engines. Emission reduction strategies used included air/fuel ratio optimization, and catalytic aftertreatment. Following the development of the four emission-controlled engines, final, certification-quality emissions tests were performed. All four engines met ARB's original 1999 Tier 2 emission standards after development.
Technical Paper

Development of the Direct Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Measurement Technique for Vehicle Testing

The Automotive Industry/Government Emissions Research CRADA (AIGER) has been working to develop a new methodology for the direct determination of nonmethane hydrocarbons (DNMHC) in vehicle testing. This new measurement technique avoids the need for subtraction of a separately determined methane value from the total hydrocarbon measurement as is presently required by the Code of Federal Regulations. This paper will cover the historical aspects of the development program, which was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 2002. A fast, gas chromatographic (GC) column technology was selected and developed for the measurement of the nonmethane hydrocarbons directly, without any interference or correction being caused by the co-presence of sample methane. This new methodology chromatographically separates the methane from the nonmethane hydrocarbons, and then measures both the methane and the backflushed, total nonmethane hydrocarbons using standard flame ionization detection (FID).
Technical Paper

Durability of Low-Emissions Small Off-Road Engines

The goal of the project was to reduce tailpipe-out hydrocarbon (HC) plus oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions to 50 percent or less of the current California Air Resources Board (CARB) useful life standard of 12 g/hp-hr for Class I engines, or 9 g/hp-hr for Class II engines. Low-emission engines were developed using three-way catalytic converters, passive secondary-air induction (SAI) systems, and in two cases, enleanment. Catalysts were integrated into the engine's mufflers, where feasible, to maintain a compact package. Due to the thermal sensitivity of these engines, carburetor calibrations were left unchanged in four of the six engines, at the stock rich settings. To enable HC oxidation under such rich conditions, a simple passive supplemental air injection system was developed. This system was then tuned to achieve the desired HC+NOx reduction.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Engine Calibration Techniques to Reduce Off-Cycle Emissions

Engine calibrations are inexpensive methods for reducing exhaust emissions since only software modifications are required. The California Air Resources Board staff conducted a test program to investigate the effectiveness of engine calibration techniques to reduce the newly regulated aggressive driving exhaust emissions or “off-cycle” emissions. Consisting of stoichiometric and rich “bias” calibration, these engine calibration techniques were applied to fourteen late-model vehicles. The engine calibration techniques reduced the off-cycle emissions substantially on most vehicles. To comply with the proposed off-cycle standards for California low-emission vehicles and ultra-low-emission vehicles, these techniques will be a cost-effective method to reduce off-cycle emissions.
Technical Paper

Emissions Correlation Between a Partial-Flow Diluter and The Full-Flow Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) for a Heavy-Duty Vehicle Under Steady-State Operation

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) examined the performance of a Partial Flow Sampling System (PFSS) against a reference Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) system in measuring emissions from a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) during dynamometer testing at CARB's Stockton Heavy-Duty Emissions Laboratory (SL). The SL PFSS system is a Sierra BG-2 system that uses flow-based (rather than CO2-based) dilution. The CVS system uses the University of California, Riverside's (UCR) Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL). The test vehicle was a 2000 model-year HD tractor powered by a CAT C-15 engine. Exhaust samples were collected simultaneously with the SL and MEL systems and analyzed for total particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons (THC). The samples were taken during steady-state vehicle operation. Each test mode was repeated seven times in each of two patterns: consecutive and sequential.
Technical Paper

Emissions of HFC-134a from Light-Duty Vehicles in California

The current refrigerant in mobile air conditioning (AC) systems, HFC-134a (also known as R134a), is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) with a global-warming potential (GWP) of 1300. Its emissions from 2009 and subsequent model-year (MY) light-duty vehicles may be regulated under the terms of a law (Sec. 43108.5, Health and Safety Code) adopted in California in 2002. To support regulation development, we have estimated direct emissions of HFC-134a from vehicular AC systems in California by a novel, three-prong method that uses: 1) data on the consumption of HFC-134a by California commercial fleets, 2) surveys of vehicle owners on AC system repair incidence, and 3) data on repair incidence among California commercial fleet vehicles. Although these sources do not report direct emission rates of HFC-134a, the data reflect actual leakage integrated over long periods from vehicles in all stages of useful life.